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Infhiding the Imagxiuuy CooTonHtiaDfl, with a New aad Onginal Series ; 
Peridae and Aep—ii; KTmmnwtkin of ShakBpeare ; Pentunenm of Boocado 
and Petrvca ; Hoflmice ; Tntgodks ; aad Poema. With many lazge additianw 
throoglioat, and the author's last correctian. In two vohimea, medtom 8vo. 
price tU. cU^. 








i /4' 


Thm Hflirs 

ia85, Jan. 21. 


of O. O. 




Frieitds as we are, have long been, and ever shall 
be, I doubt whether I should have prefSiced these pages 
with jour name were it not to register my judgement 
that, in breaking up and cultivating the unreclaimed 
wastes of Humanity, no labours have been so strenuous, 
so continuous, or half so successful, as yours. While 
the world admires in you an unlimited knowledge of 
mankind, deep thought, vivid imagination, and bursts of 
eloquence firom unclouded highths, no less am I delighted 
when I see you at the schoolroom you have liberated 
from cruelty, and at the cottage you have purified from 





















r. acipio jaoLLANUB, poltbiub, pan^riub .... 842 




ROMANS (amtinued). 







INDEX 479 




Where am I ? Desert me not, O ye bleseed from above ! ye 
twain who brought me hither I 

Was it a dreiun? 

Stranger! thou seemest thoaghtfdl; couldst thoa answer 
me ? Why so silent ? I beseech and implore thee, speak. 


Neither thy feet nor the feet of moles have borne thee where 
thou standest. Whether in the hour of departing sleep, or at 
what hour of the morning, I know not, O Helena, but Aphro- 
dite and Thetis, inclining to my prayer, have, as thou art 
conscious, led thee into these sobtuaes. To me also have 
they shown the way ; that I might behold the pride of Sparta, 
the marvel of the earth, and . . how my heart swells and 
sgonises at the thought ! . . the cause of innumerable woes to 


Stranger I thou art indeed one whom the goddesses or gods 
might 1^, and glory in ; such is thy stature, thy voice, and 
thy demeanour ; out who, if earthly, art thou P 


■ > V 


Before thee, O HeleA, stands Achilles, son of Peleus. 
Tremble not, turn not pale, bend not thy knees, Helena ! 


Spare me, thou goddess-bom ! thou cherished and only son 
of silver-footed Thetis ! Chryseis and Briseis ought to soften 
and content thy heart. Lead not me also into captivity. 
Woes too surely have I brought down on Hellas : but woes 
have been mine alike, and will for ever be. 


Daughter of Zeus ! what word hast thou spoken ! Chryseis, 
child of the aged priest who performs in this land due sacrifices 
to Apollo, fell to the lot of another ; an insolent and unworthy 
man, who hath already brought more sorrows upon our people 
than thou hast ; so that dogs and vultures prey on the brave 
who sank without a wound. Brisds is indeed mine ; the lovely 
and dutiful Briseis. He, unjust and contumelious, proud it 
once and base, would tear her from me. But, gods above ! in 
what region has the wolf with impunity dared to seize upon 
the kid which the lion hath taken ? 

Talk not of being led into servitude. Could mortal be guilty 
of such impiety ? Hath it never thundered on these mountain- 
heads? Doth Zeus, the wide-seeing, see all the earth but 
Ida? doth he watch over all but his own? Capaneus and 
Typhoeus less offended him, than would the wretch whose grasp 
should violate the golden hair of Helena. And dost thou stil 
tremble ? irresolute and distrustful ! 


I must tremble ; and more and more. 


Take my hand : be confident : be comforted. 


May I take it ? may I hold it ? I am comforted. 


The scene around us, calm and silent as the sky itself, 
tranquillises thee ; and so it ought. Tumest thou to survey 
it ? perhaps it is unknown to thee. 


Truly; for since my arrival I have never gone beyond the 
walls of the city. 

Look then around thee freely, perplexed no longer. Pleasant 
is this level eminence, surrounded hy broom and myrtle, and 
crisp-leaved beeeh and broad dark pine above. Pleasant the 
short slender grass, bent by insects as they alight on it or climb 
along it, and shining ud into our eyes, interrupted by tall 
sisterhoods of grey lavenaer, and by dark-eyed cistus, and by 
lightsome citisus, and by Uttle troops of serpolet running in 
disorder here and there. 

Wonderful ! how didst thou ever learn to name so many 

Chiron taught me them, when I walked at his side while he 
was culling herbs for the benefit of his brethren. All these he 
taught me, and at least twentv more; for wonderous was his 
wisdom, boundless his knowleage, and I was prond to learn. 

Ah look again ! look at those little yellow poppies ; they 
appear to be just come out to eatch all that the sun will throw 
into their cups: they appear in their joyance and incipient 
dance to call upon the lyre to sing among them. 

Childish ! for one with such a spear against his shoulder ; 
terrific even its shadow; it seems to make a chasm across the 

To talk or to think like a cliild is not always a proof of folly: 
H may sometimes push aside heavy griefs where the strength of 
wisdom fails. What art thou pondering, Helena? 

Recollecting the names of the plants. Several of them I 
do believe I had heard before, but had quite forgotten ; my 
memory will be better now. 


Better now ? in the midst of war and tumult ? 

I am sure it will be, for didst thou not say that Chiron 
taught them P 

He sang to me over the lyre the lives of Narcissus and 
Ilyacynthus, brought back by the beautiful Uo\a«, «A s\«tiV 


unwearied feet^ regular as the stars iu their courses. Many of 
the trees and bright-eyed flowers once lived and moved^ and 
spoke as we are speaking. They may yet have memories^ 
although they have cares no longer. 


Ah ! then they have no memories ; and they see their own 
beauty only. 


Helena ! thou tumest pale^ and droopest. 


The odour of the blossoms, or of the gums, or the highth of 
the place, or something else, makes me dizzy. Can it be the 
wind in my ears ? 


There is none. 


I could wish there were a little. 


Be seated, Helena! 


The feeble are obedient : the weary may rest even in the 
presence of the powerful. 


On this very ground where we are now reposing, they who 
conducted us liither told me, the fatal prize of beauty was 
awarded. One of them smiled ; the other, whom in duty I 
love the most, looked anxious, and let fall some tears. 


Yet she was not one of the vanquished. 


Goddesses contended for it ; Helena was afar. 


Fatal was the decision of the arbiter! 

But could not the venerable Peleus, nor Pyrrhus the infant 
so beautiful and so helpless, detain thee, Achilles, from this 
sad sad war? 


No reverence or kindness for the race of Atreus brought me 
against Troy; I detest and abhor both brothers: but another 
man is more hateful to me stiL Forbear we to name him. 


The valiant^ holding the hearth as sacred as the temple^ is never 
a violator of hospitality. He carries not away the gold he 
finds in the house; he folds not up the purple linen worked for 
solemnities^ about to convey it from the cedar chest to the dark 
ship, together with the wife confided to his protection in her 
husband's absence, and sitting close and expectant by the altar 
of the gods. 

It was no merit in Menalaiis to love thee; it was a crime in 
another. . I will not say to love, for even Priam or Nestor 
mij^t love thee . . but to avow it, and act on the avowal. 


Menalaiis, it is true, was fond of me, when Paris was sent by 
Aphrodite to our house. It would have been very wrong to 
break my vow to Menelaiis, but Aphrodite urged me by day 
and by night, telling me that to make her break hers to Paris 
would be quite inexniable. She told Paris the same thing at 
the same hour; ana as often. He repeated it to me every 
morning: his dreams tallied nith mine exactly. At last . . . 


The last is not yet come. Helena! by the Immortals! if 
ever I meet him in battle I transfix him with this spear. 


Pray do not. Aplirodite would be angry and never 
forgive thee. 


I am not sure of that; she soon pardons. Variable as Iris, 
one day she favors and the next day she forsakes. 


She may then forsake me. 


Other deities, Helena, watch over and protect thee. Thy 
two brave brothers are with those deities now, and never are 
absent from their higher festivals. 


They could protect me were they living, and they would. 
that thou couldst but have seen them ! 


Companions of my father on the borders of the Phasis, they 
became his guests before th^' went all three to hunt the boar 
in the brakes of SLalydon. Thence too the beautj o( «k ^^nosi 


brought many sorrows into brave men's breasts, and caused 
many tears to hang long and heavily on the eyelashes of 


Horrible creatures ! . . boars I mean. 
Didst thou indeed see my brothers at that season ? Yes, 


I saw them not, desirous though I always was of seeing 
them, that I might have learnt from them, and might have 
practised with them, whatever is laudable and manly. But 
my father, fearing my impetuosity, as he said, and my inex- 
perience, sent me away. Soothsayers had foretold some mischief 
to me from an arrow : and among the brakes many arrows 
might fly wide, glancing from trees. 


I wish thou hadst seen them, were it only once. Three 
such youths together the blessed sun will never shine upon 

my sweet brothers! how tliey tended me! how they 
loved me ! how often they wished me to mount their horses 
and to hurl their javelins. Tliey could only teach me to swim 
with them ; and when I had well learnt it I was more afraid 
than at first. It gratified me to be praised for anything but 

Happy, happy hours ! soon over ! Does happiness alwavs 
go away before beauty ? It must go then : surely it miglit 
stay that little while. Alas ! dear Kastor ! and dearer Poly- 
deuk^s ! often shall I think of you as ye were (and oh I as I 
was) on the banks of the Eurotas. 

Brave noble creatures! they were as taU, as terrible, and 
almost as beautiful, as thou art. Be not wroth I Blush no 
more for me. 


Helena ! Helena I wife of Menelaiis ! my mother is reported 
to have left about me only one place vulnerable : I have at last 
found where it is. Farewell ! 


leave me not I Earnestly I entreat and implore thee, 
leave me not alone. Tliese solitudes are terrible : there must 
be wild beasts among them; there certainly are Eauns and 


Satyrs. And there is CybelS, who carries towers and temples 
on her head ; who hates and abhors Aphrodit^^ who persecutes 
those ii^ favors^ and whose priests are so cruel as to be cruel 
even to themselves. 


According to their promise, the goddesses who brought thee 
hither in a cloud will in a doud reconduct thee, osldj and 
unseen, into the city. 

Again, daughter of Leda and of Zeus, farewell ! 



Albeit thou approachest me without any sign of derision, let 
me tell thee before thou advancest a step nearer, that I deem 
thee more hard-hearted tlian the most petulant of those 
other young persons, who are pointing and sneering from the 


Let them continue to point and sneer at me: they are 
happy; so am 1; but are you? Think me hard-hearted, 
good Phrygian! but graciously give me the reason for 
thinking it; otherwise 1 may be unable to correct a fault 
too long overlooked by me, or to deprecate a grave infliction 
of the gods. 


I thought thee so, my little maiden, because thou camest 
toward me without the least manifestation of curiosity. 


Is the absence of curiosity a defect ? 
None whatever. 


Are we blamable in concealing it if we have it ? 


Surely not. But it is feminine ; and where none of it comes 
forward, we may suspect tliat other feminine appurtenances, 
such as sympathy for example, are deficient. Cuno^\V] ^^ 


in among yon before the passions ue awake: curiosity 
comforts your earliest cries ; curiosity intercepts your latest. 
For which reason Dsedalus^ who not only sculptured but 

Eainted admirably^ represents her in the vestibule of the Cretan 
tbyrinth as a goddess. 


What was she like ? 

There now ! Like ? Why, like Bhodope. 


You said I have nothing of the kind. 


I soon discovered my mistake in this^ and more than this, 
and not altogether to thy disadvantage. 


I am glad to hear it. 


Art thou ? I will tell thee then how she was depicted : for 
I remember no author who has related it. Her lips were half- 
open ; her hair flew loosely behind her, designating that she 
was in haste ; it was more disordered, and it was darker, than 
the hair of Hope is represented, and somewhat less glossy. 
Her cheeks had a very fresh colour, and her eyes looked into 
every eye that fell upon them ; by her motion she seemed to 
be on her way into the labyrinth. 


how I wish I could see such a picture ! 


1 do now. 


Where ? where ? Troublesome man ! Are you always so 
mischievous ? but your smile is not ill-natured. I can not help 
thinking that the smiles of men are pleasanter and sweet^ 
than of women ; unless of the women who are rather old and 
decrepit, who seem to want help, and who perhaps are thinking 
that we girls are now the very images of what tiey were 
.formerly. But girls never look at me so charmingly as you 
do, nor smile with such benignity; and yet, O Phrygian, 
there are several of them who r^y are much handsomer. 


Indeed ? Is that so dear ? 


Perhaps in the sight of the gods they may not be, who see 
all things as they are. But some of them appear to me to be 
very beautiful. 


Which are those ? 


The very girls who think me the ugliest of them all. 
How strange! 


That they should think thee so ? 


No, no : but that nearly all the most beautiful should be 
of this opinion ; and the others should often come to look at 
me, apparently with delight, over each other's shoulder or 
under each other's arm, clinging to their girdle or holding by 
their sleeve and hanging a little back, as if there were something 
about me unsafe. They seem fearful regarding me ; for here 
are many venomous things in this country, of wliich we have 
none at home. 

And some which we find all over the world. But thou art 
too talkative. 


Now indeed you correct me with great justice, and with 
great gentleness. I know not why I am so pleased to talk 
with you. But what you say to me is different from what 
others say : the thoughts, the words, the voice, the look, all 
different And yet reproof is but little pleasant, especially to 
those who are unused to it. 


Why didst thou not spring forward and stare at me, having 
heard as the rest had done, that I am unwillingly a slave, and 
indeed not over- willingly a defonned one ? 


I would rather that neither of these misfortunes had 
befallen you. 


And yet within the year thou wilt rejoice that the^ \\«n^« 



If you truly thought so, you would not continue to look at 
me with such serenity. TeU me why you say it. 

Because by that time thou wilt prefer me to the handsomest 
slave about tne house. 


For shame ! vain creature ! 


By the provision of the gods, the under-sized and distorted 
are usually so. The cork of vanity buoys up their chins above 
all swimmers on the tide of life. But, Bhodope, my vanity 
has not yet begun. 


How do you know that my name is Bhodope ? 


Were I malicious I would inform thee, and turn against 
thee the tables on the score of vanity. 


What can you mean ? 


I mean to render thee happy in life, and glorious long after. 
Thou shalt be sought by the powerful, thou shalt be celeorated 
by the witty, and thou shalt be beloved by the generous and 
the wise. Xanthus may adorn the sacrifice, but the Immortal 
shall receive it &om the altar. 


I am but fourteen years old, and Xanthus is married. 
Surely he would not rather love me than one to whose habits 
and endearments he has been accustomed for twenty years. 


It seems wonderful : but such things do happen. 


Not among us Thracians. I have seen in my childhood 
men older than Xanthus, who, against all remonstrances and 
many struggles, have fondled and kissed, before near relatives, 
wives of the same a^, proud of exhibiting the honorable 
love they bore toward them : yet in the very next room, the 
very same day, scarcely would they press to their bosoms 


while you could (rather slowly) count twenty, nor kiss for 
half the time, beautiful young maidens, who, casting down 
their eyes, never stirred, and only said "Don't! Don't!'* 

What a rigid morality is the Thracian ! How courageous 
the elderly I and how enduring the youthful ! 


Here in Egypt we are nearer to strange creatures ; to men 
without heads, to others who ride on dragons. 


Stop there, little Rhodop^ I In all countries we live among 
strange creatures. However, there arc none such in the 
world as thou hast been told of since thou camest hither. 


Oh yes there are. You must not begin by shaking my 
belief, and by making me know less than others of my age. 
They all talk of them : nay, some creatures not by any means 
prettier, are worshipped here as deities : I have seen them with 
my own eyes. I wonder that you above all others should 
deny the existence of prodigies. 


Why dost thou wonder at it particularly in me ? 


Because when you were brought hither yesterday, and when 
several of my fellow-maidens came around you, questioning 
vou about the manners and customs of your countr}', you 
D^n to tell them stories of beasts who spoke, and spoke 

Tliey are almost the only people of my acquaintance who do. 


And you call them by the name of people ? 


For want of a nobler and a better. Didst thou hear related 
what I had been saving ? 


Yes, every word, and perhaps more. 


Certainly more; for my audience was of females. But 
canst thou repeat any portion of the narrative ? 



They began by asking you whether all the men in Phrygia 
were iflte yourseLF. 


Art thou quite certain that this was the real expression they 
used ? Come : no blushes. Do not turn round. 


It had entirely that meaning. 


Did they not inquire if all Phrygians were such horrible 
monsters as the one before them ? 


heaven and earth ! this man is surely omniscient. 
Kind guest ! do not hurt them for it. Deign to repeat to me, 
if it is not too troublesome, what you said about the talking 


The innocent girls asked me many questions, or rather 
half-questions ; for never was one finished before another from 
the same or from a different quartef was begun. 


This is uncivil : I would never have interrupted you. 


Pray tell me why all that courtesy. 


For fear of losing a little of what you were about to say, or 
of receiving it somewhat changed. We never say the same 
thing in the same manner when we have been interrupted. 
Beside, there are many who are displeased at it ; and if you 
had been, it would have shamed and vexed me. 


Art thou vexed so easily ? 


When I am ashamed I am. I shall be jealous if you are 
kinder to the others than to me, and if you refuse to tell me 
the story you told them yesterday. 


1 have never yet made anyone jealous ; and I will not begin 
to try my talent on little Bhodope. 


They asked me who governs Pbiygis at present, I replied 
that the Phrygians h&d just placed themselves onder the 
dominion of a sleek and quiet animal, half-fox, half-ass, named 
Alopiconos. At one time he seems fox almost entirely; at 
another, almost entirely aas. 


And can he speak ? 
Few better. 


Are the Phrygians contented with him ? 

They who raised him to power and authority rub their 

hands raptnrously ; neverthdess, I have heard several of the 

principal ones, iu the very act of doing it, breathe out &om 

dowd teeth, " TA« eurted/ox!" and others, " TAe curted ati'." 


■What has he done ? 

He has made the nation the happiest in the world, they 



By imposing a heavy tax on the necessaries of life, and 
thos making it quite independent. 

O Soap I I am ignorant of politics, as of everything else. 
We TTiracians are near Phngia : our kings, I bdieve, have 
BOt conquered it : what others have ? 

None-: but the independence which Alopiconos has con- 
ftned upon it, is conferred by hindering tne com of other 
huids, more fertile and less populous, from entering it, until 
10 many of the inhabitants have died of famine and disease, 
that there will be imported just enough for the remainder. 


Holy Jupiter ! protect my country ! and keep for ever its 
•ases and its foxes wider apart ! 

Tell me more. You know many things that have happened 
ia the world. Beside the strange choice you yuA imiue^ 


what is the most memorable thing that has oocurred in 
Phrygia since the Trojan war ? 


An event more memorable preceded it ; but nothing since 
will appear to thee so extraordinary. 


Then tell me only that. 


It will interest thee less^ but the effect is more durable than 
of the other. Soon after the dethronement of Saturn, with 
certain preliminary ceremonies, by liis eldest son Jupiter, who 
thus became the legitimate king of gods and men, the lower 
parts of nature on our earth were likewise much affected. At 
this season the water in aU the rivers of Pluygia was running 
low, but quietly, so that the bottom was visible in many places, 
and grew tepid and warm and even hot in some. At last it 
became agitated and excited ; and loud bubbles rose up from 
it, audible to the ears of Jupiter, declaring that it had an 
indefeasible right to exercise its voice on aU occasions, and of 
rising to the surface at all seasons. Jupiter, who was ever 
much given to hilarity, laughed at this : but the louder he 
laughed, the louder bubbled the mud, beseeching him to 
thunder and lighten and rain in torrents, and to sweep away 
dams and dykes and mills and bridges and roads, and more- 
over all houses in all parts of the country that were not built 
of mud. Tlmnder rolled in every quarter of the heavens : the 
lions and panthers were frightened and growled horribly: 
the foxes, who are seldom at fault, began to fear for the farm- 
yards ; and were seen with verticsJ tails, three of which, if put 
together, would be little stouter than a child's whip for 
whipping-tops, so thoroughly soaked were they and draggled 
in the mire : not an animal in the forest could lick itself ary : 
their tongues ached with attempting it. But the mud gained 
its cause, and rose above the river-sides. At first it was 
elated by success ; but it had floated in its extravagance no 
long time before a panic seized it, at hearing out of the clouds 
the fatal word ieleuiaion, which signifies /««/. It panted and 
breathed hard; and, at the moment of exhausting the last 
remnant of its strength, again it prayed to Jupiter, in a 
formulary of words which certain borderers of the principal 
stream suggested, imploring him that it might stop and 

It did 90. Thi; borderers I'Tiriclied llietr fields witii 
it, carting it uff, tossing it about, and hr^akiug ii into pow<Ier. 
Bal tlie Ktretuna were too dirty for decent mcii to Kathir in 
lh«m ; and sfiartfly a fountain in all I'hrygia liad as mucli 
mm water, at iti ver;^ SDiirw, ns tliou couJdst earn ou tliy 
■tod in an earthen jar. ^'or scvenil ymre nft>tn«iird tliere 

^JKK Dcstilcntial uxWatious, and drought and searcity, 

BboutftuKU the country. 

Tbis is indeed a memorable event; and jet I ncvir hi-ord 
r it bc&Tc 

!)o*l Ihon like my histories ? 

^oy much indeed. 

9 of Ihcm ? 


Thm, Ithodop^, tboa art worthier af instraction than aay- 
Kw I know, I never fniuid an auditor, until the present, 
■ho apjirored of each ; one or other of the two was sure to bi- 
'"etavt; in itylc or ingenuity : it showed an ignoreuce of the 
• or of mankind : it provc<l only that the narrator was u 
B uf cutitractnl vicwk, and tlutt nothing pleased hini. 

Haw could you liave hindered, with as many hands as Qva^, 
ad twenty thong* iti each, the fox and ass from uniting ^ or 
W could yon prevail on Ju|>it«r to keep the mud from 
l«hlilineP I have prayed to him for many thinjn more 
RssoDabIc, and he lias ncTer done a single one of them ; 
Mrept tiio last, perhaps. 

Wluil . 

Uttl be would bestow on me power i 
wnlbrt Iho poor tlave from Phrygia. 

Oe what art tliou reileeling 'f 

id umivrstandiug to 



I do not know. Is reflection that which will not lie 
on the mind, and which makes us ask ourselves qnestioi 
can not answer ? 


Wisdom is but that shadow which we call reflection ; 
alwajs, more or less, but usually the most so where the 
the most light around it. 


I think I b^in to comprehend jou ; but beware lest 
one else should. Men wUl hate you for it, and may 
you; for they will never bear the wax to be melted ii 
ear, as your words possess the faculty of doing. 


They may hurt me, but I shall have rendered them a sc 


iEsop I if you think so, you must soon b^in to ins 
me how I may assist you, first in performing the servic-e, 
then in averting the danger : for I think you will be less 1 
to harm if I am with you. 


Proud child ! 


Not yet ; I may be then. 


We must converse about other subjects. 


On what rather? 


1 was accused by thee of attempting to unsettle thy 1 
in prodigies and portents. 


Teach me what is right and proper in regard to them^ 
in regard to the gods of this country who send them. 


We will either let them alone, or worship them as 
masters do. But thou mayst be quite sure, Rhodope, 
if there were any men without heads, or any who ride i 
dragons, they would have been worshipped as deities 

SSOP a:;D fUlODOPE. i7 


At ; now jroa talk ressoimbly : so tkcj would ; at least I 
tliinit M : I iDMn only in tlii," country. In Tlirace we do not 
"ink io unworthily of the goda: we are too afraid of Cerberna 

-■tV lower ; or thou wilt raise ill blood between him and 
Uis three heads could hardly lop milk when Auubia 
r one could crack the thickest bone. 

Indenl t how proud j 

L mu&t be to have acquired such 

^ ii tlie knowledge which men moat value, as being the 
it proGtAble to tliem; hut I possess httle of it. 

t then will you teach me ? 

U teach thee, O Bhodopir, how to hold Love by both 
kd how to make a constant companion of an ungrateful 

c I UD already able to manage so little a creature. 

« lutb maoagod greater creatures than Rhodopg. 

had Qo scixsors to clip his iiiiiions, and they did not 
I soon enough on the bock of the hand. I luTe often 

I to seo him ; but I never haio seen him yet. 

inytliing like ? 


I tutre touched his ntatue ; aiul once I stroked it down, all 
; very nearlv. He seemed to smile at me the more for 

I I WM Bsuamed. X was then a little girl : it was long 
■ jtM B( least. 

n sure it was such a long while since ? 



How troublesome ! Yes ! I never told anybody but you : 
and I never would have told you, unless I had been certain 
that you would find it out by yourself, as you did what those 
false foolish girls said concerning you. I am sorry to call 
them by such names, for I am confident that on other things 
and persons they never speak maliciously or untruly. 

Not about thee ? 


They think me ugly and conceited, because they do not 
look at me long enough to find out their mistake. I know I 
am not ugly, and I believe I am not conceited : so I should 
be silly if I were offended, or thought ill of them in return. 
But do you yourself always speak the truth, even when you 
know it ? The story of the mud, I plainly see, is a mytiios. 
Yet, after all, it is difficult to believe ; and you have scarcely 
been able to persuade me, that the beasts in any country talk 
and reason, or ever did. 


Wherever they do, they do one thing more than men do. 


You perplex me exceedingly : but I would not disquiet you 
at present with more questions. Let me pause and consider a 
little, if you please. I begin to suspect that, as gods formerly 
did, you have been turning men into beasts, and beasts into 
men. But, j£sop, you should never say the thing that is 


We say and do and look no other all our lives. 


Do we never know better ? 


Yes; when we cease to please, and to wish it; when death 
is settling the features, and the cerements are ready to render 
them unchangeable. 


Alas! alas ! 

I'--- . « 



Breatbe, Rhodop^^ breathe again those painless sighs : they 
belong to thy vernal season. May thy summer of life be 
cifaiiy thy autumn calmer^ and thy winter never come. 


I must die then earlier. 


Laodameia died ; Helen died ; Leda, the beloved of Jupiter^ 
went before. It is better to repose in the earth betimes than 
to sit up late; better, than to cling pertinaciously to what we 
feel crumbling under us, and to protract an inevitable fall. 
We may enjoy the present while we are insensible of infirmity 
and decay : but the present, like a note in music, is nothing 
but as it appertains to what is past and what is to come. 
There are no fields of amaranth on this side of the grave : 
there are no voices, O Bhodope, that are not soon mute, 
however tuneful : there is no name, with whatever emphasis of 
passionate love repeated, of wliich the echo is not faint at last. 


O .£sop ! let me rest my head on yours : it throbs and 
pains me. 


What are these ideas to thee ? 


Sad, sorrowful. 


Harrows that break the soil, preparing it for wisdom. 
Many flowers must perish ere a grain of com be ripened. 
And now remove thy head : the chedc is cool enough arter its 
little shower of tears. 


How impatient you are of the least pressure ? 


There is nothing so difficult to support imperturbably as 
the head of a lovely girl, except her gnef. Again upon mine ! 
forgetful one I Baise it, remove it, I say. Why wert thou 
reluctant ? why wert thou disobedient ? Nav, look not so. 
It is I (and thou shalt know it) who should look reproachfully. 



Reproachfully ? did I ? I was only wishing you would love 
me better^ that I might come and see you often. 


Come often and see me^ if thou wilt; but expect no love 
from me. 


Yet how gently and gracefully you have spoken and acted, 
aU the time we have been together. You have rendered the 
most abstruse things intelligible, without once grasping my 
hand, or putting your fingers among my curls. 


I should have feared to encounter the displeasure of two 
persons if I had. 


And well you might. They would scourge you, and scold 


That is not the worst. 


The stocks too, perhaps. 


AU these are small matters to the slave. 


If they befell you, I would tear my hair and my cheeks, and 

tut my knees under your ancles. Of whom should you have 
een afraid ? 


Of Ehodop^ and of ^sop. Modesty in man, O Bhodope, 
is perhaps the rarest and most dif&cult of virtues : but m- 
tolerable pain is the pursuer of its infringement. Then follow 
days without content, nights without sleep, throughout a 
stormy season, a season of impetuous deluge which no fertility 


My mother often told me to learn modesty, when I was at 
play among the boys. 


Modesty in girls is not an acquirement, but a gift of natures 
and it costs as much trouble and pain in the possessor to 
eradicate, as the fullest and firmest lock of hair would do. 



Nefcr shall I be induced to believe thmt men st aD Tihie it 
in themsdvesy or mnch in ns, althoagh firom idleness or 
from lanooor thej woold take it away from ns whenever thej 

And Toy few of joa are pertinacioos : if joa ran afkcr them^ 
as yon often do, it is not to get it back. 


I woold never ran after any one, not even yon : I woold 
only ask yoo, again and again, to love me. 

Expect no love from me. I will impart to thee all my wisdom, 
such as it is ; bot giiis hlce oor folly best. Tboo shall never 
get a particle of mine from me. 


Is love foolish? 


At thy age and at mine. I do not love thee : if I did, 1 
woold the more forbid thee ever to love wte. 

Strange man! 

Struige indeed. When a traveller is aboot to wander on a 
desert, it is strange to lead him away from it ; strange to point 
oat to him the vodant path he shoold porsoe, where the 
tamarisk and lentisk and acacia wave overhead, where the 
nsedft is cool and tender to the foot that presses it, and wliere 
a thoosand coloors sparide in the sonshine, on fbontains 
itty gnshing forth. 

Xanthos has all these; and I coold be amid them in a 



I know not exactly. Another day perhaps. I am afraid of 
akes this morning. Beside, I think it mav be soltry oot of 
doors. Does not ue wind Mow from Libya f 


It blows as it did yesterday when I came over, fresh across 
the ^gean, and from Thrace. Thou mayest venture into the 
morning air. 


No hours are so adapted to study as those of the morning. 
But will you teach me r I shall so love you if you will. 


If thou wilt not love me, I will teach thee. 


Unreasonable man ! 

^ .asop. 

Art thou aware what those mischievous little hands are 


They are tearing off the golden hem from the bottom of my 
robe ; but it is stiff and difficult to detach. 


Why tear it off? 


To buy your freedom. Do you spring up, and turn away, 
and cover your face from me ? 


My freedom I Go, fihodop^ I Bhodope I This, of all things, 
I shall never owe to thee. 


Proud man! and you tell me to go! do you? do you? 
Answer me at least. Must I ? and so soon ? 


Child! begone! 


O jEsop, you are already more my master than Xanthus 
is. I will run and tell him so ; and I will implore of him, 
upon my knees, never to impose on you a command so hard 
to obey. 



And 90, our feflov-sUTes are gmn to oomaitkii on the 
score of dugnitj ? 

I do not bdkre thej are mocfa addicted to eonientioa : for, 
whenercr the good Xanthns hears a agnal of such nusbeharioiir, 
he either brings a seoorge into the mdst of them, or sends oar 
lady to 90old them smartlT for it. 

evidence against their propenstr ! 

I win not have toq find them oat so, nor laogh at them. 

Seeing that the good Xanthas and oar ladr are eqoall j food 
of thee, and alvaTs riiit thee both toeetber, At ais, hJverer 
envioos, can not wdl or mMj be arrogad, bat mast d 
neoeantj yield the finl pbee to thee. 

Thejr indeed are ob g nani of the kindoeaa tem b»tr/vi!d 
upon me : Tct ther aflbct ne br tjiimi*^/ ^^ coiaiaoaZI'T vish 
what I am unable to denr. 

If it is true, it ooghl hxsk to trwL^ tbse : if vitrse, > 
I know, ibr I hare kwked ido isfxbisf 4k ri 'aeji, so ^nl ran 
thy heart hare admitted: a figa ^A \tizf: 'uiatf: ih^ G'vk 
woold remore the heanest tint m^ fjLkrxiiz^ Prsj vu av( 
what it maj be. Come, be cdsnc^tms ; ^ fi^fsHrii. I <:«& 
easily pardon a smile if tbn ^m^jeadesc m^ U f^szwMij. 

Tbftj remark to me oac eau-cx* ^je r»>9f UxJk ^i/tm 
fafcibly from their paresu . . usA 'hati . . xrA *iM. . . . 

Lftdycaoog^: whostttA? Wsy ^mT* irm wm^&i9/ 
^ly eofcr thy fwe wsh tkj luar'snr] iuauif'' %uAer^,* 
Bbdopi! doat thorn w«f aHRxnw r 



It is SO sure I 

Was the fault thine ? 


that it were I . . if there was any. 

While it pains thee to tell it^ keep thy silence ; but when 
utterance is a solace, then impart it. 


They remind me (oh I who could have had the cruelty to 
relate it ?) that my father, my own dear father . . . 


Say not the rest : I know it : his day was come. 


. . sold me, sold me. You start : you did not at the lightning 
last night, nor at the rolling sounds above. And do you, 
generous ^sop ! do you also call a misfortune a disgrace ? 


If it is, I am among the most disgraceful of men. Didst 
thou dearly love thy father? 


All loved him. He was very fond of me. 


And yet sold thee I sold thee to a stranger I 


He was the kindest ofall kind fathers, nevertheless^ Nine 
summers ago, you may have heard perhaps, there was a 
grievous famine in our land of Thrace. 


1 remember it perfectly. 


O poor ^sop ! and were you too famishing in your native 


The calamity extended beyond the narrow sea that separates 
our countries. My appetite was sharpened; but the appetite 
and the wits are equally set on the same grindstone. 



I was then scarodj five years old: mj mother died the 
year before : mj father siehed at every funereal^ but he sighed 
more deeplv at every brioal, song. He loved me because he 
loved her who bore me : and yet I made him sorrowful whether 
I cried or smiled. If ever I vexed him^ it was because I 
would not play when he told me^ but made him^ by my 
weeping, weep again. 

And y^ he could endure to lose thee! he^ thy father I 
Coold any other? could any who lives on the fruits of the 
earth, mdure it ? O ace, that art incumbent over me ! blessed 
be thou; thrice blessed I Not that thou stillest the tumults 
of the heart, and promisest eternal calm, but that, prevented 
by thy beneficence, 1 never sliall experience this only intolerable 


Alasl alas! 


Thon art now happy, and shouldst not utter that useless 


Ton said something angrily and vehemently when you 
stepped aside. Is it not enougn that the handmaidens doubt 
the kindness of my father ? Must so virtuous and so wise a 
man as iEsop blame him also ? 


Perhaps he is little to be blamed ; certainly he is much to 
he pitied. 


Kind heart ! on which mine must never rest I 

Best on it for comfort and for counsel when they fail thee : 
rest on it, as the Deities on the breast of mortals, to console 
nd pnrify it. 


Could I remove any sorrow from it, I should be contented. 

Then be so ; and proceed in thy narrative. 


Bear with me a little yet. My thoughts have overpowered 
■7 words, and now themselves are overpowered and scattftt^d. 


Forty-seven days ago (this is only the forty-eighth since I 
beheld you first) I was a child; I was ignorant^ I was careless. 


If these qualities are signs of childhood^ the universe is a ' 


A£9iction^ which makes many wiser^ had no such effect on 
me. But reverence and love (why should I hesitate at the one 
avowal more than at the other ?) came over me^ to ripen my 

O fihodope ! we must loiter no longer upon this discourse. 


Why not ? 


Pleasant is yonder beanfield, seen over the high papyrus 
when it waves and bends : deep laden with the sweet heaviness 
of its odour is the listless air that palpitates dizzily above it : 
but Death is lurking for the slumberer beneath its blossoms. 


You must not love then ! . . but may not I ? 


We will . . but . . . 


We! O sound that is to vibrate on my breast for ever! 
O hour! happier than aU other hours since time began I 
O gracious Gods ! who brought me into bondage I 

Be calm, be composed, be circumspect. We must hide our 
treasure that we may not lose it. 


I do not think that you can love me ; and I fear and tremble 
to hope so. Ah, yes ; you have said you did. But again you 
only look at me, and sigh as if you repented. 

Unworthy as I may be of thy fond regard, I am not 
unworthy of thy fullest confidence : why distrust me ? 


Never will I . . never, never. To know that I possess 
your love, surpasses all other knowledge, dear as is all that I 


•■ tnm you. I should be tired of my own voice if I 
haad it dd »ught be^idt^ : Hnd, evi^ii yours is less melodious ia 
*aj other sound than RAoilopi. 

B Du such little girls leom to Batter P 

Trach mc han* to speak, since you could not ivai^i mc Low 
■■"\< nlnit 

r Speak no longer of mc, but of thyself; and only of things 
r (HUH thee. 

Nothing can pain me now. 

c thy story then, from in&ncy. 

I muft hold your hand : 1 .-un afraid of losing you again. 

Now begin. Why silent so long ? 
I RBonori. 

1*1 haUK dropi>cd all memory of what is told by me and what 

I a little. I can he patient with this hand in mine. 


I am not certain that jonis is any help to recollection. 
Slull I remove it ? 

O ! DOW I think 1 can recall the whole story. What did 
may? did you ask any question ? 

\f exceptiiig wliat thou tiast answered. 


P.JfCTW shall 1 forget the morning when my futher, sitting in 

I coolest part of the house, exchanged his last measore of 

I for a chhtmys of warlrt cloth fringed with silver. H« 

* ' o merchant out of the door, and tlum Uid^*it«n]^i]\\<; 


into the corn-chest. I, who thought there was somethniff 
worth seeing, looked in also, and, finding it empty, expressed 
my disappointment, not thinking however about the com. 
A faint and transient smile came over his countenance at the 
sight of mine. He unfolded the chlamys, stretched it out 
with both hands before me, and then cast it over my shoulders. 
I looked down on the glittering fringe and screamed with joy. 
He then went out; and I know not what flowers he gath^ed, 
but he gathered many ; and some he placed in my bosom, and 
some in my hair. But I told him with captious pride, first 
that I could arrange them better, and again that I would have 
only the white. However, when he had selected all the white, 
and I had placed a few of them according to my fancy, I told 
him (rising in my slipper) he might crown me with the 
remainder. The splendour of my apparel gave me a sensation 
of authority. Soon as the flowers had taken their station on 
my head, I expressed a dignified satisfaction at the taste 
displayed by my father, just as if I could have seen how they 
appeared I But he knew that there was at least as much 
pleasure as pride in it, and perhaps we divided the latter (alas ! 
not both) pretty equaUy. He now took me into the market- 
place, where a concourse of people was waiting for the 
purchase of slaves. Merchants came and looked at me.; 
some commending, others disparaging ; but all agreeing that 
I was slender and delicate, that I could not live long, and that 
I should give much trouble. Many would have bought the 
chlamys, but there was something less saleable in the child and 

Had thy features been coarse and thy voice rustic, they 
would all nave patted thy cheeks and found no fault in thee. 


As it was, every one had bought exactly such another in 
time past, and been a loser by it. At these speeches I 
perceived the flowers tremble slightly on my bosom, from my 
father's agitation. Althougli he scoffed at them, knowing my 
healthiness, he was troubled internally, and said many short 
prayers, not very unlike imprecations, turning his head aside. 
Froud was I, prouder than ever, when at last several talents 
were offered for me, and by the very man who in the banning 
had undervalued me the most, and prophesied the worst of me. 


Hy fiilher scowled at him^ and refused the money. I thooght 
he was playing a game^ and b^an to wonder what it could 
be, since I never had seen it played before, llien I fancied it 
mig^t be some celebration because plenty had returned to the 
city, insomuch that my father had bartered the kst of the 
com he hoarded. I grew more and more delighted at the 
sport. But soon there advanced an elderly man, who said 
gravely, ''Thou hast stolen this child: her vesture alone is 
worth above a hundred drachmas. Carry her home again to 
her parents, and do it directly, or Nemesis and the Eumenides 
will overtake thee.'' Knowing the estimation in which my 
&ther had alwavs been holden^ his fellow-citizens, I laughed 
again, and pinched his ear. He, although naturally choleric, 
burst forth into no resentment at these reproaches, but said 
calmly, " I think I know thee by name, O guest I Surely 
thou art Xanthus the Samian. Deliver this child from 

Again I laughed aloud and heartily ; and, thinking it was 
now my part of the game, I held out both my arms and pro- 
truded my whole body toward the stranger. lie would not 
receive me from my father's neck, but he asked me with 
benignity and solicitude if I was hungry : at which I laughed 
again, and more than ever : for it was early in the morning, 
soon after the first meal, and my father had nourished me 
most carefully and plentifully in all the davs of the famine. 
But Xanthus, waitmg for no answer, took out of a sack, 
which one of his slaves carried at his side, a cake of wheaten 
bread and a piece of honev-comb, and gave them to me. I 
held the honejr-comb to my father's mouth, thinking it the 
most of a dainty. He dashed it to the ground ; but, seizing 
the bread, he began to devour it ferociously. This also I 
thought was in plav ; and I clapped my hands at his distor- 
tions. But Xanthus looked on him like one afraid, and 
smote the cake from him, CT}in^ aloud, " Name the price." 
Hy father now placed me in his arms, naming a price much 
bdow what the other had offered, saying; '' The Goda are ever 
with thee, O Xanthus! therefor to thee do 1 consign my 
child." But while Xanthus was counting out the silver, my 
father seized the cake again, which the slave had taken up and 
was about to repUce in the wallet. His hunoer was eiaspe- 
rated by the taste and the delay. Suddenly there arose much 
tumult. Turning round in the old woman's boaom whi^ bad 


received me firom Xauthus^ I saw my beloved fiither straggling 
on the ground, livid and speechless. The more violent mj 
cries, the more rapidly they hurried me away; and many were 
soon between us. Little was I suspicious that he had suffered 
the pangs of famine long before : alas ! and he had suffered 
them for me. Do I weep while I am telling you they ended? 
I could not have closed his eyes ; I was too young : but I 
might have received his last breath; the only comfort of 
an orphan's bosom. Do you now think him blamable, 
O -Ssop ? 


It was sublime humanity: it was forbearance and self-denial 
which even the immortal gods have never shown us. He 
could endure to perish by those torments which alone are both 
acute and slow ; he could number the steps of death and miss 
not one : but he could never see thy tears, nor let thee see 
his. O weakness above all fortitude ! Glory to the man 
who rather bears a grief corroding his breast, than permits it 
to prowl beyond, and to prey on the tender and compassionate ! 
Women commiserate the brave, and men the beautiful. The 
dominion of Pity has usually this extent, no wider. Thy 
father was exposed to the obloquy not only of the malicious, 
but also of the ignorant and thoughtless, who condemn in the 
unfortunate what they applaud in the prosperous. There is 
no shame in poverty or in slaver}^ if we neither make ourselves 

f)oor by our improvidence nor slaves by our venality. The 
owest and highest of the human race are sold : most of the 
intermediate are also slaves, but slaves who bring no money 
in the market. 


Surely the great and powerful are never to be purchased : 
are they ? 


It may be a defect in my vision, but I can not see greatness 
on the earth. What they tell me is great and aspiring, to me 
seems little and crawling. Let me meet thy question with 
another. What monarch gives his daughter for nothing? 
Either he receives stone walls and imwilling cities in return, 
or he barters her for a parcel of spears and horses and horse- 
men, waving away firom his declining and helpless age young 
joyous life, and trampling down the fireshest and the sweetest 
memories. Midas in the highth of prosperity would have 


1 dftogtita to Ljcaon, nther than to the ^tlest, the 
rtuoos, the most intelligent of his suhiects. Thj 
irew wealth aside, and, placing thee imaer the pro- 
>{ Virtue, rose up from the house of flamiiie to puloke 
stivals of the gods. 

se my neck, Bhodopi ! for I hare other questions 
f thee about hnn. 

nr thee converse on him in such a maimer, I caii do 

■e the daj of separation was he never sorrow^l ? Did 
r by tears or silence reveal the secret of his soul P 

s too io&ntiue to perceive or imagine his intention. 
;ht before I became the slave of Xanthiu, he sat iin the 
my bed. I preteuded to be asleep : he moved awav 
and softly. I saw him collect in the hollow of hu 
he crumbs I had wasted on the floor, and then nt 
and then look if any were remaining. I thouf^t he 
out of fondness for me, remembering that, «vKn Mim 
line, he had often swept up off the uIjI^ tlic brnsd I kwl 
, and had made me pst it between his lip*. I wimUI 
wmhle very long, bat said, 

me, now jou have wakened mf, yn miut mu^ im 
uain, as yon did when I was little. ' 
smiled faintly at this, and, aft^ hjok M^j, wt>3) 1^ 
JkKi up and down the ehaoilMtT, ihu \^jnti : 
■ill sing Uj thee one smiz vj/f., vi,i nUr*-.. Ht^/it/^. '. 
iping bird I over wfau& ia to tuAs^t *.:,jf ' Ttai. rt 
11 thee asleep, I wX e«JM'jnM u, 'wjfji^, w ;.'. \i^. ^* 
• and plenterjonKM, ti* j^x^ •/ M*n, srvjt..^flr ev 'Aow 
ly rapid fjtjti tut 'i»i'i*'< ^^ta* 'A firj^nm Wlut 
ion u> do, Ev ':jz^ '.•», t^\ ht-^i 'i^fnt '/ •:.vrf,#rMi^ 
quiver r How xki '.yt^^ » ■--• ;*>r 'amv 'Jm 

bout \;jt. TT^fx EatXm ' Hiar im-.-w^ 'a^^v u'^.tC #4 
t paiaK, to-* VA'ja w wju wf.-t Vx*. «.\rf 'k^n^ 
J by :*« Pir-rao - Vuc tMff^. vv« -/ ^«^Umvm 
r c^H 


'' Pardon me^ O goddess who presidest in (Mhera ! I am 
not irrevereut to thee^ but ever grateful. May she upon 
whose brow I lay my hand^ praise and bless thee for ever- 

" Ah yes ! continue to hold up above the coverlet those 
fresh and rosy palms clasped together : her benefits have 
descended on thy beauteous head^ my child ! The Fates alao 
have sung^ beyond thy hearing, of pleasanter scenes than 
snow-fed Hebrus ; of more than dim grottoes and sky-bri^ 
waters. Even now a low murmur swdls upward to my ear : 
and not from the spindle comes the sound, but from tiiose 
who sing slowly over it, bending aU three their tremulous 
heads together. I wish thou coiudst hear it ; for seldom are 
their voices so sweet. Thy pillow intercepts the song perhajps: 
lie down again, lie down, my fihodope I I will repeat what 
they are saying : 

" ' Happier shalt thou be, nor less glorious, than even she, 
the truly beloved, for whose return to the distaff and the lyre 
the portals of Tsenarus flew open. In the woody dells of 
Ismarus, and when she bathed among the swans of Strymon, 
the Nymphs called her Eurydice. Thou shalt behold that 
fairest and that fondest one hereafter. But first thou moat 
go unto the land of the lotos, where famine never comeUi^ 
and where alone the works of man are immortal.' 

''O my child! the undeceiving Eates have uttered this. 
Other Powers have visited me, and have strengthened my 
heart with dreams and visions. We shall meet again, my 
Ehodope! in shady groves and verdant meadows, and we 
shall sit by the side of those who loved us.'' 

He was rising: I threw my arms about his neck, and, 
before I would let him go, I made him promise to place me;, 
not by the side, but between them : for I thought of her who 
had left us. At that time there were but two, O iSsop ! 

You ponder : you are about to reprove my assurance in 
having thus repeated my own praises. I would have omitted 
some of the words, oidy that it might have disturbed the 
measure and cadences, and have put me out. They are the 
very words my dearest father sang ; and thev are the last : jfi, 
shame upon me I the nurse (the same who stood listemi^ 
near, who attended me into this country) could remembir 
them more perfectly : it is firom her I have learnt them SffiO^i 
she often sings them, even by liersel£ 

SOLON AND pm9nu.Tin. 

So shall others. There is much both in them ud in thee 
to RDder them memorable. 

"Who Batters now ? 

Flattery often runs berond Tmth, in a hniry to embrace 
her ; bnt not here. The dullest of mortahi, seeing and hear- 
ing thee, would never minnterpret the prophecy of the Fates. 

If, taming back, I could overpass the vale of jcara, and 
could stand on the mountain-top, and could look again far 
before me at the bright ascending mom, we would enjor the 
wospect together; we would walk along the summit hand in 
Land, Rhodopi, and we would only sigh at last when we 
found ourselves below with others. 


Here is a proof, Solon, if any were wanting, that either my 
power is small or my inclination to abuse it : yon speak just 
m freely to me as formerly, and add unreservedly, which you 
never did before, the keenest sarcasms and the bitterest 
repoaches. Even sttch a smile as that, so expressive of 
incredulity and contempt, would arouse a desire of vengeance, 
difficult to control, in any whom you could justly call impostor 
aaci usurper. 

I do you no injustice, Hsistratos, which I should do if I 
fcmd yon. Neither your policy nor your temper, neither 
joor euiy edncation nor the society you have since frequented, 
nd whoae power over the mind and affections you can uot at 
Mce throw off, would permit you to kill or imprison, or even 
to iBsoH or hiui me. Such an actioQ, yon well know, would 
matt in thepeojdeof Athena ■■•^'■'nt a sensation as your 
- e of tha woodfc m yooi aat\u)Ti;t] 


as rapidly as you ac(][mred it. This however, yon also know, 
is not the consideration which hath induced me to approach 
you, and to entreat your retiim, while the path is yet open, to 
reason and humanity. 


What inhumanity, my friend, have I committed ? 


No deaths, no tortures, no imprisonments, no stripes : but 
worse than these ; the conversion of our species into a lower; 
a crime which the poets never feigned, in the wild attempts 
of the Titans or others who rebelled against the gods, and 
against the order they established here below. 


Why then should you feign it of me ? 


I do not feign it : and you yourself shall bear me witness 
that no citizen is further removed from falsehood, from the 
perversion of truth by the heat of passion, than Solon. 
Choose between the friendship of the wise and the adulation 
of the vulgar. Choose, do I say, Pisistratus? No, you 
can not : your choice is already made. Choose then between 
a city in the dust and a city flourishing. 


How SO ? who could hesitate ? 


If the souls of the citizens are debased, who cares whether 
its walls and houses be stil upright or thrown down? When 
free men become the property of one, when they are brought 
to believe that their interests repose on him alone, and must 
arise from him, their best energies are broken irreparably. 
They consider his will as the rule of their conduct, leading to 
emolument and dignity, securing from spoliation, from scorn, 
from contumely, from chains, and seize this compendious 
blessing (such they think it) without exertion and without 
reflection. From which cause alone there are several ancient 
nations so abject, that they have not produced in many 
thousand years as many rational creatures as we have seen 
together round one table in the narrowest lane of Athens. 



Tint, Solon, you yourself are an example, ill treated as you 
have been, tliat the levity of the Athenian people requires a 
guide and leader. 


There are those who, by their discourses and conduct, 
indate and push forward tliis levity, that the guide and leader 
may be called for; and who then offer their kind services, 
modestly, and by means of friends, in pity to the weakness of 
their fellow-citizcus, taking care not only of their follies, but 
also their little store of wisdom, putting it out to interest 
where they see fit, and directing how and where it shall be 
ex]iended. Generous hearts ! the Lacedemonians themselveS| 
in the excess of their democracy, never were more zealous that 
corn and oil should be thrown into the common stock, than 
these are that minds should, and that no one swell a single 
line above another. Tlieir own meanwhile are fully adequate 
to all necessary and useful purposes, and constitute them a 
superintending Providence over the rest. 


Solon, I did not think you so addicted to derision : you 
make me join you. This in the latter part is a description of 
despotism ; a monster of Asia, and not yet known even in the 
mo:Kt uncivilised region of Europe. For the Thracians and 
other*, who have chieftains, have no kings, much less despots. 
In 9|ieaking of them we use the word carelessly, not thinldng 
it worth our while to form names for such creatures, any 
more than to form collars and bracelets for them, or rings (if 
they use them) for their ears and noses. 


Preposterous as this is, there are things more so, under our 
fjes : for instance, that the sound should become lame, the 
wise foolish, and this by no affliction of disease or ago. You 
go further; and appear to wish that a man should become a 
child again : for what is it else, when he has governed himself, 
that he should go back to be governed by another ? and for 
no better reason than because, as he is told, that other has 
been knocked down and stabbed. Incontrovertible proofs of 
his strength, his prudence, and the love he has been capabh; 
of conciliating in those about him ! 



Solon 1 it would better become the gravity of your age, tlie 
dignity of your character^ and the office you assume of advise, 
to ad(&ess me with decorous and liberal moderation, and to 
treat me as you find me. 


So small a choice of words is left us^ when we pass out of 
Atticism into barbarism, that I know not whether you, distin- 
guished as you are both for the abundance and the selection 
of them, would call yourself in preference king or tyrant. The 
latter is usually the most violent, at least in the beginning; 
the former the most pernicious. Tyrants, like ravens and 
vultures, are solitary : they either are swept ofi^, or languish 
and pine away, and leave no brood in their places. Kings, as 
the origin of them is amid the swamps and wildernesses, take 
deeper root, and germinate more broadly in the loose and 
putrescent soil, and propagate their likenesses for several 
generations ; a brood which (such is the power of habitude) 
does not seem monstrous, even to those whose com, wine, 
and oil, it swallows up every day, and whose children it con- 
sumes in its freaks and festivals. I am ignorant under what 
number of them, at the present day, mankind in various 
countries lies prostrate ; just as ignorant as I am how many 
are the desarts and caverns of the earth, or the eddies and 
whirlpools of the sea ; but I should not be surprised to find it 
stated that, in Asia and Africa, there may be a dozen, greater 
or less. Europe has never been amazed at such a portent, 
either in the most corrupted or the most uncivilised of her 
nations, as a hereditary chief in possession of absolute power. 


The first despots were tyrannical and cruel. 


And so the last will be. This is wanting, on some occasions, 
to arouse a people from the lethargy of servitude ; and there- 
for I would rather see the crudest usurper than the mildest 
king. Under him men lose the dignity of their nature : under 
the other they recover it. 


Hereditary kings too have been dethroned. 



Ceitainlj: for^ besotted as those must be who have endured 
them, some subject at last hath had the hardihood and spirit 
to kick that fellow in the face and trample on him, who insists 
that the shoe must fit him because it fitted his father and 
grandfather, and that, if his foot will not enter, he will pare 
and rasp it. 


The worst of wickedness is that of bearing hard on the 
unfortunate, and near it is that of running down the 
fortunate: yet these are the two commonest occupations of 
mankind. vYe are despised if we are helpless ; we are teased 
bj petulance and tormented by reprehension if we are strong. 
One tribe of barbarians would djnag us into their own dry 
desarts, and strip us to the skin : another would pierce us with 
arrows for being naked. What is to be done ? 


Simpler men run into no such perplexities. Your great 
wisdom, O Pisistratus, wiU enable you in some measure U) 
defend your conduct ; but your heart is the more vulnerable 
from its very greatness. 

I intend to exert the authority that is conferred on me by 
the people, in the maintenance of your laws, knowing no Ixftt/rr. 


Better there may be, but you will render worse nrrc#r**arj' ; 
and would vou have it said hereafter bv those who n^i tL'rm, 
"Pisistratus was less wise than Solon?'' 

It most be said ; for none among men hath tn'yjy*-A v> Ki;^i 
i character as you, in wisdom and int«:gritj. 


Either vou lie now, Ksistratus, or rou li^ 9':j:u ton 
ibolished my institutioDS. 

llicy exist, and dall exist, I rrear Uj yn. 

Yes, they exist like the lect^^n in a lr2n.t ycr^, »' '^ '• ^^ 
looked down on from curiofhy, axid yuei ^jr.'^*^, »' .>: *^-a -^^^a 
of the ooDsamiiig fire is muinixar, otsi m^ '.t'«.'a.v^, ta a 
tondi, and indeed ly bctofe it, vea^ous^aa 7U/i ;;^/^8^gnsuu 


Do you desire, Pisistratus, that your family shall inherit 
your anxieties ? If you reaUy feel none your^lf, which you 
never will persuade me, nor (I think) attempt it, stil you may 
be much happier, much more secure and tranquil, by ceasing 
to possess what you have acquired of late, provided you ceaac 
early ; for long possession of any property makes us anxious to 
retain it, and insensible, if not to the cares it brings with it, at 
least to the real cause of them. Tyrants ^ill never be per- 
suaded that their alarms and sorrows, their perplexity and 
melancholy, are the product of tyranny : they will not attribute 
a tittle of them to their own obstinacy and perverseness, but 
look for it all in another's. They would move everything and 
be moved by nothing ; and yet lighter things move them than 
any other particle of mankind. 


You are talking, Solon, of mere fools. 


The worst of fools, Pisistratus, are those who once had 
wisdom. Not to possess what is good is a misfortune; to 
throw it away is a folly : but to change what we know hath 
served us, and would sene us stil, for what never has and 
never can, for what on the contrary hath always been pemicioas 
to the holder, is the action of an incorrigible idiot. Observa- 
tions on arbitrary power can never be made usefully to its 
possessors. There is not a foot-page about them at Uie bath 
whose converse on this subject is not more reasonable than 
mine would be. I could adduce no argument which he would 
not controvert, by the magical words " practical things'' and 
" present times :" a shrug of the shoulder would overset all that 
my meditations have taught me in half a century of laborious 
inquiry and intense thought. " Tliese are theories," he would 
tell his master, "fit for Attica before the olive was sown among 
us. Old men must always have their way. Will their own 
grey beards never teach them that time changes things ?" 

One fortune hath ever befallen those whom the indignant 
gods have cursed with despotical power; to feed upon false- 
hood, to loath and sicken at truth, to avoid the friendly, to 
discard the wise, to suspect the lionest, and to abominate the 
brave. like grubs in rotten kernels, they coil up for safety in 
dark hollowness, and see nothing but death in bursting firom it 


AlthoDgli they place violence in the hi^est rank of dignitios 
uid viTtaea, and draw cloaelj round their bodies those whose 
niour, from the centre to the extremities, should animate the 
state, vet the)- associate the most intimately with singers, with 
bnffoon*, with tellers of tales, with pro^gies of eating and 
drinking, with monntebanks, with diviners. These captivate and 
enthrall their enfeebled and abject spirits; and the first cry 
that rouses them from their torpor is the cry that demands their 
blood. Then wonld it appear by their countenances, that all 
they had tcailered among thousand.-, had come secretly back 
again to it? vast repositoir, and was issuing forth from evcir 
Imib and fcatore, from everr pore, from every hair npon their 
head.c. is man at last, O Finstranu, when he is all he bath 
ever wi^h^ to be ! the fortnnate, the powerAd, the anpniix t 
Life iu it* f^iren fonn 'stk^ be considers it] comes only to 
flatter :;?i 1 Jective Lim. Dis3pprjintn:.ents take their xmh,KA 
hara<f Yim : woknes* K>d tnaladiES cast bim down ; ^xpjt** 
aXch ba aiiin wiien bt rises frrmi tb^tE, Vj car.'ii kA 
blind ai-i (any kiai iwrv: >3iw:r>s «:nz&w w.-j. -irjw 
pla5iir>r*, aad 'ji^t il smg^ie whl la*^ www V. i*t ijt 
friend : tii»T msr cw D'jiiiS', mic canrh^s 13 

his own io www Tiat jm wtu. urai ■ mrt ;>«« jit •nib^U'r^ 
and rfiTiiif Wi c ^jnmir « juiht w -u* •rtur.iuf y* -tiar 
door by wijri iuo» tbci s b^ •kkv. 

PiasSTCns! fisvsBCiti ' nt w* '.m i<tr "tw iv-fru*.* -f 
■BBikiTii. d'.- wt jc¥^ vpm. vo! W3d'. ii^ 'uf ' 2'^w "■<■.:«• 
aive B - !•■.« "WisuDit dir.a<» r - ',01 ? i»"r ^-.irr ; - 
DcKRiO Tica. fniii t pKnme^. r j? tiifiinir v r-jr.i' • w 
myjif]-* It rrjoM ml 5iii.* ia- a-s lur tuu,- ^^ . 
■ad «n:ci.r: ^sn tarx. lui iwi>^ ith -,■ -.rr .T»-i-i -:.- 
cons;;^. 5' wnt uans nmv^t' ix dvn' ;lrre 1 ^(r— ■- < 
B^i vL ynv fcr iroB. ikSL Tia: •/: «»-:, ■» -^ ■•id--,*-' 
•0 L-ir-.ite- niL OBiKarmae » i» ;ri- yAK.^i ■r-- r"--.v 
vat e*Kiin- of -.w tmm q>KW l^r^ig . -.—a , ^.^^.^ 
TOO un 0. '"* —■mff" . imif— '--r if - •: _ .. _^ . , . , ^ 
not iwJuw TDi I, r iaw i»-2i jte- ■.■•.► ■ >» 


weary ? Bitterness ; the bitterness of infamy ! And how will 
you quench it? By swallowing the gall of self-reproach ! 

Let me put to you a few questions, near to the point : yon 
will answer them, I am confident, easily and affably. 

Pisistratus, have you not felt yourself the happier, when in 
the fulness of your heart, you have made a large offering to 
the gods ? 


Solon, I am not impious : I have made many such offerings 
to them, and have always been the happier. 


Did they need your sacrifice ? 


They need nothing from us mortals ; but I was happy in the 
performance of what I have been taught is my duty. 


Piously, virtuously, and reasonably said, my friend. The 
gods did not indeed want your sacrifice : they, who give eveiy- 
thing, can want nothing. The Athenians do want a sacrifice 
from you : ihey have an urgent necessity of something ; the 
necessity of that very thing which you have taken from them, 
and which it can cost you nothing to replace. You have 
always been happier, you confess, in giving to the gods what 
you could have yourself used in your own house : bdieve me, 
you will not be less so in giving back to your fellow-citizens 
what you have taken out of theirs and what you very well 
know they will seize when they can, together with your pro- 
perty and life. You have been taught, you tell me, that 
sacrifice to the gods is a duty : be it so : but who taught you 
it ? Was it a wiser man than you or I ? Or was it at a time 
of life when your reason was more mature than at present, or 
your interests better understood? No good man ever gave 
anything without being the more happy for it, unless to the 
undeserving, nor ever took anything away without being the 
less so. But here is anxiety and suspicion, a fear of the 
strong, a subjection to the weak ; here is fawning, in order to 
be fawned on again, as among suckUng whelps hsJf awake. He 
alone is the master of his fellow-men, who can instruct and 
improve them; while he who makes the people another thing 
from what it was, is master of that other thing, but not of 
the people. And supposing we could direct the city exactly 


as we would^ is our greatness to be founded on this ? A ditcher 
may do greater things : he may turn a torrent (a thing even 
more turbid and more precipitate) by his ditch. A sudden 
increase of power, like a sudden increase of blood, gives 
jdeasure; but the new excitement being once gratified, the 
pleasure ceases. 

I do not imagine the children of the powerful to be at any 
time more contented than the children of others, although I 
concede that the powerful themselves may be so for srjmc 
moments, pajing however very dearly for those moments, by 
more in quantity and in value. Give a stranger, who has 
rendered vou no service, four talents : the suddenness of the 
gift surprises and delights him : take them away again, raying, 
"Excuse me; I intended them for your brother; yet, not 
wholly to disappoint you, I give you two.'' "What think you ; 
do you augment or dmunish that man's store of happine^.t ? 


It must depend on his temper and character : but I thiiik in 
nearly all instances you would diminish it. 


Certainly. When we can not have what we eipr«t, we an; 
dissatisfied ; and what we have ceases to afford ui« i^lea^un*. 
Wc are like infants ; deprive them of one toy, and th'-v pijjth 
the rest away, or break them, and turn their fuctta from vou, 
crying inconsolably. 

If you desire an increase of happiness, do not I'jok for it, 
Pisistratus, in an increase of power. Follow thf Unb of 
nature on the eartL Spread the seeds of it iar and mdc : 
▼our crop shall be in proportion to your indu^^^try and 
liberality. What you ooncentnite in yourself, you ►tifl*:; jou 
propagate what you communicate. 

Stil silent ? Who is at the door ? 

The boys. 


Come, my little fogitires ! turn back again hitlier ! roiM Ut 
ne, Hippias and Hipparchus ! I wi<h you liaiJ f-nti.-n-^d <-iirli«'r ; 
that you might have witnessed my expostulation with your 
father, and that your tender age nugfat have prryiuf;*:«i u|/in 
Urn the efiSect my declining one has failed in. Chiidn-n, you 
bave loat jonr patrimony. Start not, Pisistratuti *. I k\u ^v«^ 


tell them that yon have squandered it away : no, I will never 
teach them irreverence to their parent: aid me, I entreat 
you, to teach them reverence. Do not, while the thing is 
recoverable, deprive them of filial love, of a free city, of 
popular esteem, of congenial sports, of kind confidence, <rf 
that which aU ages run in pursuit of, equals. Children seek 
those of the same age, men those of the same condition. 
Misfortunes come upon all: who can best ward them olBf? 
not those above us nor those below, but those on a level with 
ourselves. Tell me, Pisistratus, what arm hath ever raised up 
the pillow of a dying despot ? He hath loosened the bonds 
of nature : in no hour, and least of all in the last, can they be 
strengthened and drawn together. It is a custom, as you 
know, for you have not yet forgotten all our customs, to 
conduct youths with us when we mark the boundaries of our 
lands, that they may give their testimony on any suit about 
them in time to come. Unfortunate boys ! their testimony 
cannot be received : the landmarks are removed from their 
own inheritance by their own father. Armed men are placed 
in front of them for ever, and their pleasantest walks through- 
out life must be guarded by armed men. Who would endure 
it ? one of the hardest things to which the captive, or even 
the criminal, is condemned. The restraints which every one 
would wish away, are eternally about them ; those which the 
best of us require through life, are removed from them on 
entering it. Their passions not only are uncontrolled, but 
excited, fed, and flattered, by all around, and mostly by their 
teachers. " Do not expose them to worse monsters than the 
young Athenians were exposed to in the time of Theseus. 
Never hath our city, before or since, endured such calamity, 
such ignominy. A king, a conqueror, an injured and exas- 
perated enemy, imposed them : shall a citizen, shall a benefi- 
cent man, shaU a father, devise more cruel and more shameful 
terms, and admit none but his own offspring to fulfill them ? 
That monster perhaps was fabulous. O that these were so ! 
and that pride, injustice, lust, were tractable to any clue or 
conquerable by any courage of despotism ! 

Weak man ! will sighing suffocate them ? will holding 
down the head confound them ? 

Hippias and Hipparchus ! you are now the children of 
Solon, the orphans of Pisistratus. If I have any wisdom, it 
is the wisdom of experience : it shall cost you nothing from 


me, from others macL I present to jou a fruit which the 
cods themselves have fenced round, not only from the animals^ 
bat from most men ; one which I have nurtured and watched 
day and night for seventy years, reckoning from the time 
when my letters and duties were first taught me ; a lovely, 
sweet, and wholesome fruit, my children, and which, like the 
ambrosia of the blessed in Olympus^ grows by participation 
and enjoyment. 

Tou receive it attentively and gratefully : your father, who 
ongfat to know its value, listens and rejects it. I am not 
angxy with him for this ; and, if I censure him before you, I 
Uime myself also in his presence. Too frequently have 
I repeated my admonition : I am throwing my time away, 
I who have so little left me : I am consuming my heart with 
sorrow, when sorrow and soUcitudes should liave ceased ; 
and for whom ? for him principally who will derive no good 
from it, and will suffer none to flow on others, not even on 
those the dearest to him. Think, my children, how unwise 
a man is Solon, how hard a man Pisistratus, how mistaken in 
both are the Athenians. Study to avoid our errors, to correct 
oar faults, and by simpUdty of life, by moderation in your 
hopes and wishes, to set a purer and (grant it. Heaven !) a 
more stabile example than we have done. 


— ♦ — 


Embrace me, my brother poet. 


What have you written, Polycrates ? 


Nothing. But invention is the primary part of us ; and the 
mere finding of a brass ring in the belly of a dogfish, has afforded 
me a fine episode in royalty. You could not have made so 
mnch oat of it. 



I have heard various stories tliis moming about the matter : 
and, to say the truth, my curiosity led me hither. 


It was thus. I ordered my cook to open, in the presence of 
ten or twelve witnesses, a fat mullet, and to take out of it an 
emerald ring, which I had laid aside from the time when, as yon 
may remember, I felt some twitches of the gout in my knuckle. 


The brass ring was really found in a fish some time ago : 
might not a second seem suspicious ? And with what object 
is this emerald one extracted from such another mine ? 


To prove the constancy and immutability of my fortime. It 
is better for a prince to be fortunate than wise : people know 
that his fortune may be communicated, his wisdom not; and, if 
it could, nobody would take it who could as readily carry off a 
drachma. In fact, to be fortunate is to be powerfiil, and not 
only without the danger of it, but without the displeasure. 


Ministers are envied, princes never; because envy can exist 
there only where something (as people think) may be raised or 
destroyed. You were proceeding very smootldy with your 
reflections, Polycrates, but, with all their profundity, are you 
imaware that mullets do not eat such things P 


True; the people however swallow anything; and, the 
farther out of the course of nature the action is, the greater 
name for good fortune, or rather for the favour of divine 
providence, sliall I acquire. 


Is that the cook yonder? 


Yes ; and he also has had some share of the same gifts. 
I have rewarded him with an Attic talent : he seems to be 
laying the gold pieces side by side, or in lines and quincunxes;, 
just as if they were so many dishes. 

amacreox and fomcbates. 

to liim m<\ sev . . . Cv Jnpitcr [ tny friend, you have 

a bad letUn of fish of it to-dny ... The feflow does 

me. Let us hoi>e, Piilycrtitec, tliat it may not break 

f out. If your cook vas remiiuerated so magoificeutiy, 

It you have dooc for the fisherman ! 

b vu jiaid the jiriri! of his fish 

ally sud and done! Tour former plan was more 

To fei^ that a brazen ring was the ring of GygfS 

_ in itself nu ^ut absurdity ; but to liiy claim to the 

tittnltitn of Lydiit by tlic jxissession of it, was extrovagaut. 

' ^lu U uiiwarlike and weak, confidejit and HuperdlJoiis, and 

J liad prepared the minds of bis ofGoers by your liberality, 

" a mention the jiity and sorrow we put together over our 

, nraily to pour it forth on the blertlin}^ Iieurts of his 

ta, trtated so ougcnerously for their fidelity. Yet your 

mpic might retjnire, at least once a-year, the jiroof of 

Invuibility in public by putting on the briixen ring. 


1 deviaed as much : nothing is taster than an optical 

w, at the distauee that kings on solcmu ucru«ious keep 

e iwapie. A rluud uf iuecuM^ rising from nnder the 

inragn Mrveral small utwrtures, and other contrivances 

aditii^M. But 1 auaudoncd my tirst design, and 

CMn([Ui'riug Lydia, instead of elaimiug it from 

For, the ring of a fisherman would be too 

1 fabrication, in uic claim of n kingdom or even of 

i my word upon other oceiuion.H might be doubted. 

rstitious : there arc tho)«e about him irho will 

contend with a man so signally under the 

5 of the gods. 

ij and rest qniet and 

I, O Anacreon, ran rest anywhere quiet in his nntiTL' 
who ha* ilejirived liia fcllow<citizeus of thnr libertits ; 
i uv thfy only who have taken nothing from &Uul\ua ■, 

jt Tou lay aj^id« all ideas of 
1 (kcrt:? 


and few even of those. As^ by eating much habitually, we 
render our bodies by degrees capacious of more, and uncomfort- 
able without it, so, after many acquisitions, we think new ones 
necessary. Hereditary kings invade eadi other'a dominM^iis 
from the feelings of chilouren, the love of having and of 
destroying; their education being always bad, and their intd- 
lects for the most part low and narrow. But we who have 
great advantages over them in our mental faculties, these 
having been constantly exercised and exerted, and in our 
knowledge of men, wherein the least foolish of them are quite 
deficient, find wars and civil tumults absolutely needful to our 
stability and repose. 


By Hercules! you people in purple are very like certain 
sea-fowls I saw in my voyage from Teios hither. In fine 
weather they darted upward and downward, sidelong and cir^ 
cuitously, and fished and screamed as if all they seized and 
swallowed was a torment to them: again, when it blew a 
violent gale, they appeared to sit perfectly at their ease, buoyant 
upon the summit of the waves. 


After all, I cannot be thought to have done any great injury 
to my friends the citizens of Samos. It is true I have taken 
away what you ingenious men call their liberties : but have 
you never, my friend Anacreon, snatched from a pretty giil a 
bracelet or locket, or other such trifle ? 


Not without her permission, and some equivalent. 


I likewise have obtained the consent of the people, and have 
rendered them a great deal more than an equivalent. Formeriy 
they called one another the most opprobrious names in their 
assemblies, and sometimes even fought there ; now they nevei 
do. I entertained from the very beginning so great a r^ard 
for them, that I punished one of my brothers with death, and 
the other with banishment, for attempting to make divisions 
among them, and for impeding the measures I imdertook to 
estabUsh imanimity and order. My father had consented to 
bear alone all the toils of government; and filial pietv induced 
me to imitate his devotion to the commonwealth, llie peopk 


Lemblod to celebrate tlie festival of Juno, ami had 
the avwiucs of her temple bo imcereoioiiiously and 
ti>l;, that 1 fuuiiil it ri^rjiiisitc to stay a fen hniidreds 
to her fHorv. King Ljt^damus of Naios lent me Ins assistAuce 
to Uiii tnliitary uperatiou, wuU knowing that tiic auist of 
rojalty ill lill ctimitries, lieiiig equally sacred, should be eijuullv 

JJj awpct Poljcrotes! do not imagine that 1, or any wise 

nun npou earth, can be inti-restcd in the fate of a nation that 

ntidj to Ihr discretion of ona person. But prsj avoid those 

excrsin> which may subject the Graces to Hip TertiiK-sts. Let 

l«(iple live in peace and plenty, for your own sake; and 

-M in wur then only when btnnteuu!i ehtves are wanting. Even 

-:h it \s cheaper to buy them of the merchant, taking care 

i( ill nrry importation you hire a philosopher or poet to 

*rti-t thnn in monditv mid religion. The one will demoH- 

!■■ 'l.-i! obedience is a virtue; the other, that it is a 

-■:■■- If ap> stimulates the senses, or if youth is likely t« 

' in: i.> the ring did), not a syllnbie can I add against the 

rrasiinahlcness of conquestjt to assuage the wants of either. 

TIk ptoph; in aQ countriva must be kept in a stale of 
■cttvity : f'>r m«i in cities, and horses iu stables, grow rentive 
br slaiiiiiii^ still. It is the destuiatiou of I)otii to be patted, 
ndden, aiul whip[ied. The riding is the essential thing ; the 
jntting and wlu|iping arc accessories; and fewareverf careful 
at expert in timing them. 

In courts, where iillineis alone escapes suspicion, we must 
' I Use lights over the shallowK, or we shidl eatcli nothing, 
O PulTtnle* ! 1 ain not in the court of a prince -. 1 am 
uf a (rieuil. I might thit]«r you, if (lattery coujil 
you hapgiier : but, as yuu liave neglected nothing which 
oMild n-ndtr mj abode with you deligbtJ'ul, 1 would omit do 
■reaution. no suggestion, wliich may secure and prolong my 
.IrHUgs. lin ni)t hcUe\*G that every poet is dishonest, beouise 
<<!< arc Homer wuf not ; Solon is nut; I duubt at times 
■ \riLeT liiiy»lf am; in di^pile uf your intiuiaitive eye. My 
.'rriioii of tour wiadoui is only iihakeu hv luur aasiuiiptiou of 
t oi ^acKtton to clus^ 


jtllj, fliucG 1 con nut think it on act o 


tranquillity for alarm, or friends for soldiers^ or a couch for a 
throne, or a sound sleep for a broken one. If you doubt 
whether I love you (and every prince may reasonably entertain 
that doubt of every man around him), yet you can not doubt 
that I am attached to your good fortune, in which I have 
partaken to my heart's content, and in which I hope to continue 
a partaker. 


May the Gods grant it ! 


Grant it yourself, Polycrates, by following my counsel. 
Everything is every man's over which his senses extend. 
What you can enjoy is yours ; what you can not, is not. Of 
all the ilands in the world the most delightful and the most 
fertile is Samos. Crete and Cyprus are larger ; what then ? 
The little Teios, my own native country, affords more pleasure 
than any one heart can receive : not a hill in it but contains 
more beauty and more wine than the most restless and active 
could enjoy. Teach the Samiots, O Polycrates, to refuse you 
and each other no delight that is reciprocal and that lasts. 
Eoyalty is the farthest of all things from reciprocity, and 
what delight it gives must be renewed daily, and with difficulty. 
In the order of nature, flowers grow on every side of us : 
why take a ploughshare to uproot them ? We may show our 
strength and dexterity in guiding it for such a purpose, but 
not our wisdom. Love, in its various forms, according to 
our age, station, and capacity, is the only object of reasonable 
and just desire. I prefer that which is the easiest to give 
and to return: you, since you have chosen royalty, have 
taken the most difficult in both : yet by kindness and 
courtesy you may condhate those minds, which, once abased 
by royalty, never can recover their elasticity and strength^ 
uidess in the fires of vengeance. The gods avert it from 
you, my friend ! Do not inure your people to war : but 
instead of arming and equipping them, soften them more 
and more by peace and luxury. Let your deceit in the ring 
be your last : for men will rather be suojugated than deceived, 
not knowing, or not reflecting, that they must have been 
deceived before they could be subjugated. Let you and me 
keep this secret : that of the cook is hardly so safe. 



Perfectly, or death would have sealed it ; although my cook 
is, you know, an excellent one, and would be a greater loss 
to me than anv native of the iland. A tolerably crood 
miui^'ter of state may be found in any cargo of slaves 
that lands u]K)n the coast. Interest ensurf*s fidelity. As for 
diliicuhy, I see none : to handle great bodies requires little 
delicacv. He would m:ike in a moment a bole throuirh a 
mud-wall who could never make tlie eve of a needle : and 
it is easier to pick up a ])ompion than a single grain of dust. 
With you however who have lived among such })oople, and 
know them thoroughly, I need not discourse long about 
them, nor take the trouble to argue how impossible it is to 
blunder on so wide and smooth a road, wliere every man is 
ready with a lamp if it is dark or with a cart if it is mir}'. 
You know that a good cook is the {K-culiar gift of the gods. 
He must be a perfect creature from tlie brain to the palate, 
from the palate to the finger's end. Pleasure and di-^pieiUjure, 
siekne95 and health, Ufe and death, are coni^igned to his 
arbitration. It would be little to adil that he alone shares 
with royalty the privilege of exemption from every punish- 
ment but capital : for it would l)e madness to flog either^ and 
turn it loose. 

The story of the ring will be credited as long as I want it ; 
probably all my hfe, perhaps after. For men are suift to 
take up a miracle, and slow to dnjp it ; and wrx; to the 
impious wretch who would undt-eeive tlw-ni ! They never will 
believe that I can be unpros]>erous, until they ser m'.- put 
to death : some, even then, wonhl doubt whether it w ere I, 
and others whether I were reallv dt-ad, the dav following;. A^ 
we are in no danger of any such event, let us go and be 
crowned for the feast, and prove whether the mullet lias any 
other merits than we have vet discovered. 

Come, Anacreon, you must write an ode to Fortune, not 
forgetting her favorite. 


I dare not^ before I have written one to Juno, the patrone«s 
of Samos : but, as surely as you are uncrucified, 1 will do it 
then. Pardon me however if I should happen to praiM; the 
beautT of her eves, for I am uM-d to think niore ab^iut the 
goddess who lias the lovelie«t ; and, even if I began with the 
Jiihes, I should end in all likelihood with A^r, 



Follow your own ideas. You can not fidl, however, to 
descant on the facility with which I acquired my power, and 
the unanimity by which I retain it, under the guidance and 
protection of our patroness. I had less trouble in becoming 
the master of Samos than you will have in singing it. Indeed, 
when I consider how little I experienced, I wonder that 
liberty can exist in any country where there is one wise and 
resolute man. 


And I that tyranny can, where there are two. 


What I Anacreon, are even you at last so undisguisedly 
my adversary ? 


Silly creature ! behold the fruit of royalty ! Bottenness in 
the pulp> and bitterness in the kernel. 

Polycrates, if I had uttered tliose words before the people, 
they would have stoned me for being your enemy . . for being 
a traitor ! This is the expression of late, not applied to those 
who betray, but to those who resist or traverse the betrayer. 
To such a situation are men reduced when they abandon 
self-rule I I love you from similarity of studies and inclina- 
tions, from habit, from gaiety of heart, and because I live 
with you more conveniently than in a meaner house and 
among coarser slaves. As for the Samiots, you can not 
suppose me much interested about them. Beauty itself is 
the less fierce from servitude j and there is no person, young 
or old, who does not respect more highly the guest of 
Polycrates than the poet of Teios. You, my dear friend, 
who are a usurper, for which courage, prudence, affability, 
liberality, are necessary, would surely blush to act no better 
or more humanely than a hereditary and established king, 
the disadvantages of whose condition you yourself have 
stated admirably. Society is not yet trodden down and 
forked together by you into one and the same rotten mass, 
with rank weeds covering the top and sucking out its 
juices. Circe, when she transformed the companions of 
Ulysses into swine, took no delight in drawing their tusks 
and ringing their snouts, but left them, by special grace, in 
quiet and full possession of their new privileges and dignities. 


Ike nd if gtdBOBaan w lar ank md ife mni 

tmawty a UlsaHinS' IQIISIf 3B ulf dkUkSMJ^ OB nHT 

lim iL^ rnnr* and srnsus of iicr sobjetss. 

Xor, "Uil m* lnL7, A^uctotl if y^a kzKV of a 

I vooid; fadui far toot nke lad ict tlr 
Etcb t«r I M< Tinr even lad fr»d« I vo 

In 9cmt pccais. hin r ^ w. rem ippnr to larf i fdlow fnclini^ 
vitk the Mnx4Uu Yo& difer frc^m tbem in this : yon would 
not take die trcnliif to kiD me, ind could not find a octtvenieiit 
■our to mn ivit. 

I am too Toimg for detib, too eld for fligbt, and too com- 
fofftaUe for citbcr. As for killing you, I find it business 
OKiQgli to kiD a kid as a sacrifice to Bacrhu5. Ansvcr me 
m frankk as I answered tou. If bv accident vou met a 
gin earned off bj force would tou stop the ravisher ? 

J, if she were pretty : if not, I would leave the 
to its own punishment. 

If the offence had been perpetrated to it^i uttermost extent, 
if the girl were sflent, and if the brother unarmed should rush 
opon the perpetrator armed . . • 


I would catch him by the sleeve and stop him. 


I woidd act so in this business of yours. You have 

deflowered the virgin. Whether the action will bring after it 

the full chastisement, I know not: nor whether the laws 

will ever wake upon it, or, waking upon it, whether they will 

not hold their breath and lie quiet. ^Veazels, and other 

animals that consume our com, are strangled or poisonetl, 

aa ma^ happen : usurpers and conquerors must be taken 

off quietly in one way only, lest many perish in the attempt^ 



and lest it fail. No conspiracy of more than two persons 
ought ever to be entered into on such a business. Hence 
the danger is diminished to those concerned, and the satis- 
faction and glory are increased. Statues can be erected to 
two, not to many ; gibbets can be erected as readily to many 
as to few ; and would be ; for most conspiracies have been 
discovered and punished, while hundreds of usurpers have 
beeti removed by their cooks, their cup-bearers, and their 
mistresses, as easily, and with as little noise or notice, as a 
dish from the table, or a slipper from the bed-side. 

Banish the bloated and cloudy ideas of war and conquest. 
Continue to eat while you have anything in your mouth, par- 
ticularly if sweet or savourv, and only think of filling it again 
when it is empty. 

Croesus hath no naval force, nor have the Persians : they 
desire the fish but fear the water, and will mew and purr over 
you until they fall asleep and forget you, unless you plunge 
too loud and glitter too near. Ihey would have attacked you 
in the beginning, if they had ever wished to do it, or biBen 
ignorant that kings have an enemy the less on the ruin of 
every free nation. I do not tell you to sit quiet, any more 
than I would a man who has a fever or an ague, but to sit as 
quiet as your condition will permit. If you leave to others 
their enjoyments, they will leave yours to you. Tyrants never 
perish from tyranny, but always from folly; when their 
fantasies build up a palace for which the earth has no founda- 
tion. It then becomes necessary, they think, to talk about 
their similitude to the gods, and to tell the people, " We 
have a right to rule you, just as they have a right to rule us : 
the duties they exact from us, we exact from you : we are 
responsible to none but to them.^' 


Anacreon ! Anacreon ! who, in the name of Hermes, ever 
talked thus since the reign of Salmoneus ? People who would 
listen to such inflated and idle arrogance, must be deprived, 
not of their liberties only, but their senses. Lydians or 
Carians, Cappadocians or Carmanians, would revolt at it : I 
myself would tear the diadem from my brow, before I would 
commit such an outrage on the dignity of our common nature. 
A little fallacy, a little fraud and imposture, may be requisite 
to our office, and principally on entering it ; there is however 


no need to tell the people that we^ on our consciences, lay the 
public accounts before Jupiter for his signature ; that, if there 
IS any surplus, we will return it hereafter ; but that, as honest 
and pious men, their business is with him, not with us. 

My dear Anacreon, you reason speciously, which is better 
in most cases than reasoning soundly ; for many are led by it 
mnd none offended. But as there are pleasures in poetry 
which I can not know, in like manner there are pleasures in 
lOTalty which you can not. Say what you will, we have this 
advantage over you. Sovrans and poets alike court us ; they 
alike treat you with malignity and contumely. Do you 
imagine that Hylactor, supposing him to feign a little in 
regard to me, really would on any occasion be so enthusiastic 
in your favour as he was in mine ? 


Ton allude to the village-feast, in which he requested from 
▼our hand the cup you liad poured a libation from, and 


The very instance I was tliinkiiig on. 


Hylactor tells a story delightfully, and his poetry is better 
than most poets will allow. 


I do not think it . . I speak of the poetry. 


Now, my dear Polycrates, without a word of flattery to you, 
on these occasions you are as ignorant as a goat-herd. 


I do not think that either. 


Who does, of himself? Yet poetry and the degrees of it 
are just as difficult to mark and circumscribe, as love and 




An are madmen who first draw out hidden truths. 


Tou are envious of Hylactor, because on that'da^ 1 IvoA 


given him a magnificent dress^ resembling those of the 


I can go naked at my own expense. I wonld envy him (if 
it gave me no tronble) his lively fancy, his convivial fun, and 
his power to live in a crowd, which 1 can do no longer than a 
trout can in the grass. What I envied on that day, I had. 
When with eyes turned upward to you, modestly and reve- 
rentially, he entreated the possession of the beechen bowl out 
of which you had taken one draught, I, with like humility of 
gesture and similar tone of voice, requested I might be 
possessor of the barrel out of which you had taken bui one. 
The people were silent at his request; they were rapturous at 
mine : one excepted. 


And what said he ? 


"By Bacchus 1'^ he exclaimed, "I thought sycophants were 
the most impudent people in the world : but, Anacreon, verfly 
thou surpassest them : thou puttest them out of countenance, 
out of breath, man \" 

Your liberality was, as usual, enough for us ; and, if Envy 
must come in, she must sit between us. Really the dress, 
coarse as it was, that you gave Placoeis, the associate of 
Ilylactor, would have covered Tityus : nay, would have made 
winding-sheets, and ample ones, for all the giants, if indeed 
their mother Earth enwrapt their bones in any. Meditating 
the present of such another investiture, you must surprise or 
scale Miletus ; for if, in addition to the sheep of Samos, the 
cows and oxen, the horses and swine, the goats and dogs, 
were woolly, the fleeces of ten years would be iusuflBcient. As 
Placoeis moved on, there were exclamations of wonder on all 
sides, at all distances. "Another *Epeus must have made 
that pageant!" was the cry: and many were trodden under 
foot from wishing to obtain a sight of the rollers. His heat, 
like the sun's, increased as he proceded ; and those who kept 
egg-stalls and fish-stalls cursed him and removed them. 


We will feast again no less magnificently when I return 
from my victory on the continent. There are delicate perfumes 
and generous wines and beautiful robes at Sardis. 

* Framer of the Tnjjan Hone, 




Man^ nations^ O Xerxes, have risen higher in power, but 
no nation rose ever to the same elevation in glory as the 


For which reason, were there no other, I would destroy it ; 
then all the glory this troublesome people have acquirea will 
fall unto me in addition to my own. 


The territory, ves; the glory, no. The solid earth may 
yield to the mighty: one particle of glory is never to be 
detacht from the acquirer and possessor. 


Artabanus ! Artabanus ! thou speakest more like an Athenian 
than a Persian. If thou forgettest thy country, remember at 
least thy race. 


I owe duty and obedience to my King ; I owe truth both 
to King and country. Years have brought me experience. 


And timidity. 


Yes, before God. 


And not before the monarch ? 


My last word said it. 


I too am pious ; yea, even more devout than thou. Was 
there ever such a sacrifice as that of the thousand beeves, 
which on the Mount of lUon I offered up in supplication to 
Athene? I think it impo$.sible the gods of Hellas should 
refuse mc victory over such outcasts and barbarians in return 
for a thousand head of cattle. Never was above a tenth of 
the number offered up to them before. Indeed, I do>\\:A 


whether a tenth of that tenth come not nearer to the amount : 
for tlie Greeks are great boasters, and, in their exceeding 
cleverness and roguery, would chuckle at cheating the 
eagerly expectant and closely observant gods. What sayest 


About the Greeks I can say nothing to the contrary : but 
about the gods a question is open. Are they more vigorous, 
active, and vigilant, for the thousand beeves ? Certain it is 
that every Mcde and Persian in the army would have improved 
in condition after feasting on them : as they might all have 
done for many days. 


But their feasting or fasting could have no influence on 
the gods, who, according to their humour at the hour, might 
either laugh or scowl at them. 


I know not the will of llim above; for there is only one; 
as our fathers and those before them have taught us. Ignorant 
Greeks, when they see the chariot of his representative drawn 
before thee by white horses, call liim Zeus. 


Mithra, the sun, we venerate. 


Mithra we call the object of our worship. One sits above 
the sun, observes it, watches it, and replenishes it perpetually 
with his own light to guide the walk of the seasons. He 
gives the sun its beauty, its strength, its animation. 


I worship him devoutly. But if one God can do us good, 
fifty can do us more, aided by demigods and heroes. 


Could fifty lamps in a royal chamber add light to it when 
open to the meridian ? 


No doubt they could. 


Are they wanted ? 


Perhaps not. They must be, even there, if the sun should 
go behind a cloud. 


^^■Ood avert tlie omen ! 

^Hpt have lietl^r omens in nbuudancc. I am confiiJcnt, I am 
^^■Rhnn oTsacccHs. Ttm luorc puwcrrul and tbe more noble of 
VptGred(!i, tiic AUieniiuiSj Spuriiiiis, Thissaliaiis, are with me, 
n milj' to joia me. 

How many of tlicm, fugitives from their country, or traiton 
to it, ran bi- Lrusttd ? 

TV Alrnaibi from Larissa, country of Achilles, whoae 

inlfhml maunil wu visit^id, offer me tlieir submission and 

■- ■ -tiolil!. on the borders of (heir territory. The 

■- of Pi»i4ralu», with till- Kin^ of S|>(Uia,iirtt under 

mil, and obfdieiit to wiv will. Thfy who have 

iif power, lawful or uiduwful, are always Ihc most 

■ neniiai of their country. Whether thcv return to 

-r by treachery, or bj persuasion and tbe fickleness 

ii', liiey rule with rigour. Ashamed of eompliinty 

li r, tlie nibble, tbe soldiery, the priests, tile nobles, 

iih urclaiuiktiuns, ami wait only to raise louder, until 

itura] or violent {but violent and natural are hero 

, -luiU deliver them again from tbeir bondage. Thrn 

uiuiiidi iu\ lumd afresh over the people and drawcth it gently 

b»ck unto me. Kcsistancc is vain. Uarc I not commanded 

llw rvfiwiory and insolent sea I.0 lie scourgetl P and not for 

(iisobeTin;f uiy ordws, which it never dart-d, but in itiv ab.*ence 

for designing my bridge. The stnlniee hatli already been 

cwTM-d inlu cxeeution. Never more in my proximity and 

I my {ietriiueiil will it presume to be tumultuous and 


Kin^ ! thy power a awful, is irresistible ;* but can the 

ktrtioem can ; and these waves were mutineers. They bias 
S roar and foam, and swell and sink down ajrnin ; and never 
anr quiH. 'Hiis, O Artabiiiiuii, t» so like undiiu^iplined men, 
liiMt It appears to me tliey also may feel. Whether they do or 


not, terror is stricken into the bearts of the beholders. No 
exertion of superior power but works npon the senses of nun- 
kind. Men are always the most obedient to, and follow the 
most vociferously, those who can and who do chastise, whether 
them or others. A trifle of benefit, bestowed on them after- 
ward, drops like balm into the wound : but balm the most 
precious and the most sanitary drops insensibly on an un- 
wounded part. Behold ! here come into my presence, to be 
reviewed at my leisure, the silver shields. To what perfect 
discipline have I brought my army ! Its armature is either 
the admiration or the terror of the universe. What sayest 

Certainly our Median and Persian cavalry is excellent. In 
regard to the armature, which former kings and generals 
devised, I entreat the liberty to remark, that its brightness 
and gorgeousness are better adapted to attract the fancies of 
women and boys, than to strike terror into martial men. 


Look thou again, if thine eyes can endure the splendour, 
look thou again at my body-guard, and at their silver shields, 
and at their spears with golden pomegranates at the 
nearer end. 


Permit me to inquire, of what utility are these golden 
pomegranates ? They stick not into the ground, which some- 
times is needful ; they are injurious to the arm in grasping; 
more injurious in evolution, and may sometimes be handles 
for the enemy. Metal breast-plates, metal corselets, metal 
shields, silver or brass, are unwieldy and wearisome, not only 
by the weight but by the heat, especially at that season of the 
year wlien armies are most in activity. 


What wouldst thou have ? What wouldst thou suggest ? 


I would have neither horse-hair nor plumage, nor other 
ornament, on the helmet, which arc inconvenient to the soldier, 
but are convenient to the enemy. Helmets, alike for cavalry 
and infantry, should in form be conical, or shaped as the ked 
of a ship. In either case, a stroke of the sword, descending 
on it, would more probably glance off, without inflicting a 

XERXfS iNli ARTAB4NU8, 59 

But I would remlcr llirin less ln;a»y, nnd less subject 
e inBuence of heat aiid cold. 

e are matcriiils. Cork, ti^o tiiigers lirtadtU in tliickness, 
*h well-seasoned, straiued, and levigated leather, 
t llio purpose botli for hehiiet and eorwlct, and 
kindr, oRcn resist, botli eword and spear. 

Ilj Toungrr soldiers, especial!; the officers, would take Uttle 
'e in Bocli equipment. 

•r pride of tlic officer uoght to be in t)ic rffiricticr and 
rt of tlip soldier. Ijittt-rlj' I have UeTi grieved to see 
nd idle voung persoiis introduce nllemlioiis which wisi;r 
igh at, and b; which the enemy only, ant) their tailor, 
Wo should be more efficient if we were less 

Efficient ! what can excell us ? 

I my King! Our aiioestora have excelled finr ancestor* 
kiious iiniirovenieiits and inventions : our cliildren nuT 
1 us. Vr'licre is that bi-yond which there is nothing? 
it would be our calamity, for great our disgrace and shame, 
I, in nny action, however sliglit and partial, should 
c iinidlmi part of our armieH. And Uiere tm 
a «h<ue bodies are more active, whose vigibuice more 
, whose abstinence more enduring, and whose armour 
I impedimental, than ours, I blush at some of our 
■rat and best generals giving way so easily to fantas' 
ineipcrienccd idlers, who never saw a bntlle even 
alcouy or a tower. ^Vhu is ho that would not 
lid venerate gn.<y hiiirsP but, seeing nuch dereliction 
tj, such n-laiali(iu of duly, such unworthy subserviency, 
1 ? Every soldier should he able to swim, and should 
I cvnj facility for doing it. Corselets of the form 1 
"■ ' would enoblr whole bodicn of troorw to cross broad 
ivers, and wotild nave a grcal nunibcr of pontoons, 
r caniagi'-H, and their bullocks. No BhieUl would be 


necessary; so that every soldier, Mede and Persian, would 
have one hand the more out of two. Let the barbarous 
nations in our service use only their own weapons ; it is inex- 
pedient and dangerous to instruct them in better. 


There is somewhat of wisdom, but not much, O Artabanus, 
in thy suggestions ; had there been more, the notions would 
first have occurred to me. But with the arms which our 
men already bear we are perfectly a match for the Greeks, who, 
seeing our numbers, ^ill fly. 


TVTiither ? From one enemy to another ? Believe me, sir, 
neither Athenian nor Spartan will ever fly. If he loses this 
one battle, he loses life or freedom ; and he knows it. 


I would slay onlv the armed. The women and children I 
would in part divide among the bravest of my army, and in 
part I would settle on the barren localities of my dominions, 
whereof there are manv. 


Humanely and royally spoken : but did it never once occur 
to an observer so sagacious, that thousands and tens of 
thousands, in your innumerable host, would gladly occupy and 
cultivate those desert places, in wliich an Athenian would pine 
away ? Immense tracts of your dominions are scantily inhabited. 
Two million men are taken from agriculture and other works 
of industry, of whom probably a tliird would have married, 
another third would have had children bom unto them from 
the wives they left behind: of these thousands and tens of 
thousands God only knows how many may return. Kot only 
losses are certain ; but wide fields must lie uncultivated, much 
cattle be the prey of wild beasts throughout the empire, and 
more of worse depredators, who never fear the law, but always 
the battle, and who skulk behind and hide themselves, to fall 
upon what unprotected property has been left by braver men. 
Unless our victory and our return be speedy, your providence 
in collecting stores, during three entire years, will have been 
vain. Already the greater part (four-fifths at the lowest com- 
putation) hath been consumed. Attica and Sparta could not 
supply a sufBciency for two millions of men additional, and three 
hundred thousand horses, two months. Provender will soon 

intiag for Wk aiukD&ncc of their own frw cattlr : snmmer 
■ bavf comtncut'tHl ; nutitinri is disUtDt, aud unpruiiiising. 

P'Diafrection 1 disalTectioii I Artabarios, beware ! I love 
' fkUter'a btothtr; but not even my fathnr'a broihor shall 
■' a despoodcncv or disquietude intg my breast, Well do 
mtKr thy oouiiecI oguinst this expedition. 

ud before I gave my 

I^Thou thraelf for awhile, king, 
^^^—iti, diJat doubt and hesitate. 

I THt holy Drenm enlightened me: and thou also wert furt%d 
i B^iiawledge the visit^lioii of the same. Awful and supcr- 
'~ la was the Apparition. Never bad I bebeved that evcu a 
r would tbrcatcu Xcrses. A second time, when I had 
a apiuu to doubt and hesifjite, it appeared Wort' me ; the 
) atatrlT li^n-, the siime nitnaoin)^ ntlitude, nearer and 
Jr. Tliou will acknowledge, O Artnbunus. tliat in ibis 
', or ODC more terrible, be cainc likewise unUi tliee. 

Conunanded by my king to enter his citamhcr and to »]eep 
iu his l»ed, I ihd no. llijcouree on the invasion of On-cce 
had animnle-'l sumt- at supiwr, mid deprest others. Wine 
Ntun-d freely into the cups etpially of these and of those, 
mius, educated by tlic wisest of the Ma^, and beloved 
vtU of than, was long iu confcreuco with his old preceptor. 
_^ il tho close they wen: there alone. Wearied, and fearful 
of oAcnding, I ry-lired, and Icfl tliem togt^tlicr. 1'he royal 
licdcluunbcT hnd ninny ta|)ers in various [wrtH of it: dv 
difftK* they grew more and tnnre dim, hreatliiog forth such 

rat royalty alone is privileged to inhale. Slumber came 
e; heavy sleep succeeded. 
:' lilli me, tlie first night 
\ <■! have persuaded me 
■ ii-'iaut and less uri^-ul. 
,. ._.. . ;-oi? Nevertheless, I a. 
■Hu uaiuuM^kd by perpleuties. 

and the second, 
bad dreumn and 
What pious man 
stil surrounded 



The powerful, the generous, the confiding, always are ; kings 

Mardonius, I begin to suspect, is desirous of conquering 
Greece principally in order to become satrap of that country. 


He is young ; he may be and ought to be ambitious, but I 
believe him to be loyal. 

Artabanus! thou art the only one about me who never 
spoke ill, or hinted it, of another. 


I have never walkt in the path of evil-doers, and know 
them not. 


Portunate am I that a man so wise and virtuous hath come 
over to my opinion. The Vision was irresistible. 


It confirmed, not indeed my opinion, but the words formerly 
told me by a Mage now departed. 


What words? Did he likeiRise foresee and foretell my 
conquest of Hellas ? 


I know not whether he foresaw it : certainly he never fore- 
told it unto me. But wishing to impress on my tender mind 
(for I was then about the age of puberty) the power apper- 
taining to the Mages, he declared to me, among other wonaers, 
that the luglier of them could induce sleep, of long continuance 
and profound, by a movement of the hand ; could make the 
sleeper utter his inmost thoughts ; could inspire joy or terror, 
love or hatred ; could bring remote things and remote persons 
near, even the future, even the dead. Is it impossible that the 
Dream was one of them ? 


I am quite lost in the darkness of wonder; for never hast 
thou been known to utter an untruth, or a truth disparaging 
to the Mages. Their wisdom is unfathomable ; their know- 
ledge is unbounded by the visible world in which we live: 



empire is vast even u mine. But lake hred : who 
» but the gods themselves are creaturr^ of tlieir bunds ! 
hair raises up mj' diadem at the awful thuught. 

TTic just man, O Xcncs, walks humbly in the presence of 
hia God, but walks fearlessly. Deities of many nations are 
vitliiii (lijr tents; ajid each of them is tliouglit llie most 
powerfut, the only true one, by his worshiper. Some, it is 
?v{iortMt, arc jealoiis : if so, the worshiper is, or may be, better 
than they are. The courts and pavilions of others arc repre- 
acDtnl by their bymuers iis GUi-d nilti coals and smoke, and 
with cluriols and instruments of sluuglit^r. Those arc the 
Oettio uf sct'luded regiims and gloomy in ingi nations. Wc are 
now uuid a |Kople of more lively and wore genial faitJi. 

I ii,;.,lr ilinr gods are easy to propitiate, and worth pro- 
The same singrr who cdebntt«d the valour of 

■ :]\ described in another poem the re^idenei: of these 

■ .'(• they I«id <|uiet lives above Ihe winds and 

■:■. here frost never binds the purt! illimitable expanse ; 
1.1 never whirls around; where lightning never 
I lit temperate warmth and clearest light arc evermore 

.Surb I* the description which the sons of Ilipparchus have 
r^naLUcd for my amu-ionient from the singer. 

\Vbalrvcr be tlie qnarrul!< in tlic vim'ous tents, extending 
; .iny lutd many panL-angs in every direction, Uicre is no 
i^uml r>r dittturbani^e itbout the objects of veiicnition. 
Iliubuous are many of the nations under thee, but none 
xt barbaroDa. There may be such across the Daaubo and 
toon the Adriatic ; old regions of fable ; countries where there 
^p«v lotrigons and Cyclopses, and men tunied into svinc ; 
KAn may he iunid Ibe wastm of ScylhiN, where Gryphons are 


to guard dav and night treasures of gold buried deep 
t)ic rocks, and to feed insatinblv on Ixunan blood and 

; but none, O happv king, within the regions, intcx- 
they arc, under tiic bcnelieent sway of thy sccptiv. 

B huntsman knows bow to treat dogs thai i^uaiM m ^\vt 


kennel ; moreover he perceives the first symptoms of the itiAi, 
and his arrow is upon the string. 

Ancient times and modem have seen annihilated two great anniea ; the 
greatext of each ; that of Xerxes and that of Napoleon. Xerxes was neithnr 
the more ambitious of these invaders nor the more powerful, but greaUj 
the more provident. Three years together he had been storing magannei 
in readiness for his expedition, and had collected fresh provisioDi in 
abumiance on Ids march. Napoleon marcht where none had been or could 
be collected, instead of taking the road by Danzic, in which fortress wen 
ample stoi*es for his whole army until it should reach Petersburg l^ the 
coaist. No hostile fleet could intercept such vessels as would convej both 
grain and muuition. The ni>bility of Moscow would have rejoiced at the 
debt met ion of a sui>er?eding city, become the seat of empire. Whether 
winter came on ten days earDcr or later, snow was sure to blockade and 
&mish the army in Moscow ; the importation of provisions (had sufficiency 
existed within reach) and the march northward, were equally impractioaUe. 
Napoleon left behind him a signal example that strategy is only a 
constituent part of a commander. In his Russian camptaign even this wti 
wanting. Xerxes lost his army not so totally as Nnpoleon lost his: 
Xerxes in great measure by the valour and skill of his enemy : Napole<m 
by his ovm imprudence. The faith of Xerxes was in his Dream, Napoleon's 
in his Star : the Dream was illusory, the Star a fidling one. 



Sophocles ! is there in the world a city so beautiful as 
Athens ? Congratulate me, embrace me ; the Piraeus and the 
Poecile are completed this day;* my glory is accomplished; 
behold it founded on the supremacy of our fellow-citizens. 


And it arises, O Pericles, the more majesticaUy bom the 
rich and delightful plain of equal laws. The gods have 
bestowed on our statuaries and painters a mighty power, 
enabling them to restore our ancestors unto us, some in the 
calm of thought, others in the tumult of battle, and to present 
them before our children when we are gone. 

* Their decorations only ; for the structures were finished before. The 
propylea of Pericles were entrances to the citadel : other works of con- 
Bummate beauty were erected as ornaments to the city, but chiefly in the 
Poccild, where also was seen the Temple of Cybele, with her statue by 


Q it be SO P Ala-s how worthless an incumbrance, how 

me nn impwlimcnt is lifr, if it separate us from the 

r of <«ir sncwtors, not in our existeuct- only, but in our 

It! We an* little b^ being seen among men; because 

■MS of us only is visible which is ejiposeil tawnrd tliem 

I which most resembles them ; we become greater by 

j the world, as the sun apjKars to be on (lescending 

r the horiMn. Strange reflection ! humiliating truth I 

t BDthing on earth, no exi-rlion, no endowment, c:in do so 

li for u> iiK u disbmt iluv. And deep indeed, Sophocles, 

t be t)w im{iressiou matle upon tli)' mind by tht^se umsterly 

''» of art, if they annihilate in a manner tlie lWiti\^ ; if they 

in thee that spirit which hath often aroused br one 

, or rather flash, the whole Athenian people at thy 

J and force upon thee the cold and nngcnial bclielj 

t which it appr-ars 1^ be their nature to inculcate, tli&t 

T children an- in existence it can cease to be tunoug 

1 only the interprelcr of the heroes and divinities who 
(looking down on me. When I nurtry ihem [ remember 
pjr acttottf, and when I dqiart from tlicm I visit the regions 
n ilhutnted. 

NeitliFr the gochlesses on Ida nor the gods before Troy 

~ ( stich rivals as cmr artists. J-ischyhis hath !<ur]ias«cd 

' I innst c\ec!l .'Est-hjius. O Pericles, thou conjurcst Up 

mtdit from the bosom of Delight, and givest lier an 

I (if mien and chanicli-r she never knew before : thou 

Trry man grealer tlinn his ewmjwtitor, and not in bis 

B fyes but in another'si. We want historians: lliy eloc|uenre 

in the style, thy administration will supply l)ie materials. 

i my friend, lest the people hereafter bi- too proud of 

dr city, and imagiuD that to have been bora in Atlieiis is 


J on tliD utiicr an: «!«>}■ ivulf 

The cliuiuHsr ol Suphncln <ra* 

T*il on tiut Jnth of tiia Ual rival. 



And this indeed were hardly more irrational, than the pride 
which cities take sometimes in the accident of a man's oirUi 
within their walls, of a citizen's whose experience was acquired, 
whose virtues were fostered, and perhaps whose services were 
performed, elsewhere. 


They are proud of having been the cradles of great men, 
then only when great men can be no longer an incumbrance or 
a reproach to them. Let them rather boast of those who 
spend the last day in them than the first; this is always 
accidental, that is generally by choice ; for, from something 
like instinct, we wish to close our eyes upon the world in the 
places we love best, the child in -its mother's bosom, the 
patriot in his country. When we are born we are the same 
as others: at our decease we may induce our friends, and 
oblige our enemies, to acknowledge that others are not the 
same as we. It is folly to say, Death levels the whole human 
race : for it is only when he hath stripped men of everything 
external, that their deformities can be clearly discovered or 
their worth correctly ascertained. Gratitude is soon silent ; a 
little while longer and Ingratitude is tired, is satisfied, is 
exhausted, or sleeps. Lastly fly off the fumes of party-spini ; 
the hottest and most putrid ebullition of self-love. We then 
see before us and contemplate calmly the creator of our 
customs, the ruler of our pa^^sions, the arbiter of our pleasures, 
and, under the gods, the disposer of our destiny. What 
then, 1 pray thee, is there dead ? Nothing more than that 
which we can handle, cast down, bury; and surely not he 
who is yet to progenerate a more numerous and far better 
race, than during the few years it was permitted us to converse 
with him. 


When I reflect on Tliemistocles, on Aristides, and on the 
greatest of mortal men, Miltiades, I wonder how their 
countrymen can repeat their names, unless in performing the 
office of expiation.* 

* There are some who may deem this reflection unsuitable to Periclw. 
He saw injustice in others, and hated it : yet he caused the banishment of 
Oimon, as great a man as any of the three. It is true he had afterward 
the glory of proposing and of carrying to Sparta the decree of his z«call. 


K Cities ttre ignnrant that nolliiiig ii* more disgraceful to Ihein 
1 (a bi; the birth*placea of the iilnttriouslj good, aiid nut 
' Uip places of their resident; that their dignity 
in adorning them with (listinclions, in entrusting to 
n the tegolation of the coinmotiwcalth, and not in having 
1 s cnul or cordial to the nurse or midwife. 

I O Zeus and Pallas ! grant a right mind to the Athenians t 

f throngliuuL »D many and i^iirli nenlful ages, they havn 

I found by jou ilewrviiig of their freedom, render them 

e anil mon- worthy of the greiit blessing you bestowed on 

May the vidour of our children defend this mole for 

r; and constantly may their patriotism increase and 

Dgtbcii among these glorious rcmmiseciices t Shield them 

Btbc jealousy of surrounding Mates, from the ferocity of 

wrian kings, and from the i)crlidy of those who profess the 

e reh'gion t Teaeh them that between tlie de«pot and the 

e all compact is a cable of mud, and every alhan<% unholy 1 

1, given* of power and wisdom ! n-move from ihcm tnc 

t am) wildest of itlutiions, that happiness, liberty, virtue, 

Hit, will be fostered or long respected, much leas attain 

ir juat ascendancy, under any other form of government I 

lay the gods hi-ar tin*', Periclej, a-t they Imve nlwnvs done! 
f t, rrp09>ing in my tomb, never know Ihul ifiey luve 
. »nl thee ! 

Ft BHiile on imagining how trivial would thy patriotism and 
uf government appear to Cblorus. And indeed much 
, from the prejudices of habit and edtication, have 
m, preferring the deail quiet of their wintry 
E*'tD our brecxy spring of life aiid busy summer. The 

iDt«inp1ato tbo htighler sirJo uf UU i')iftmct«r, Uii uIi>>]uvd«s. bis 
hlsL'Iaiiiuicy. hl> jailgiueat. hu flrniuoB, Ilia r«gukritf, bii ileeonn»' 
tut domwtwit)' : lu( u* llmu uiillo biln vitli hk jircdtcjior, asd 
rlodgo tiiU (Ufli illuiUl'iu* rivkl* never mvt InTun or uun, (n 
r in frimliliip. IJould tL* piutjr uttributotl t-i I'vriDlaa Lne 
lo a icfaolar of Anou^rwl EloqucDI itira vftvii talk Uta 
Biaa : ami >b*n ahoulit Uia cI(k|iuiuw of Pvriiilm ba tnont 
hj •iitliiMiuui tlion III tba DiidM of bla pTDpflo*, at tba alii* «[ 
I, and tMfore the gmU of HiUliu I 


countries of the vine and olive are more subject to hailstorms 
than the regions of the north : yet is it not better that some 
of the fruit should fall than that none should ripen P 


Quit these creatures ; let them lie warm and slumber; they 
are all they ought to be, all they can be. But prythee who is 
Chloros, that he should deser\'e to be named by Sophocles ? 


He was bom somewhere on the opposite coast of Euboea, 
and sold as a slave in Persia to a man who dealt largely in 
that traffic, and who also had made a fortune by displaying to 
the public four remarkable proofs of ability : first, by swallow- 
ing at a draught an amphora of the strongest wine ; secondly, 
by standing up erect and modulating his voice like a sober 
man when he was drunk ; thirdly, by acting to perfection like 
a drunken man when he was sober ; and fourthly, by a most 
surprising trick indeed, which it is reported he learnt in 
Babylonia : one would have sworn he had a blazing fire in his 
mouth ; take it out, and it is nothing but a lump of ice. The 
king, before whom he was admitted to play his tricks, hated 
him at first, and told him that tlie last conjuror had made him 
cautious of such people, he having been detected in filching 
from the royal tiara one of the weightiest jewels : but talents 
forced their way. As for Chloros, I mention him by the 
name under which I knew him ; he has changed it since ; for 
although the dirt wherewith it was encrusted kept him com- 
fortable at first, when it cracked and began to crumble it was 

The barbarians have commenced, I understand, to furbish 
their professions and vocations with rather whimsical skirts 
and linings : thus for instance a chessplayer is lum-hearUd 
and worshipful; a drunkard is serenity and highness; a hunter 
of fox, badger, polecat, fitchew, and weazel, is excellency and 
right honourable ; while, such is the delicacy of distinction, a 
rat-catcher is considerably less : he however is illustrious^ and 
appears, as a tail to a comet, in the train of a legation, holding 
a pen between his teeth to denote his capacity for secretary, 
and leading a terrier in the right hand, and carrying a trap 
baited with cheese and anise-seed in the left. 

It is as creditable among them to lie with dexterity as H is 



rnmon mmoMi^ the R])arlnns to »Ua\. Chlonis, who pcr- 

rniHl it »itti viiij^uliir I'rauknt^ss and composure, had rccctitljr 
I lock's fi-alhfr luouiitcd oii his turban, in place of a lien's, tlic people was conmiandvd to address liitn by tlie title of 
it HiAJe. Hit brother AK'itarctL-^ was employed at u stipend 

[ four Uilcnt» to dutcet an adultrrsa in one among tlie royal 
■ ivi-!i: III.- giivc no inli41i(;eii(;e in t)ie conrse of several months: 
thr (.111^ nil his return cried ruii^rily, " What hast thou been 
dijiiii;:- li:i_^t thuii never found her out?" lie answered, 
"Tliv s< rvunl, O king, hath been doing more than Imding out 

&»3tiltrcss : he hath, O king, been making one," 

PI have huurd the story willi lliis difltrenee, that tho bcd- 

' >T Irt'liig lis scantily giflcd with fw^eliousnrss ns with 

ty, the reply was fruitied Batlrii'Jilly by some other 

who, imitating his impudence, hiul forgotleii his 

, Hut about the reward of falseliood, that is wonderful, 

c rcati tliat formerly Iha Persians were occupied many 

I ID llir n)lf study of truth. 

l«Bow difficult tjien miul they Ituve found it! No wonder 
Mjr iefi it off tlie first mumeut they could conveiiieutly. Tlie 
mnd&thcr of Chloroa was honest : he earrieil a pack upon 
his shouldrn, in wbieh pack were conlainrd the coarser liuens 
at Ctm : tlieac he retailed Htnonjf the viUa^cs of Asia and 
at, but prineipaJly in the ihind«, IJe died: on the 
lir of war the mm and graiidMUi, (hen au infiuil, tiejl : the 
I is told. In I'cniia no aam inqnirm lum another coines 
"til iir power, tlic suddenness of which appears to be 
I br *ome of tlie demons or ftcnii of thejr songs and 
Chloros grew rich, woe ciunm-ipoteti from slavery, 

I boof^hi severul slaveji himself. One of th(«e was exceM- 

trvly rude and inwilent to me : 1 hiu) uoeic mar enough to 
liiiit, HO thai I reijuested of hia ina-iler, by a frieui), 1o 
I .>i<d o'lrreet him at hia leisure. My friend iufonDS 
' '' - 'nj^sing his legs, and drawing his cock'a 
lliunib and finger, asked InngnidW who I 
.K- an«wrr, said, "I am nurpriM-u at Ida 
i ' hnnneir could have dfitionded nolliing 
\\j fiicid ri-niurki-d lliut Supliuclcs wtis no teu 


sensible of an affront than Pericles. "True/' replied he, 
" but he has not the power of expressing his sense of it quite 
so strongly. For an affront to Pericles, who could dreadfully 
hurt me, I would have imprisoned my whole gang, whipt 
them with wires, mutilated them, turned their bodies into 
safes for bread and water, or cooled their prurient tongues 
with hemlock : but no slave shall ever shrug a shoulder the 
sorer or eat a leek the less for Sophocles.'' 


The ideas of such a man on government must be curious : I 
am persuaded he would prefer the Persian to any. I forgot to 
mention that, according to what I hear this morning, the great 
king has forbidden strange ships to sail within thirty parasaugs 
of his coasts, and has claimed the dominion of half ours. 


Where is the scourge with which Xerxes lashed the ocean ? 
Were it not better laid on the back of a madman than placed 
within his hand ? 


It hath been obsen ed by those who look deeply into the 
history of physics, that all royal families become at last insane. 
Immoderate power, like other intemperance, leaves the progeny 
weaker and weaker, until Mature, as in compassion, covers it 
with her mantle and it is seen no more, or until the arm of 
indignant man sweeps it from before him. 

We must ere long excite the other barbarians to invade the 
territories of this, and before tlie cement of his new acquisitions 
shall have hardened. Large conquests break readily off from 
an empire by their weight, while smaller stick fast. A wide 
and rather waste kingdom should be interposed between the 
policied states and Persia, by the leave of Chloros. Perhaps 
he would rather, in his benevolence, unite us with the great and 
happy family of his master. Despots are wholesale dealers in 
equality; and, father Zeus I was ever equality like this ? 


My dear Pericles ! . . do excuse a smile . . is not that the best 
government wliich, whatever be the form of it, we ourselves are 
called upon to administer ? 


The Piraeus and the Pcecile have a voice of their own 



ith to answer thw, Sopbocles I and the Atlicnians, 
ipt from W«r, famine, tax, debt, exile, fine, imprisonment, 
i»erril from motittrcliy, from olignrchy, and from iinareliy, 
liking along their porlieues, inhalin;; their sra-hreczes, 
•irninj^ their gods daily for fresh Messings, and their 
ildfEii f<ir deserving them, reply to this voice by the sjm- 
■ny of their applause. Ilarkl my words arc not idle, 
■thi-r come the youth* and virgins, the sires and matrons ; 
:hcr come citizen and soldier . . 

I A xdecism from Pericle* ! Hna the most eloqtiPnt of men 

_Mea the Attic laitiruiige? lias he forgotti-n the hingungc 

tall Greece? Can tue father of his country he ignorant 

"^ I he should have said bitlior eomet' for citizen and soldier 


f The fault is graver tlinri the re|iro<>f, or indee/l than simple 
» of liHiguagi- : my cyca misled my tongue : a Urge 
Itton r>f tlie rilixcna i^ nnncd. 
\ O what an oduiir of thyme and bay and myrtle, and from 
"" t • distance, bruised hy tlie procession ! 

tWIiol regular and full harmony I What a splendour and 
e uf white dresses [ painful to aged eyes and dangerous 

n distinguish many voices from among others. Some of 
D lute blessed nie for defending thinr innocence before the 
•»; fome for exhorting (Jrci-CD to unanimity ; some for mj 
e uf friends. All surely llios* sing sweetest! (hose are 
I, LSophoclea I that »luke my heart with tenderness, 
ess passing love, and excite it above the tnimtud and 
B ^robftL llelum we to the gods : tlie crowd is waving the 
-ha of olive, culling as by name, and closing to salute as. 

i eiUdd of Pallas, more llian all other ritadrls may the 
t uf wisilom niid of wjir pr(>tM>t thee I and never may 
e tongue be heard within thy walls, unless from captive 


Qro Pericles! and inspire into thy people the suul that 
J these heroes round na. 


Hail, men of Athens! Pass onward ; leave me ; I follow. Go; 
behold the Gods, the Demigods, and Pericles ! 

Artemidoros ! come to my right. No : better walk between 
us ; else they who run past may knock the flute out of your 
hand, or push it every now and then from the lip ! Have you 
received the verses I sent you in the morning ? soon enough 
to learn the accents and cadences ? 


Actaios brought them to me about sunrise; and I raised 
myself up in bed to practise them, wliile he sat on the edge of 
it, shaking the dust ofl' his sandals all over the chamber, by 
beating time. 


Begin we. 

The colours of thy waves 01*6 not the same 

Dav after day, Poseidon ? nor the same 

The fortunes of the land wherefrom arose 

Under thy trident the brave friend of man. 

Wails have been heard from women, sterner breasts 

Have sounded with the desperate pang of grief. 

Gray hairs have strown these rocks : here ^geus cried, 

** O Sun ' careering over Sipylos, 
If desolation (worse than ever there 
Befell the mother, and those heads her own 
Would shelter when the deadly darts flew round) 
Impend not o'er my house in gloom so long. 
Let one swift cloud illumined by thy clmriot 

Sweep off the darkness from that doubtful sail.** 


Deeper and deeper came the darkness down ; , 
Tlie sail itself was heard ; his eyes grew dim ; 
Hid kuees tottered beneath him, but availed 
To bear him til he plunged into the deep. 

Sound, iifes ! there is a you' h fulness of sound 
In your shrill voices : sound again, ye lips 
That Mars delights in. I will look no more 
luto the time behind for idle goads 
To stiuiulate faint lancies : hope itself 
Is bounded by the stairy rone of glory. 
On one bright point we gaze, one wish we breath*, 

Athens ! be ever as thou art this hour, 
Happy and strong, a Pericles thy guide. 




Stop ! stop ! come hither ! Why lookest thou so scornfully 
and askance upon me P 


Let me go ; loose me ; I am resolved to pass. 


Nay then, by Jupiter and tliis tub I thou leavcst three 
good ells of Milesian cloth behind thee. Whither wouldst 
thou amble ? 


I am not obhged in courtesy to tell you. 


Upon whose errand ? Answer me directly. 


Upon my own. 


O! then I will hold thee yet awhile. If it were upon 
another's, it might be a hardship to a good citizen, though 
not to a good philosopher. 


That can be no impediment to my release : you do not 
think me one. 


No, by my father Jove I 


Your father ! 


Why not? Thou shouldst be the last man to doubt it. 
Hast not thou declared it irrational to refuse our belief to 
those who assert tliat they are begotten by the gods, though 
the assertion (these are thy words) be unfounded on reason or 
probability ? In me there is a cliance of it : wheras in the 
generation of such people as thou art fondest of frequenting, 
who claim it loudly^ there are always too many competitors to 
leave it probable. 



Those who speak against the great^ do not nsuallj speak 
from moralitY, but from envy. 


Thou hast a glimpse of the truth in this place ; but as thou 
hast already shown thy ignorance in attempting to prove to 
me what a man is, ill can I expect to learn from thee what is a 
preat man. 


No doubt your experience and intercourse will afford me 
the information. 


Attend, and take it. The great man is he who hath nothing 
to fear and nothing to hope from another. It is he who, 
while he demonstrates the iniquity of the laws, and is able to 
correct them, obeys them peaceably. It is he who looks on 
the ambitious both as weak and fraudulent. It is he who 
hath no disposition or occasion for any kind of deceit, no 
reason for being or for api)earing different from what he is. It 
is he who can call together tlie most select company when it 
pleases liim. 


Excuse my interruption. In the beginning of your defini- 
tion I fancied that you were designating your own person, as 
most people do in describing what is admirable ; now I find 
that you have some other in contemplation. 


I thank thee for allowing me what perhaps I do possess, but 
what I was not then thinking of; as is often the case with 
rich possessors : in fact, the latter part of the description suits 
me as well as any portion of the former. 


You may call together the best company, by using your 
hands in the call, as you did with me ; otherwise 1 am not sure 
that you would succeed in it. 


My thoughts are my company : I can bring them together, 
select them, detain them, dismiss them. Imbecile and vicious 
men can not do any of these things. Their thoughts are 
scattered, vague, uncertain, cumbersome : and the worst stick 

to tliFm the longest ; marjf iniieed by clioicR, the greater part 
by nccpsflly. ana accompanied, some by weuli wialies, otfiera 
by mill rriDunr. 


Is ihcTp nothing of fatness, O Diogenes ! in exhibiting 
hmr ei1i<a and (-utimiimitic) mny he governed best, how inoram 
may be kipt ibi; imiwt, mid jioww become the most stabile ? 

Somftt'iHg of greatness does not oonstitnte the great nun. 
Lrt. mobowcvrxnec him who hatli done wluil thou sayest: he 
must be the most universal and the most iiitlefati gable 
ttavtJltr, he miut also be Ihc oldest crcuturc upon earth. 

^.auM he must know tH-rfeclly tin; ciimuti', the soil, the 
labun, llin peruliuritie.s oi the race.", of their idlie^, of tlwir 
: he ifiust have Honiided their harbours, he have 
1 the ipaiitity of their arable laud and paatiire, of 
r woods and mount4uns : he uinst liavc a»?cTtaiucd irjicther 
I are fi^hi-riea on their coasts, and cvcu what winds arc 
prolent.* On thcH- causes, witli Htme others, drp<rn<) the 
idily !>trvngth, ihc nnmhers, the wealth, the wuuU, tlir capa- 
" 1, o( the |H.*oj)[e. 


li arc low thtiufj'hiH. 

i bird of wisdom flies lnw, and seeks her fooil under 
the eatfie hiin.tcif Vfould be starved if he always 
mJ aloft uiiil aguiiiHt the sun. The ttwc«tesl fruit 'snvt 
r the ground, and tlie plants that bear it reqnirc ventiLitioti 
I Itrpning. Were this not to he done in thy garden, rvur 
\ 10(1 alley, every plot and border, would be eovend witil 
ten oral moIs, with Uiughs and suokent. We want no 
> or lugii.'iaiis or ni(-lu|))iyxi(;ians to guveni an: we want 
ctical Eoeii, honest men, eontineiit men, uuambiliuus men, 
tfat to solidt a tru^t, slow to oavpt, and resolute never to 
betny one. Experimentalists may be the beitt philosopbon t 


they are always the worst politicians. Teach people their 
duties, and they will know their interests. Change as little as 
possible, and correct as much. 

Philosophers are absurd from many causes, but principally 
from laying out untliriftily their distinctions. They set up 
four virtues: fortitude, prudence, temperance, and justice. 
Now a man may be a very bad one, and yet possess three out 
of the four. Every cut-throat must, if he has been a cut- 
throat on many occasions, have more fortitude and more 
prudence than the greater part of those whom we consider as 
the best men. And what cruel wretches, both executioners 
and judges, have been strictly just ! how httle have they cared 
what gentleness, what generosity, what genius, their sentence 
hath removed from the earth ! Temperance and beneficence 
contain all other virtues. Take them home, Plato, split them, 
expound them ; do what thou wilt with them, if thou but use 

Before I gave thee this lesson, which is a better than thou 
ever gavest anyone, and easier to remember, thou wert accusing 
me of invidiousness and malice against those whom thou 
callest the great, meaning to say the powerful. Thy imagina- 
tion, I am well aware, had taken its flight toward Sicily, 
where thou seekest thy great man, as earnestly and undoubt- 
ingly as Ceres sought her Persephone. Faith ! honest Plato, 
I have no reason to envy thy worthy friend Dionysius. Look 
at my nose ! A lad seven or eight years old threw an apple at 
me yesterday, while I was gazing at the clouds, and gave me 
nose enough for two moderate men. Instead of such a god- 
send, what should I have thought of my fortune if, after living 
aU my lifetime among golden vases, rougher than my hand 
with their emeralds and rubies, their engravings and emboss- 
ments, among Parian caryatides and porphyry sphinxes, among 
philosophers with rings upon their fingers and linen next their 
skin, and among singing-boys and dancing-girls, to whom 
alone thou speakest inteUigibly. . I ask thee again, what should 
I in reason have thought of my fortune, if, after these facilities 
and superfluities, I had at last been pelted out of my house, 
not by one young rogue, but by thousands of all ages, and not 
with an apple (I wish 1 could say a rotten one) but with 
pebbles and broken pots ; and, to croM n my deserts, had been 
compelled to become the teacher of so promising a generation. 
Great men, forsooth ! thou knowest at last who they are. 

OtOnKXIS AND fUkta. 

c are great men of various kinds. 

fla, hv my beard, are there not, 

« llicrc iiot great captAinf, great gcometriciana, 
it duIcctioiAns P 

lio ilcnif-d UP A gn-al niiui was the postulate. Try Uiy 
I at llie puwerfti] nw. 

a >King the exercise of power, a ehild ean not ^oubl who 

wcrfol, more or less; for ]>i)wcr is relative. All men arr 

, u»t only if compared to ihe Hem iui^s, bill if ctunpnreil 

Hike im or Ihr i^rth, or rcrtain things upon pnch of tlicrii, 

1) as drphaiitii ittid whaW. So placid and trnntjuil i» the 

c aroiind ii«, we can hardly bring lo mind the images of 

li and forw, the precipias, the abysses. . . 

Pijlhcr bold thy loosr longiic, twinkling and glilhrring like 
Mrpnit'* in the mid^t of luxiiriuiii^e and rankiiess. Did 
this reflection of tliinc warn ihev that, in human life, tht; 
pnnpicra and abysses would be much further from our adini- 
ralioD, if we were less inconsiderale, sclfiBh, and vile? 1 will 
not htiwi-tiT (rt^ip ther long, for ihon wert going on nnite 
rnn«i»l.'(illy. A« ihr great men .ire liirlitcrs and wninglfn, 
wi tin iniglitv thingii upon tbi- c.irlh and wji iire Inmhlnamr 
anil ititrartalile inciimbmnei's. lliou |H-r'-t-ived:»t not whnt wa> 
in the former cnw, neither art thou anarc what iti 
in this. ]>iiiiit ihou feel the gi-iitle air tiwt passed us? 

did not, just tlicn. 

Hut air, so gentle, i>o jtupeirrplible to thrr, is more 

rrrrful not only than all ifac rreulum that brejithe and \ne 
A : not only than all the onkn of the forest, which it reara 
in an a|^ nnd shutters in a ntomcnt ; not oidy than aU the 
muwli-n of ihe sen, hut than the sea itself, which it losses np 
I foam, aiui breaks against cKerr rock in its vast otrrum- 
Dec ; fur it carries in its bosom, with ^rfiM:!. <^a^ta vc<& 


composure, the incontroUable ocean and the peopled earth, like 
au atom of a feather. 

To the world's turmoils and pageantries is attracted, not 
only the admiration of the populace, but the zeal of the 
orator, the enthusiasm of the poet, the investigation of the 
historian, and the contemplation of the philosopher : yet how 
silent and invisible are they in the depths of air ! Do I say 
in those depths and deserts ? No ; I say at the distance of a 
swalloVs flight; at the distance she rises above us, ere a 
sentence brief as this could be uttered. 

^Yhat are its mines and mountains ? Fragments wielded up 
and dislocated by the expansion of water from below; the 
most-part reduced to mud, the rest to splinters. Afterward 
sprang up fire in many places, and again tore and mangled the 
mutilated carcase, and stil growls over it. 

What arc its cities and ramparts, and moles and monuments ? 
segments of a fragment, wliich one man puts together and 
another throws down. Here we stumble upon thy great ones 
at their work. Show me now, if thou canst, in history, three 
great warriors, or three great statesmen, who have acted other- 
\kise than spiteful children. 


I will begin to look for them in history when I have dis- 
covered the same number in the philosophers or the poets. 
A prudent man searches in his own garden after the phmt he 
wants, before he casts his eyes over the stalls in Kenkrea or 

Returning to your observation on the potency of the air, I 
am not ignorant or unmindful of it. May I venture to express 
my opinion to you, Diogenes, that the earlier discoverers and 
distributers of wisdom, (which wisdom lies among us in ruins 
and remnants, partly distorted and partly concerned by theo- 
logical allegory) meant by Jupiter the air in its agitated state, 
by Juno the air in its quiescent. These are the great agents, 
and therefor called the king and queen of the gods. Jupiter 
is denominated by Homer the compeller of clouds : Juno re- 
ceives them, and remits them in showers to plants and animals. 

I may trust you, 1 hope, O Diogenes ! 


Thou mayest lower the gods in my presence, as safely as 
men in the presence of Timon. 

I would not Kiwcr tliem : 

e foolish and prcaumptunus sttl t 


W words, Siiiopeiiii ! I protest to jou mj aim is tmtli. 

1 1 ran not Icai] l)\w wlicre of n certainty tliou mayest always 
* ' ; but I M ill icU ihre whut it is. Tnil h is a ixiiiit ; tiie 
uiid Unpst ; hiinler limn udituiunt ; never to Le bmken, 
I awaj, or blunted, ila unly bad quality is, that it in 
• to hurt Ihosc who touch it; and likely to draw blood, 
laps thir liff^blood, of those who press eamL'^tly upon it. 
u «way from this narrow Lane skirted wiih hcmlocK, and 
ma our nnul ngsin through the wind and dusi, toward tJic 
i tmui and the poii>er/'ui. IMin I would ciili tlie powerful 
I, who coutroU the atonns of his mind, and turns to good 
imt the worst accident.* of hn fortune. The great man, 
■ gniiie on to demonslratr, is soio^'what more. He must 
^■bli! to do tht»<, and he must have au inklkct whieb putn 
D motion the intellect of others. 

ales then was your great man. 

be was indeed ; nor cnn all thou haat attributed to him 
k nuke mc tliiuk thn contrary. I wish he could have kept 
"'' ) more at home, and have thought it as well worth ms 
f with his own ehildreu as with otbcrif. 

e knew himself bom for the benefit of the human race. 

r who are bom for the benefit of the liumnn nee, go 
F tittle into it : lbus« who ure born for its curse, arc 

■ rcquiutc to dispell the niista of ignorance and error. 

pis he done it? What doubt has he elucidated, or what 
I has lu! Mtablisbcd ." Allhough 1 was but l«iA<ift 'jtsn 


old and resident in another city when he died, I have tsk&k 
some pains in my inquiries about him from persons of less 
vanity and less perverseness than his disciples. He did not 
leave behind him any true philosopher among them; any 
who followed his mode of argumentation, his subjects of 
disquisition, or his course of life ; any who would subdue the 
malignaiit passions or coerce the looser; any who would 
abstain from calumny or from cavil ; any who would devote 
his days to the glory of his country, or, what is easier and 
perhaps wiser, to his own well-founded contentment and wdl- 
merited repose. Xenophon, the best of them, offered up 
sacrifices, believed in oracles, consulted soothsayers, turned 
pale at a jay, and was dysenteric at a magpie. 


He had then no courage ? I was the first to suspect it. 


Which thou hadst never been if others had not praised him 
for it : but his courage was of so strange a quality, that he 
was ready, if jay or magpie did not cross him, to fight (or 
Spartan or Persian. Plato, whom thou esteemest much more, 
and knowest somewhat less, careth as little for portent and 
omen as doth Diogenes. What he would have done for a 
Persian I can not say : certain I am that he would have no 
more fought for a Spartan than he would for his own &ther : 
yet he mortally hates the man who hath a kinder muse or a 
better milliner, or a seat nearer the minion of a king. So 
much for the two disciples of Socrates who have acquired the 
greatest celebrity ! 


Why do you attribute to me invidiousness and malignity, 
rather than to the young philosopher who is coming prema- 
turely forward into public notice, and who hath lately been 
invited by the King of Macedon to educate his son ? 


These very words of thine demonstrate to me, calm and 
expostulatory as they appear in utterance, that thou enviest in 
this young man, if not his abilities, his appointment. And 
prythee now demonstrate to me as clearly, if thou canst, in 
what he is either a sycophant or a malignant. 



bdicte it. But csaii^ too 

' 1 Utink so. Knowing tlie arrogance of Ptiilip, aiid the sign* 
nbitwii wliicli liin buy (1 forg<-t the iiami?) hath exhibited 
M tarlj, he mya, in the fourth book of his IiItAie» (already in 
thi! bands of several licre at Afhcu?, allbough in its uR-smt 
_state aufil for uublJcittioD), tliat "he who deems niinself 
thj of less than his due, is a uiiui uf pusilliuiitnuus aikd 

j Hit canine tooth, friend PUto, did not enter thy hiuv's fur 

[Va ; be sneered at Phocioii, tuid fluttered Philip. He adds, 
telKr that nan's merits he great, or small, or middling." 
Ititt n^ports the position hy sophistry. 

vBov Dould he act more consistently ? Such is the support 
■riwnld icfit on. If the man's merits were grcatj he could 
^1 bo abject. 

[Td the author was so contented with liis observation, that 
ktXpRMca it again a hundred lines below. 


Tbta he was not contented witli his obscnration ; for, had 
he bom contented, be would have said no more about it. But, 
haviiHC fern laU.-ly tii» treatise, 1 remember tliut he varies the 
eipn-K'<ioii of the scnlimenl, and, after saying a very foolifh 
thing, i--- resolved on saying one rather less iiiLiniaiderate; on 
the phucijile of the hunter on the snows of Hindus, who, when 
his fin^'ers are frost-bitten, does not hold them inatantly to the 
fire', but dips tlicm first into cold water. Aristoteles says, in 
hi£ M-i-i)nd trial at the iJiesis, "Jbr he who is of low and abject 
mind, strips bimai-if of what is good about him, ond is, ta ■ 
eotaiu ilegice, bnd, because he tliiuks himself unworthy of the 

Modesty oiul diflidciice make n man unilt for public affairs : 
thej iImi make hiia unlit fur hrotbels : but do thc^ f^ver^iff 


make him bad ? It is not often that your scholar is lost in 
this way, by following the echo of his own voice. His greatest 
fault is, that he so condenses his thoughts as to render it 
difficult to see through them : he inspissates his yeUow into 
black. However, I see more and more in him the longer I 
look at him : in you I see less and less. Perhaps other men 
may have eyes of another construction, and filled with a subtiler 
and more ethereal fluid. 


Acknowledge at least that it argues a poverty of thought to 
repeat the same sentiment. 


It may or it may not. "WTiatever of ingenuity or invention 
be displayed in a remark, another may be added which sur- 
passes it. If, after this and perhaps more, the author, in a 
different treatise, or in a different place of the same, throws 
upon it fresh materials, surely you must allow that he rather 
hath brought fom^ard the evidence of plenteousness than of 
poverty. Much of invention may be exhibited in the variety 
of turns and aspects he makes his thesis assume. A poor 
friend may give me to-day a portion of yesterda/s repast ; but 
a rich man is likelier to send me what is preferable, forgetting 
that he had sent me as much a day or two before. They who 
give us all we want, and beyond what we expected, may be 
pardoned if they liappen to overlook the extent of their 
liberality. In this matter thou hast spoken inconsiderately 
and unwisely : but whether the remark of Aristoteles was 
intended as a slur on Phocion is uncertain. The repetition of 
it makes me incline to think it was ; for few writers repeat a 
kind sentiment, many an unkind one : and Aristoteles would 
have repeated a just observation rather than an unjust, unless 
he wished either to flatter or malign. The gods rarely let us 
take good aim on these occasions, but dazzle or overcloud us. 
The perfumed oil of flattery, and the caustic spirit of malignity, 
spread over an equally in4de surface. Here both are thrown 
out of their jars by the same pair of hands at the same 
moment ; the sweet (as usual) on the bad man, the unsweet 
(as universal) on the good. I never heard before that they 
had fallen on the hands of Phocion and of Pliilip. Thou hast 
furnished me with the suspicion, and I have furnished thee 
with the supports for it. Do not, however, hope to triumph 


t Amtotplcs because be hath said one thoughtlcsa thing : 

wr altnnpt to triuiuph irili him on saying many wise ones. 

i K philosopher 1 tliink liim vtrry littli' oF an im|)ogtor. He 

too frequently the.- ac'uto and dull; and tbou too 

aiUy till' swi-el luid vapid. Try to burler one with the 

r, nniicably ; and not to twildi and carp. Yun may eadt 

e bctlCT for some picliaiigea ; but neitncr For chea|>eniiig 

e anotber'a wares. Do thou take my advice the first of the 

J for thou hast the most to gain by i(. Let me tell thee 

bo that il does him no dishonour to have accepted the invita- 

">n of Philip IIS fulure urcreplor of liis newly-bom cliild. 1 

■ .uid rather rear a lion s whclp and tiime him, than sec him 

-ml untamed about tlie city, especially if any tenement and 

BNtl« wen^ at its outskirts. I>et ua hope that a soul once 

r become Macedonian ; but rather Macedonian 

B Sicilian. 

|f Amtotclcs, and all tlie n-st of you, must have the wadding 

T Itraw and saw-dust shaken out, and then we shall know 

f neuly your real weight and magnitude. 

L phihnophcr ought never to apeak in such n manner of 

s other <inght, excepting now and then the beadle, 
er, llie goda have well protected thee, I'lato, against 
Kwurnt violence. Was this raiment of thine the screen of 
J-rpiiAU temple ? or merely the drapery of a tliirty-eubit 
Ifis ? i>r i^TRwi venture a holiday suit of Darius for a bevy of 
hu j'jTiii^if eoneiibinc:" ';" Prythen do tjirry with me, or return 
uuithu- iLy, that I may euleh a flight uf quails nith it as they 
catm over Uiis part of Attica. 

\^Xt haih always Iteeu the fate of the decorous lu be calum- 
1 for cJIeminacy by the sordid. 

ElTeiiiiiiaeyl By mv beard t he who eould carry all tliis 
Milrrisii bravery on his shonlders, might, with the help of 
Ikn e more soch able men, have tost Typhocua np to the teeth 




We may serve our country, I hope, witii dean fiuses. 

More serve her with clean faces than with dean hands : and 
some are extremely shy of her when they fiEmcy she may want 


Although on some occasions I have left Athens, I can not 
be accused of deserting her in the hour of danger. 

Nor proved to have defended her : but better desert her on 
some occasions, or on all, than praise the tyrant Critias ; the 
cruellest of the thirty who condemned thy master. In one 
hour, in the hour when that friend was dying, when young 
and old were weeping over liim, where iAen wert tiiou? 


Sick at home. 


Sick ! how long ? of what malady ? In such torments, or 
in such debility, that it would have cost thee thy life to have 
been carried to the prison ? or hadst thou no litter ; no slaves 
to bear it ; no footboy to inquire the way to the public prison, 
to the cell of Socrates ? The medicine he took could never 
have made thy heart colder, or thy legs more inactive and 
torpid in their movement toward a friend. Shame upon thee ! 
scorn ! contempt ! everlasting reprobation and abhorrence I 


Little did I ever suppose that, in being accused of haid- 
heartedness, Diogenes would exercise the office of accuser. 


Not to press the question, nor to avoid the recrimination, I 
will enter on the subject at large ; and rather as an appeal 
than as a disquisition. I am called hard-hearted ; Aldbiades 
is called tender-hearted. Speak I truly or falsely ? 




In both cases ? 


In both. 


ly, ill "that iJolh hardness of lieart consist P 

arc many constituents nnd indications of it : trant of 
itby with our species is one. 

I sympatliise with the brave in their ndversity and alHictions, 

becAUsc 1 ftcl in my own breast tho flanic that bums in theirs: 

and I dn not smpalbisc with others, because with others my 

heart had) tiothing of consanguinity. 1 no more sympathise 

■ith till- ^-nrrdity of umnkind than I do with fowls, fishes, 

mod iii«rti». We have indeed the some tifjurc and tlie same 

flesh, but not the saine soid and spirit. Yet, rrcjill to thy 

laemorT, if thou canst, any action of mine bringing pain of 

body or mind to any rational creature True indeed do 

despot or conqueror elioutd exercise his authority a single hour 

if my arm or my cxhortalions could prevail against him. Nay, 

in r none should depart from the earth without flagellations, 

r without brands, nor without exposure, day after day, in 

B raarV«l-])lBcc of the city where be govcnieil. This i» the 

[ know of making men believe in the justice of 

___ - - And if they never were to believe in it at all, it 

kv^ht Uiat tbey shoula contide in the equity of their fcUow. 

I. Even this wcr« imperfect : for every despot and con- 

ror inllictfi much greater misery than any one human bo<ly 

DnilTer. Now then plainly lliou Kcest the extent of what Uiou 

d(Ut «dl my cruelty. We who have ragged beards are 

1 by prescriplion and aoelamation ; while they who have 

1 Unixa and perfumed hair, are called cruel only in the 

Is of teudemess, and in the pauses of irritation. Thy 

I Aldbiades was extremely good-natured: yet, becAOSO 

Mtipk of ^felos, deseendauLs from the Lacedu^mouians, 

I BCOtnl iu the I*eloponne.«ian war, and refused to fight 

Ht their falhen, llic good-natured man, when he had 

fauislted and led them captive, induced the Athenians to 

jbter all among tliem who we-re able to bear arms : utd 

_ tDow that tbe survivors were kept in iruus until the 

nctorious Spartans sot them free. 

did Dot ajiprovc of this severity. 



Nor didst thou at any time disapprove of it. Of what 
value are all thy pliilosophy and all thy eloquence, if they M 
to humanise a bosom-friend, or fear to encounter a misguided 


I thought I heard Diogenes say he had no sympathy with 
the mass of mankind : what could excite it so suddenly in 
behalf of an enemy ? 


Whoever is wronged is thereby my fellow-creature, although 
he were never so before. Scorn, contumely, chains, unite us. 


Take heed, O Diogenes ! lest the people of Athens hear 


Is Diogenes no greater than the people of Athens ? Friend 
Plato ! I take no heed about them. Somebody or something 
will demolish me sooner or later. An Athenian can but b^in 
what an ant, or a beetle, or a worm will finish. Any one of 
the tliree would have the best of it. Wliile I retain the use 
of my tongue, I will exercise it at my leisure and my option. 
I would not bite it off, even for the pleasure of spitting it in 
a tyrant's face, as that brave girl Egina did. But I would 
recommend that, in his wisdom, he should deign to take thine 
preferably, wliich, having always honey upon it, must suit his 
taste better. 


Diogenes ! if you must argue or discourse with me, I will 
endure your asperity for the sake of your acuteness : but it 
appears to me a more philosophical tiling to avoid what is 
insulting and vexatious, than to breast and brave it. 


Thou hast spoken well. 


It belongs to the vulgar, not to us, to fly from a man's 
opinions to his actions, and to stab liim in his own house for 
having received no wound in the school. One merit you will 
allow me : I always keep my temper ; which you seldom do. 


Is mine a good or a bad one P 


t I speak silicerulj ? 

t Uiou, a ptiilosophf-r, ask biicIi n (jiu'stiini of lue, i 
ipher f Ay, siiicerolj or not ut ull. 

cerdy as you could wish, I miist declare tlicn your 
r IH the worst in the world. 

1 1 am tDDcb in the right, thcn^fur, not to keep it. Kmhrace 
pt I have spoken now in thy own manner. Because thoo 
the most malicious things tlie most placidly, thou 
ikest or pretendcst thou art »inccn% 

LCectaiuly tliosc wlio arc most the maalcrs of their rcscnt- 
K Ukdy to speak le«^ crroucout<ly tlmn the pussiouatc 

ilf thrr would, they might: lint the moderate are not 

Jly tlir miwt sinecrc : fur the same circumsiiection which 

. w than nKMlemlp, mnktv them liki'wisK retentive of what 

■■leimlil K^Tve offence: tlipy anj aljin timid iti regard to fortune 

and fivuiir, and hazard little. There is no mass of sincerity 

ui any jibre. What there is must lie picked np patiently, a 

ain or two at a time ; and the season for it is afler a storm, 

r tbe overflowing of bonks, and bursting of mounds, and 

iping awny of bindinarks. Mm will always hold some- 

t back : they must Ih- shaken and hioaened a little, ta 

II let go nhat i.i deepest in iheiu, and weightiest and 

g and loosening as much about you as was requisite 
r Uie occasion, it became you to demonstrate where, and in 
J I had made Soeratea apptuir li^s sagacious and 
■ doquent than he was : it b(Vaiiic you likewine to eousider 
ibc grr-iil itiflieiilly uf l^ndrni^ new Ihmighu and new expressions 
fur tliov <t\i„ hnd m»re of liieiii tium uuv other men, and to 
nprt*iiil ihim in all ihe bnllianey of their wit and in all the 
ujbty iif their genius. I do not assert tliat I have done it; 
^ if I haTG not, what man lias? what miui Vuu uumft v> 


nigh to it? He who could bring Socrates, or Solon, or 
Diogenes, through a dialogue, without disparagement, is much 
nearer in his intellectual powers to them, than any other is 
near to him. 


Let Diogenes alone, and Socrates, and Solon. None of 
the three ever occupied his hours in tinsing and curling the 
tarnished plumes of prostitute Philosophy, or deemed any- 
thing worth his attention, care, or notice, that did not make 
men brave and independent. As thou callest on me to show 
thee where and in what manner thou hast misrepresented thy 
teacher, and as thou seemest to set an equal value on eloquence 
and on reasoning, 1 shall attend to thee awhile on each of 
these matters, first inquiring of thee whether the axiom is 
Socratic, that it is never becoming to get drunk,* unless in 
the solemnities of Bacchus ? 


This god was the discoverer of the vine and of its uses, 


Is drunkenness one of its uses, or the discovery of a god ? 
If Pallas or Jupiter hath given us reason, we should sacrifice 
our reason with more propriety to Jupiter or Pallas. To 
Bacchus is due a libation of w inc ; the same being his gift, as 
thou preachest. 

Another and a graver question. 

Did Socrates teach thee that '' slaves are to be scourged, 
and by no means admonished as though they were the chil- 
dren of the master ? " 


He did not argue upon government. 


He argued upon humanity, whereon all government is 
founded : whatever is beside it is usurpation. 


Are slaves then never to be scourged, whatever be their 
transgressions and enormities ? 

Whatever they be, they are less than liis who reduced them 
to their condition. 

• Diftlogoe VL on 1%€ Law*, 

^Binut! I 

Ihoogh iiscj miirdcr his whole fuiiily ? 

Aj, >nd [inieioti tJie public fouiitjiiii of the citv. What am 
1 sajiing ? and to whoin ? Ilurrible as is tliis crime, and next 
1 itmcitj to parricide, thou dcemest it a lighter oue than 
"ag & 6g ot KTspc. The stealer of these is scourged by 
tLf sentence on the poisoner is to cleanse out the 
tnrk.* There is, however, a kind of poisoning, which, 
> (liee jualice, conii^ bt-fore thee with uU its horrors, and 
I tliou woulil«t iiuiiisli eapiljdly, even in such a sacred 
an aruapex or (Hviner : I mean the poisoning bj 
mUtiun. I, ujj whole faioily, nij whole race, mj wnolc 
J, maj bile the dost in agony from a truss of hmbunc in 
B Tcll ; uiil little hann done forsooth I Let an idle foul set 
I ijno^ of uie in wttx before the Hrv, und whistle mid cnper 
i ti, axitl pumiiiij pray, and chant i> hymn to Hecate while it 
'Ita, inlrt^atiiifj Jiml imploring her thut 1 may melt as easily ; 
[ thou wouhlxl, in thy ifjuity nnd holiness, strangle him at 
I first stave of his j>siiliuu«ty. 

y this is on abmrdily, can you find nnolhrr? 

[ Tnij, in reading lliv book, I doubted at first, and for a 

~lg oonlinusnce, whether thou couldst have been serious ; 

9 whrlher it were uot rather a satire on ihuse busy-bodies 

ore invesmtitly intermeddling in other people's allnirs. It 

1 only on the prole^tation uf thy iritiiiinK: friends ihat I 
iB*ed thee to huve written it in earnest. As fcjr thy ijuestion, 

■iiiiUetoiiluopnnil pick out absurdities from a mass of incon- 
JB^OUZJ ^>1 injiialine : hut anotlier and another I euoldtlurow 
g^ tail Another au<l another afterward, from any page in the 
tManie. Two hare staring fidaehouds Uft their beaks one 
upon I lie other, like spring frogs, Tliou soje;*! tliat no 
puiuaimi'iiE, decrei'd by the laws, It-nd.lh to evil. What! 
oat if iiiiiuipdcrnte ? not if partiid ? Why iheji rejwal any 
penal statute.- while the subject of its animadverBion exists^ 
IB prisons the less criminal are placed among the mom 
~ uttaJ the inexperienced in vice lugrthcr with the luvdencd 

• DMogaa Via 


in it. This is part of the punishment, though it precedes the 
sentence : nay, it is often inflicted on those whom the judges 
acquit : the law, by allowing it, does it. 

The next is, that he who is punished by the laws is the better 
for it, however the less depraved. What ! if anteriorly to the 
sentence he lives and converses with worse men, some of whom 
console liim by deadening the sense of shame, others by 
removing the apprehension of punishment ? Many laws as 
certainly make men bad, as bad men make many laws : yet under 
thy regimen they take us from the bosom of the nurse, turn 
the meat about upon the platter, pull the bed-clothes off, make 
us sleep when we would wake, and wake when we would sleep, 
and never cease to rummage and twitch us, until they see 
us safe landed at the grave. We can do nothing (but be 
poisoned) Mith impunity. What is worst of all, we must 
marry certain relatives and connections, be they distorted, 
blear-eyed, toothless, carbuncled, with hair (if any) ecUpsing 
the reddest torch of Hymen, and with a hide outrivalling in 
colour and plaits his trimmest saffron robe. At the mention 
of this indeed, friend Plato ! even thou, although resolved to 
stand out of hann's way, beginnest to make a wry mouth, and 
findest it difficult to pucker and purse it up again, without an 
astringent store of moral sentences. Hvmen is truly no 
acquaintance of thine. We know the delicacies of love which 
thou wouldst reserve for the gluttony of heroes and the fasti- 
diousness of philosophers. Heroes, like gods, must have their 
own way : but against thee and thy confraternity of elders I 
would turn the closet-key, and your mouths might water over, 
but your tongues should never enter, those little pots of com- 
fiture. Seriously, you who wear embroidered slippers ought 
to be very cautious of treading in the mire, rhilosophers 
should not only live the simplest lives, but should also use 
the plainest language. Poets, in emplonng magnificent and 
sonorous words, teach philosophy the better by thus disarming 
suspicion that the finest poetr}' contains and conveys the finest 
philosophy. You will never let any man hold his right 
station : you would rank Solon with Homer for poetry. Ttas 
is absurd. The only resemblance is, in both being eminently 
wise. Pindar too makes even the cadences of his dithyrambici 
ke«) time to the flute of Reason. My tub, which holds fifty- 
fold thy wisdom, would crack at the reverberation of thy 


Not qxutc jri. I must physic tlicc a little with law ugaiu 
ewc{KiTt; answrr DK- one mon- (iiiesliou. luimiiiKLinga 
MT, wuijtlsl thou iiiitiisli him wlio steals everything fnim 

t wno wanta everything, less st^verrly tliitn liioi ivlia sttJuU 

'e from one who wants nothing ? 

; ill this place the iniquity is manifest : not n prohleu 
mttrf i» plainer. 

'hdo lif^al then . . in tliy sirep pcrliaws . . but thou liedst, 
TMIfcniiL' in one piige from what was taitl down by then in 
ani)ilii-r,* ihou wouldst punish what is called MocrUe/fe with 
drjkth. The magistrates ought t^ provide that the temples bo 
walelmi »^i wcllj and guarded so effectually, as never to be 
lubl'j !•■ ihefls. The gods, we must suppose, can not do it 
by (hL-m»elvps; for, to admit the contrarj-, wc must admit 
itdilfcrencu to the possession of goods and chattels: 
I impiely ^o grrjtt, that sacrilege itself drops into atoms 
howfiver, who robs from the gods, be tlie 
MRDtvhat ilmay, robs from the rich; robs from those who can 
t notliing, although, like the other rieii, they are mightily 
":tiTc against petty plunderers. Itut he who steab from 
r widow a loaf of bread, may deprive her of CTcrything 
t hiu in the world ; perhaps, if she be bedridden or patal\'t)C, 
gf life il»<:if. 

1 luu weury of tlu's digrcsxiou on the ine^uidity of [luuish- 

plt; kl us cume up to the object of tliem. It is not, 

'o t oil abi^urdity of tiiiiu; iilone, but of all wlin write and 

who converge on them, to assert that they both are and 

to be iiiilieted pubbcly, for the sake of deterring from 

. Tlie only effwt of public punisluaetit is t« show the 

how bravilv ir cJin be fii)me, and that everyone wlioliuth 

toe-nail bjilli snlfi-red worw, 'i'lie virtuous man, as a 

and n prinlcge, ahunhl he [KTmitt^^l tn sn- how calm and 

virtuous man deparla. The criminal should be 

in the dark about the df^iarture of his fellows, wliich is 

as oiutluetaut ; for to him, if indeed no reward or 

• Book* IX. ami X. 


privilege^ it would be a corroborative and a cordiaL Sadi 
things ought to be taken from him^ no less carefoUj than the 
instruments of destruction or evasion. Secrecy and mystery 
should be the attendants of punishment^ and the sole persons 
present should be the injured^ or two of his relatives^ and a 
functionary delegated by each tribe, to witness and roister 
the execution of justice. 

Trials, on the contrary, should be public in every case. It 
being presumable that the sense of shame and honour is not 
hitherto quite extinguished in the defendant, this, if he be 
guilty, is the worst part of his punishment : if innocent, the 
best of his release. From the hour of trial until the hour of 
return to society (or the dust) there should be privacy, there 
should be soUtude. 


It occurs to me, O Diogenes, that you agree with Aristoteles 
on the doctrine of necessity. 


I do. 


How then can you punish, by any heavier chastisement 
than coercion, the heaviest offences? Everything being 
brought about, as you hold, by fate and predestination . . 


Stay ! Those t^rms are puerile, and imply a petition of 
a principle : keep to the term necesmty. Thou art silent. 
Here then, Plato, will I acknowledge to thee, I wonder it 
should have escaped thy perspicacity that free-iciU itself is 
notliing else than a part and effluence of necessity. If every- 
thing proceeds from some other thing, every impulse from 
some other impulse, that which impels to choice or will must 
act among the rest. 


Every impulse from some other (I must so take it) under 
God, or the first cause. 


Be it so : I meddle not at present with infinity or eternity : 
when I can comprehend them I will talk about them. You 
metaphysicians kill the flower-bearing and &uit-bearing glebe 
with delving and turning over and sifting, and never bring up 
any solid and malleable mass from the dark profundity in 



Tou lulior. Tbi: inUlleclual world, like the phyncal, 
plicalilc to profit and ituapHMc of cultivation a little 
iotr llic ciirfuoc . . of which theru is more to manage, 
tfts Ui kiitjw, than aiiy of ^ou will undertake. 

It happens that we do not see the stars at even-tide, soiue- 
'inra hccaiisc there are clouds intervening, but ofteiier because 

• re nrr fiHinumngs of li^lit : thus many truths escape ua 

"tn the obfcunt; we inland in; nnd many more from that 
^ 'jiiiM;ular state of mind, which iuduceth lis to sit down 

n>St'd with our imaginatiuns and unsuspicious of our 


Keep always to the point, or with an eye ujMin it, and 
>8a of saving things to make people stare find wonder, say 
It will witlihiSd them hereafter from wondering and staring. 
■ is philosophy-, to mnkc rrmote things tangible, common 
_ljp citcnsivclv useful, useful things extensively common, 
i to Ifare the Icai't necessary for the last. I have alwaTB 
im'dou of eonorous sentences. The full shell sounds little, 
!binn by thnl little wliat is within. A bladder swrlU otit 
e witlt wind than with oil. 

I would not neglect (lolitics nor morals, nor indeed even 
n : thew however are mutable find evanescrnt : the 
I underHtjindlng ia immovnbh' and for ever the siime in 

tatinciples and ita constitution, and un study ia so important 

^ inritiug. 

Tour sect hath done little in it. Ton arc singularly fond 

ml tlww disquisitions in which few can detect your failures 

and your fallacies, and in which, if you stumble or err, you ma; 

fiad •ome oountniance in tlio»e who lost their wuv liefore you. 

^^■^ iH>t thi* H'hool-roum of mine, which huldcth but one 

^^^■olor, pff/iTalile to that out of which luivc priKJCcdcd so 

^^^bf nii]x4uoua in passion, refractory in discipline, unprin- 

^^^ped in adventure, and (worst of all) proud in slavery ? Poor 

cnattues who run after a jaded mule or palfR-y, to pick np 

trhat he drops along the road, may be certain of a ciibbiwe 

tli« hrgcr and tlic sooner fur it ; while those hIio are equally 

■ at the heel uf kings and princes, hunger and tlvxA 

94 DIOGENES Ain> PL410.. 

for more^ and usually gather less, llieir attendance is neither 
so certam of reward nor so honest; their patience is scantier, 
their industry weaker^ their complaints louder. What shall 
we say of their philosophy? what of their virtue? What 
shall we say of the greatness whereon their feeders plume 
themselves ? not caring they indeed for the humbler cluo'acter 
of virtue or philosophy. We never call children the greater 
or the better for wanting others to support them : why then 
do we call men so for it ? I would be servant of any helpless 
man for hours together : but sooner shall a king be the slave 
of Diogenes than Diogenes a king's. 


Companionship^ Sinopean, is not slavery. 


Are the best of them worthy to be my companions ? Have 
they ever made you wiser ? have you ever made them so ? 
Prythee, what is companionship where nothing that improves 
the intellect is communicated, and where the larger heart 
contracts itself to the model and dimension of the smaller ? 
'Tis a dire calamity to have a slave ; 'tis an inexpiable curse to 
he one. When it befalls a man tlirough violence he must be 
pitied: but where is pity, where is pardon, for the wretch 
who solicits it, or bends his head under it through invitation? 
Thy hardness of heart toward slaves, Plato, is just as 
unnatural as hardness of heart toward dogs would be in me. 


You would have none perhaps in that condition. 


None should be made slaves, excepting those who have 
attempted to make others so, or who spontaneously have 
become the instruments of UDJust and unruly men. Even 
these ought not to be scourged every day perhaps : for their 
skin is the only sensitive part of them, and such castigation 
might shorten their lives. 


Which, in your tenderness and mercy, you would not do. 


Longevity is desirable in them ; that they may be exposed 
in coops to the derision of the populace on holidays; and 
that few may serve the purpose. 


BpBss over this wild and tliorny theory, into the 
lizalion ia wiiich we live ; and liere I must remark 
tUrevil consequences lliiit wnuld eiisuf, if our domcslics could 
-ten to jou aiiout the hardships they urc enduring. 


it it no evil th»t truth and bcneficeiii.-e should be shut 

at ooce from so liirge ii portion of mankind ? Is it none 

1 things are so perverti-J, that an net of bfueficence 

it lead to a thonsftnd aets of erueltv, and that one accent 

truth should l>e more pernicious ihan all the falsi^hoodji 

have Ikm-d aceuiniilalcd, iiincc the formation of langimiie-, 

the frifl "f 5|>txTti! 1 have tnkcn thy view ivf tuc 

r; tiiVe thou mine. HiTL'ules wm called just and 

IU9, and wor»hii)ed as a deity, lu-i'imse he mlresatid the 

of otiters : is it unjust, is it inglonoQS, to redress 

? If Ihat man nses high in the favour of the 

Iiii-h in the estimation of the valiant and Ihc wise, 

bdiin.' God, by the aj^^ertion and vindication of his holiest 

'f who iiuniahra with death sueh as would n^ducc lum or 

fcUov citiinifl to slavery, how much higher rises he, who, 

a tlaTe, vttriuEs up iudi^anlly from his hiw cslute, and 

»w»y itie living load thai intercepts from liiin, what 

ic ivptiles and iiise<-Is, what evt-n llie bushes and 

of the roadside, enjoy • 

Webegnn with deiinitions : I rejoice, Diogenes, that yon 
t wanna) into rhrtoric, in which yon will find nie a most 
"ing auditor: for I ua carious to collect a ajH-diniu of 

r prowcos, where you hnvc not yet esUibliished any part of 

r eddiritv. 

n idle enough for it : but 1 have other things yet for 
ReMrioeity, olhw things yet for thy castigation. 

u wouldri ieparate< tile military from the citizens, from 
a and from agriculturists. A small body of soldiers, 
loer oiuld be anything else, would in n short tima 
e and lubjiigatr thi' industrious nnd ihe wealthy. The* 
I b(«iu by lU-niaiuliiig an increase of pay ; then (hey 
i insut on adniiteiori to magislroeies ; anu prtjseutly their 
I Wduld assume the sovranly, and eicatti uc* offivcjes 


of trust and profit for the strength and secarity of his nsozpa- 
tion. Soldiers, in a free state, should be enrolled from those 
principally who are most interested in the conservation ot 
order and property ; chiefly the sons of tradesmen in towns : 
first, because there is the less detriment done to agricultore ; 
the main thing to be considered in all countries : secondly, 
because such people are pronest to sedition, from the two 
opposite sides of enrichment and poverty : and lastly, because 
their families are always at hand, responsible for their fidehty, 
and where shame would befall them thickly in case of 
cowardice, or any misconduct. Those governments are the 
most flourishing and stabile, which have the fewest idle youths 
about the streets and theatres : it is only with the swoid that 
they can cut the halter. 

Thy faults arise from two causes principally : first, a fond- 
ness for playing tricks with argument and with fancy : secondly, 
swallowing from others what thou hast not taken time enough 
nor exercise enough to digest. 


Lay before me the particular things you accuse me of 
dra\iing from others. 


Thy opinions on numbers are distorted from those of the 
Chaldeans, Babylonians, and Smans; who believe that 
numbers, and letters too, have peculiar powers, independent of 
what is represented by them on the surface. 


I have said more, and often diflerently. 


Thou hast indeed. Neither they nor Pythagoras ever 
taught, as thou hast done, that the basis of the earth is an 
equilateral triangle, and the basis of water a rectangular. We 
are then informed by thy sagacity, that '' the world has no need 
of eyes, because nothing is left to be looked at out of it ; nor 
of ears, because notliing can be heard beyond it ; nor of any 
parts for the reception, concoction, and voidance, of nutriment; 
because there can be no secretion nor accretion.^'* 

Tliis indeed is very providential. If things were otherwise, 
foul might befall your genii, who are always on active service : 

* Tinunu. 

010(>eN(:S AXD 1'L.VTI]. 


i woaM not bespatter thorn bo Iig)itly as wc tuortnls arc 

beiul bv a swalloi'. AVhatcvcr is aasBrl«d en tlitngn 

J should be asw-Ttt-d from ei)Rrriinmt only. Thau 

t hnvf ilcfvailcd brttrr Ibnl which Ihou h»st stolen: 

[ ^uld not oulj' have impudi^au-, but counige. 

t do jrou mean ? 

, n that ei'm one of thy wliimsies hath been plcVed up 

Wvhuc hy ihec in thv trnvela ; and enrh of them Wh been 
1 morr wrak nml jiiiny bj its jilaL-e of coDCealinciil in 
;l. Wlut thou liiiat wrilten on the immortality of the 
19 rather to prove thn immortality of the bocly ; and 
na well to the body of a weasel or an eel as to the 
!■ of Agatlion or of Aster. MTiy not at once introduce 
■ rrliirion?* since religions keep and arc relished in 
lion MS they are solttxl with nbsiirdily, inside luid oat ; 
I of them must have one great crystd of it for the 
; but Philosophy pines and dies unless she drinks 
d wBler. When Pherecydes and Fvtliagoras felt in tlu-m- 
I majesty of contemplation, tliey E})iinied the idea 
I aatl bones and arteries should confer it ; and tliat 
_ rohends the past and the future, should sink in a 
. itnd be annihilated for ever. No, cried thej, the 
r Uiinking is no more in the brain than in the luur, 
I) the brain may be the inttrument on which it ]ih»y». 
'. corporeal, it is not ul' this world; its existence is 
, it« residence is infinity. I forbear to discius the 
J of tlirir belief, and pass on straightway to thine ; 
1 1 am (u consider ns one, belief and doctrine. 

Aiyou vilL 

- ■" ■- (hen rc^d the^^e tilings as mere ornamejils ; 
>'•■ theu' apartments with lyres and harpi, 
IS look at from the i-ouch, supinely com- 
'.'•r visitors to admire and play ou. 

I Dot bow yna van disprove my ailment on the 
lUs (o Iti* tuiuiu wunlija tif Sgji*, aod to «)udb T\UU> >a& 


immortalitj of the soul, which^ being contained in the best of 
my dialogues^ and being often asked for among mj friends, 
I carry with me. 


At this time ? 


Even so. 


Give me then a certain part of it for mj pemsal. 




Hermes and Pallas ! I wanted but a cubit of it, or at 
most a fathom, and thou art pulling it out by the plethron. 

This is the place in question. 


Bead it. 

PIJLTO {reads.) 

"Sayest thou not that death is the opposite of life, and 
that they spring the one from the other ? " " Yes" *' What 
springs then from theli\ing?" " The dead" ''And what 
from the dead?'' ''The living." "Then all things alive 
spring from the dead." 


"Why that repetition ? but go on. 

PLATO {reads,) 

" Souls therefor exist after death in the infernal regions." 


Wliere is the therefor ? where is it even as to existence ? 
As to the ift/emal regions, there is nothing that points toward 
a proof, or promises an indication. Death neither springs 
from life, nor life from death. Although death is the ine\'i- 
table consequence of life, if the observation and experience of 
ages go for anything, yet nothing shows us, or ever hath 
signified, that life comes from death. Thou mightest as weU 
say that a barley-corn dies before the germ of anotlier barley, 
com grows up from it : than which nothing is more untrue : 
for it is only the protecting part of the germ that perishes, 
when its protection is no longer necessary. The consequence, 
that souls exist after death, can not be drawn from the corrup- 


B of the body, even if it wpre demonstrable thnt out of tliis 
XUptinti a live aoe could rise up. Thou bast not said that 
e •Mil is among tboae dead tilings which living tUiugn must 
jtmrtng from : thou bast not said that a liviiig soul produces a 
oead wul, or that a dead aoul produces a living one. 

^^BEKo indeed. 

^^HDn mj faith, thou hast said bovever things no less incon- 
^^Soenrfc, no less incon3M|uent, no less unwise ; and this very 

tiling most be said and proved, to make tby argument of any 

vmIoc Do dead meu beget rbilJreii ? 

I Itare not said it. 

ij Digumcut impties it. 

arc high mysteries, and to be approaciied with rever- 

■tever wp ran not ftcromit for, is in the sanii.' prediea- 
We mav be gainers hy being ignorant if we ran be 
ight lujstenous. It is belter to shake our l)ead* aiid t*i 
I nothing out of them, than to be plain and expheit in 
» of difficidtT. i do not mean in confeWng our igiio- 
ruicr or our imperfect knowledge of them, but ill clearing 
tbwn up {M-r*picuou»lr ; for, if we answer with en»e, wo may 
liflply Ik^ Uioaght good-uatured, quick, eoinnmnirativi* ; never 
d«!i», never sagacious ; not very defective possibly in our int«l- 
IrtliiaJ fscullies, yi-t unequal and cbinky, and liable to tho 
probation of eray clown's knuckle. 



_ brightest of stars appear the most unsteddy and 
idoaa in their light ; not from any quality inherent in 

__asrlvrf>, but from the vapours Llinl Hoat bcluw, luid &om 

ibtt itniirrfectiuii of vision in the jurvcyor. 

> the stuv ofpiu I Dmw thy robe kvlmA tW -, \kI "^ 


folds Call gracefully^ and look majestic. That seatence is an 
admirable one ; bnt not for me. I want sense, not stars. 
What then ? Do no vapours float below the others ? and is 
there no imperfection in tne vision of those who look at iAem^ 
if they are the same men, and look the next moment ? We 
must move on: I shall follow the dead bodies, and the 
benighted driver of their fantastic bier, dose and keen as any 


Certainly, O Diogenes, you excell me in elucidations and 
similies : mine was less obvious. Lycaon became against his 
will, what you become from pure humanity. ' 


WTien Humanity is averse to Truth, a fig for her. 


Many, who profess themselves her votaries, have made her 
a less costly offering. 


Thou hast said weD, and 1 will treat thee gently for it- 

I may venture then in defence of my compositions, to argue 
that neither simple metaphpics nor strict logic would be 
endured long togetlier in a dialogue. 


Few people can endure them anywhere : but whatever is con- 
tradictory to either is intolerable. The business of a good 
writer is to make them pervade his works, without obstruction 
to his force or impediment to his facility ; to divest them of 
their forms, and to mingle their potencv in every particle. I 
must acknowledge that, in matters of love, thy knowledge is 
twice as extensive as mine is : yet notliing I ever heard is so 
whimsical and silly as thy description of its efiects upon the 
soul, under the influence of beauty. The win^s of the soul, 
thou tellest us, are bedewed; and certain ffertns of theirs 
expand from every part of it. 

The only thing I know about the soul is, that it makes 
the ground slippery under us when we discourse on it, by 
virtue (I presume) of this bedewing ; and beauty does not 
assist us materially in rendering our steps the steddier. 


■ Dk^nts! yon are the oiil^ man l)uit aiiuiifes noL tlie 
litj uil stateliucse of m; expressions. 

1 liut mnny mlmirers ; btit either they nevpr Iinve read 
r do not understand thee, or are fond of fiJliicies, or arc 
jttblc of detecting them. I would rather hear the murmur 
t iiwwrts in tlic graas than the datter and trilling of cymbals 
~i t)tnbnrL> over-tiead. The tiny animala I watch witli com- 
mie, and guess their business ; the brass awakes me only 
to weary me: I wish it uniler-grountl n^tin, and the parch- 
ment DD the sheep's back. 

My sentences, it is acktiowledgMl by all guod judges, are 
" coDstmcted and harmonious. 


^^HnoUiiT without nor with elocution is there cloqncucc, where 

^mtfr ie no ardour, no impulse, no enei^', no coucentntiou. 

noqaeruw rai»cs the whole man : thou raiseat our tjebrows 

only. We wondiT, we applnud, we walk away, and we 

foT^get. lliy eggs jire very prettily speckled ; but those which 

1 Uflo for iheir suatenanee are plain white ones. People do 

I admit it : I have also beard it said tliut thou art rloijucnt. 
t style, without eh>cution, nm Iw. 

aai cTcrj- day put on their smartest dresses ; they are not 
nlwavii in trim for dancing, nor are ihi-y prwrtising their steps 
n all places. 1 profess to be no weaver of fine woran, no de&ux 

IB U»e pIumM of phrnsif.logy, yet every loau and every n 
I <pcsk (o underatandti uie. 

Whii'Ji would not always be the ease if the occiiltcr open- 
Miw of the human mind were llie subject. 

If what is ocndl roust l»e occult for ever, why throw away 
■irda about it C Kmploy on every occasion the siimilest ana 
n»cst, and range tbcm in the most natunil crdiT, Thuittlicy 
I tlicc faithfully, biingbg thee mwij lieatw* ttoA. 


readers from the inteUectnal and uncomipted. All popular 
orators, victorious commanders, crowned historians, and poets 
above crowning, have done it. Homer, for the gloiy of whose 
birthplace none but the greatest cities dared contend, is alike 
the highest and the easiest in poetry. Herodotus, who brought 
into Greece more knowledge of distant countries than any or 
indeed than all before him, is the plainest and gracefulest in 
prose. Aristoteles, thy schohir, is possessor of a long and lofty 
treasury, with many windings and many vaults at the sides of 
them, abstruse and dark. He is unambitious of displaying 
his wealth ; and few are strong-wristed enough to turn the 
key of his iron chests. Whenever he presents to his reader 
one full-blown thought, there are several buds about it which 
are to open in the cool of the study ; and he makes you learn 
more than he teaches. 


I can never say that I admire his language. 


Thou wilt never say it; but thou dost. His language, 
where he wishes it to be harmonious, is highly so : and there 
are many figures of speech exquisitely beautiful, but simple 
and unobtrusive. You see what a fine head of hair he might 
have if he would not cut it so short. Is there as much true 

oetry in all thy works, prose and verse, as in that Scolion of 

is on Virtue ? 


I am less invidious than he is. 



He may indeed have caught the infection of malignity, which 
all who five in the crowd, whether of a court or a school, are 
liable to contract. "VTe had dismissed that question : we had 
buried the mortal and corruptible part of him, and were looking 
into the litter which contains liis true and everlasting eflBgy : 
and this effigy the strongest and noblest minds will carryoy 
relays to interminable generations. We were speaking of his 
thoughts and what conveys them. His language then, in 
good truth, difiers as much from that wliich we find in thy 
dialogues, as wine in the goblet differs from wine spilt upon^ 
the table. With thy leave, I would rather drink than lap. 


Methinks such preference is contrary to your nature. 


I AJ> Plato ! I onglit to he jcnloiis of thee, fmiliiig tlisL two 
Iktfau audience can smile iit thj wit, aiid not one at mine. 

1 1 would rather Ih- serious, bul llinl. my seriousness is provo- 
ifife of yijiir [iiomseiiess, Detnu't from mc as much hs cnn 
e (leinicltil hy tlif must lioBtilc to my philosopliv, stil it is 

^tnrciDd the power of any man to suppress or to conceal from 

lie admiration of tlic world the amplitude and graudour of 

mv Ungunge. 

Thou rrmiudcst mc of a cavern I once entered. Tbc mouth 
was »pactous ; and mauy dangling weeds and rammnt briers 
cnugiii n\K liy tlie hair above, and by the beard below, and 
fiupjiii) niy fiu'ti on each side. I found it in some ploces flat 
. . and Btndy ; in Aoine rattier inir)' ; in others 1 hrui»i-d my shins 
' ut lutjc pointed pinnacles, or larger and smoother round 
Muiy Were the witidinga, and di^ep the darkness, 
mai came forward with long poles and lighted torches 
I then, promising to show innumerable gems, on tlic roof 
1 tlons the sidc8, to some ingenuous youtlis whom they 
lactwl. I thought 1 was lucky, and wetit on among 
Jlost i)f the gttins tunit^d out to be dnjps of water; 
some were a little more solid, 'iliese however in geiieral 
'e way and cruinbled under the touch ; and most of the 
uioder lost all their brightness by tlie smoke of tlic torches 
nndemrath. The farlUcr I went in, the fouler grew Uic air 
and tb<- dimmer the toreldight. Living it, aud the youths, 
he guide* and the long poles, 1 stood a moment iu 
T at ihf vast number of nnmits and verse* gniven at the 
liug, and forbore to insert the ignoble one of iJiogetieu. 
^ he vulgar indeed and Ihe fashionable do call such language 
thine the noblest and most magnificent : tlic schohistic bend 
ever it iu [kolcncss, and with the right liand upon the breast, at 
it^ inif^nbomablc depth ; but what would a man of plain simple 
snund iinderitandiug sny upon it? what would a iiiilaphy- 
nicun ? wlint Would a logieinn? what would IVriclea? Truly, 
he hud iJiVen thee by itie arm, and kisaed ihat broad weU- 
perfnuKil fon'head, for tilling up witli light (as thou wouldst 
say) the dimple in the ch<Hik of Aspasia, and for throwing ouch 
ft gaiUjr in tlio current of her conversatiou. SUc ■iiaa (A » 


different sect from thee both in religion and in love^ and both 
her language and her dress were plainer. 


She, like yourself, worshiped no deity in public : and pro- 
bably both she and Aristoteles find the more favour with you 
from the laxity of their opinions in regard to the Powers above. 
The indifference of Aristoteles to reUgion may perhaps be the 
reason why King Philip bespoke him so early for the tuition 
of his successor; on whom, destined as he is to pursue the 
conquests of the father, moral and religious obligations might 
be incommodious. 


Kin^ who kiss the toes of the most gods, and the most 
zealously, never find any such incommodiousness. In courts, 
religious ceremonies cover with their embroidery moral obliga- 
tions ; and the most dishonest and the most libidinous and 
the most sanguinary kings (to say nothing of private men) 
have usually been the most ptinctual worshipers. 


There may be truth in these words. "We however know 
your contempt for religious acts and ceremonies, which, if you 
do not comply with them, you should at least respect, by way 
of on example. 


"What ! if a man lies to me, should I respect the lie for the 
sake of an example ! Should I be guilty of duplicity for the 
sake of an example! Did I ever omit to attend the 
Thesmophoria ? the only religious rite worthy of a 
man's attendance. It displap the union of industry and law. 
Here is no fraud, no fallacy, no filching: the gods are 
worshipt for their best gifts, and do not stand with open palms 
for ours. I neither laugh nor wonder at anyone's folly. To 
laugh at it, is childish or inhumane, according to its natnre; and 
to wonder at it, would be a greater folly than itself, whatever 
it may be. 

Must I go on with incoherencies and inconsistences ? 


I am not urgent with you. 


Then I will reward thee the rather. 

Thou makest poor Socrates tell us that a beautiful vase is 

r to a beaatifu] liorsfi j ftiiii m a beautiful horse is 
rior U> a benutifui miitilen, iii like manner a beautiful 
] is inferior in beauty to the iiumorUl gods. 

Ko doubt, nii>Beiifs ! 

loa hast whimsical iilcaa of b«BUtr : but, understanding 
fe word u td] Atbcoiaiis and all inlmhitants of Hellas under- 
md it, thwrc is no analogy between a hor§e and a vase. 
''ndmlaiiiiinK it na Ibou purliaps ma.vcst cbooso to do ott the 
iKcanon, uiiili'r^laiiding it :is npphoiblo to the scnicc niid 
utilitv of man and giuls, tbe »aso may be nnplied to matt 
frr^nriit and uicirc noble purjHises tluui tlie lioree. It may 
ildiffht men in health; it may udminist^r t[> them in siokuees; 
it ma}' puur out before the protectors of fiunilica and ufdtips the 
'oeufwicrilice. But if it is the quality and essence of beauty 
gtattfy the Might, there arc certainly more persons who can 
'\n gntiAntiou from the appearance of a beautiful vase 
of a beautiful horse. Xerxes brought into Hellas with liim 
ids of beautiful horses and many beautifid vamts. Sup- 
now thai all the horses which were benntifnl seemed so 
guod Judgi^s of Uieir symmelri-, it is probable that 
sctfody one man in tlfty would fix his cyat att^^ntively on one 
bimo in fifty ; but imdoubtcdly there were vases in the tcnt« 
i»f Xcrte* wliich would have attracted all the eyes in the army 
and haVc (illnl them witli admiration. I say nothing of the 
wotften, who in Asiatic armies on: lis numerous ns the men, and 
who w«iuld every one ailmire the vases, while few admired the 
biaies. Vcl women ore as good judges of wliat is beaulifol as 
ibaa art, and for the mast part on the Hame principles. But, 
Rptatmg thai there is no analogy between the two objects, I 
most tnsut that there can bo no just comparison : and 1 trust 
I hx*e clenrlv demotisttatcd the poslulutr is not lo be 
rooccded. U e will nevertheless curry on the argument and 
rsimiiution : for " the luautiful virgin is inferior in lieauty to 
tbo iDUiiortal gods." Is not Vulcan an immortal god? ate 
tbe furies and Discord immortal goddesses? Ay, by 
tnuli are they ; and there never was any city and scarcely 
bmily on earth to which they were long mnsible. WouWrt 

^ J prvfcr them to a golden cup, or even lo a cup from the 

poUer'aP Would it retjuirc one with u daticc of BacchanaLi 

' •II g 



under the ponting rim ? would it require one foretasted by 
Agathon? Let ns descend from the deities to the horses. 
Thy dress is as well adapted to horsemanship as thy words 
are in general to discourse. Such as thou art would nm 
out of the horse's way ; and such as know thee best would 
put the vase out of ttune. 


So then, I am a thief^ it appears, not only of men's notions, 
but of their vases ! 


Nay, nay, my good Plato ! Thou hast however the frailty 
of concupiscence for things tangible and intangible, and thou 
likest well-tunied vases no less than well-turned sentences : 
therefor they who know thee would leave no temptation in 
thy way, to the disturbance and detriment of thy soul. Away 
with the horse and vase! we will come together to the 
quarters of the virgin. Faith ! my friend, if we find her 
only just as beautiful as some of the goddesses we were 
naming, her virginity will be as immortal as their divinity. 


I have given a reason for my supposition. 


What is it ? 


Because there is a beauty incorruptible, and for ever the 


Yisible beauty ? beauty cognisable in the same sense as of 
vases and of horses ? beauty that in degree and in quality 
can be compared with theirs ? Is there any positive proof 
that the gods possess it? and all of them? ana all equally? 
Are there any points of resemblance between Jupiter and 
the daughter oi Acrisius ? any between Hate and Hebe ? 
whose sex being the same brings them somewhat nearer. In 
like manner thou confoundest the harmony of music with 
symmetry in what is visible and tangible : and thou teachest 
the stars how to dance to their own compositions, enlivened 
by fugues and variations from thy master-hand. This, in 
the opinion of thy boy scholars, is sublimity ! Truly it is 
the sublimity which he attains who is hurled into the air from 
a ballista. Changing my ground, and perhaps to thy advan- 



i, in tile niUDe of Sitcrntes I come forth against thee ; not 
usiiu Iiim u a widr-mouthcd mask, stutTi-d with gibes 
^__ , (juiblilcs 1 not for miikiog him the most sopliistical of 
Mpliists, or (as thou haat done frequentJ}') the most impro- 
vident of stAt«amca aiid the worst of dtizens; my uccosntioa 
Mid tutlictmcut is, for representing bim, who had distinguislit 
hiuudf on the fiehl of bultli; nbovc thu bmvcst and most 
exuenciuicd of the Atbeiiiiut Inidurs (iwrticuhu-lv at Delion 
kDd Polidffl), M more ignurunt of wiu-riir^ tbuu the worsU 
fiedged cruie that fought against the pTgmies. 

I am not coiiKious of ItAving done it. 


I bcUcve thee : but done it thou hast. The language of 
Socrnlcs was attic and simple : he hated the verboBity and 
tvfiDcmcnt of wrangltTS nrni rhi'toriciiins ; and never wonld 
he have Rttributi^d to A^piisiii, who thought and Hpokc like 
PrriiJc^, and whose elfgiincc- iiud judgment thou thyself liast 
commcnd'-d, Uit^ clmffaud liller thou hitst tossed aimut with 
much wind and \tiiutiiniiess, in Iby dialogue of MenexenM. 
few, to ouiit the other fitoleriea in it, A^poHia would have 
'it to BCom the most ignorant of her tirc-womeii, who 
havB related to her the story thou tallest in her name, 
about the march of the Pcrsiaus round the territory of EretriR. 
T1ii.> tiiuntire sfcms to thee so luip]iy tm ntteiiipt nt history, 
that lh')u bctnyest no small feu Ust the reitdiT sliould take 
then at thy word, and lest A»paaia should in riality rob thee 
or Socnlea of the glory due for il. 

Where hcs the funlt P 

If the Pcrsiaiur had murclied, ta tlioa descriheat them, 
fonoing a nrclc, and from sen to ten, with tliejr hands 
jcrioed tiigeihcr; fourscore shcpbi'.nii with their dogs, their 
nun*, ami ibur lyeil-wetliera, might have killed them all, 
DMuiiig agaiiisit them from points wiJl-cJiosen. As, however, 
gnat port of the Persians were horsemen, which tliou npjieareat 
1(1 have quite forgotten, how could they go in »ingle line with 
theiT bands joined, ludess they lay flat U|>ou their bucks aloug 
iha baekj of their horses, and unless Uie horses themselvea 
went tail to tail, one puUuig on the other ? Even thuu \.U« 


line would be interrupted, and only two could join hands. A 
pretty piece of net-work is here I and the only defect I can 
find in it is, that it would help the fish to catch the fishennan. 


This is an abuse of wit, if there be any wit in it. 


I doubt whether there is any ; for the only man that hears 
it does not smile. We will be serious then. Such nonsense, 
delivered in a school of philosophy, might be the less derided; 
but it is given us as an oration, held before an Athenian army, 
to the honour of those who fell in battle. The b^inning of 
the speech is cold and languid : the remainder is worse ; it is 
learned and scholastic. 


Is learning worse in oratory than languor ? 


Incomparably, in the praises of the dead who died bravely, 
played off before those who had just been fighting in the 
same ranks. What we most want in this business is sincerity ; 
what we want least are things remote from the action. Men 
may be cold by nature, and languid from exhaustion, from 
grief itself, from watchfulness, from pity ; but they can not 
be idling and wandering about other times and nations, when 
their brothers and sons and bosom-friends are brought lifeless 
into the city, and the least inquisitive, the least sensitive, are 
hanging inmiovably over their recent wounds. Then burst 
forth their names from the full heart; their fathers' names 
come next, hallowed with lauds and benedictions that flow 
over upon their whole tribe ; then are lifted their helmets and 
turned round to the spectators ; for the grass is fastened to 
them by their blood, and it is befitting to show the people 
how they must have struggled to rise up, and to fight afresh 
for their country. Without the virtues of courage and patri- 
otism, the seeds of such morality as is fruitful and substantial 
spring up thinly, languidly, and ineffectually. The images 
of great men should be stationed throughout the works of 
great historians. 

According to your numeration, the great men are scanty : 
and pray, O Diogenes I are they always at hand ? 



^^■himincnt men always are. Catch them and hold them 
^^H^ wkvn tliou canst find none better. Whoever bath iufla- 
^^Bed the downfall or decline of a mmmonwealth, whoever 
^^^B alU-n-il ill any digrL-c its sucial state, should be brought 
^Hpire tiw high Lhbuiitd of Uistorir. 

Tot mean intellects have accompUshod tbcae things. Not 
onljr bDtlcnnL;-rsnis have loosctiea the walls of cities, but 
B and ndibits hnvo done the »une. Vulgar and vile men 
f been elevak'd to jKiwer b; circumslnnces : would you 
e the vulgur aud vile into the [ingt-s you exj)cct to bo 

' c&n blow t)ut immortality. Criminals do not 

I by their presence the strong and stately edifices in 

wlneh ther arc incareeratcd. I look above them and see the 

image of Justiee : I rest my arm against the plinth where 

>lw protMtiTifls of cities raises her spear by the judgmcnt- 

^^■M> Thou art not silent on the vile; but dehtrhtcrt in 

^^^bgtng them out before us, and in reducing their bctttas to 

^^B^muu condition. 

^^B mi DC 

n no writtrr of hiatoiy. 

iat writer is a writer of histoiy, let him treat on 
it subject lie may. He carriea with him for 
lUotuands of years a [Hirtion of his times: and indeed if 
^^^rif his own eili^y nert; there, it would he grnttly more tlum 

^Kd al 

jaaii vf bis cmntry. 

I all thy writini^ I can discover no mention of Epar 

I, who vannuisbed t)iy enslavers the Lacoda^muninns ; 

if TbrasTbuhis, who expelled the murderers of thy 
pm^lor. \\ heTit'ver thou again displayrst a sneeimen of 
ihy lu5lorind rCTcarehes, do not utterly overiooli the fart 
tliat ihi-w- rxoellenl mm were living in thy days; thnt they 
foiiclil oiTTiiriil lliy rneinii--*; that they rescued tiiee from 
iUvtri ; iliui thf'U art indebted to them for tlie whole estate 
of lhi» tiiU-ruiiiLable rolw, with its valleva and hills and wastes; 
fw tbe^ perfumes that overpower all mine; aad moKo-sw 


for thy hoase^ thy grove, thy auditors, thy admirers and thy 


Thrasybulus, with many noble qualities, had great faults. 


Great men too often have greater faults than little men can 

find room for. 


Epaminondas was undoubtedly a momentous man, and 
formidable to Lacedsemon, but Pdopidas shared his glory. 


How ready we aU are with our praises when a cake is to 
be divided ; if it is not ours ! 


I acknowledge his magnanimity, his integrity, his political 
skill, his military services, and, above all, his philosophical turn 
of mind : but since his countrymen, who knew him best^ 
have until recently been silent on the transcendency of his 
merits, I think I may escape from obloquy in leaving them 
unnoticed. His glorious death appears to have excited more 
enthusiastic acclamation than his patriotic heroism, 


The sun colors the sky most deeply and most diffiisely 
when he hath sunk below the horizon ; and they who never 
said " How beneficently he shines !*' say at last, '' How 
brightly he set !" They who believe that their praise gives 
immortality, and who know that it gives celebrity and distinc- 
tion, are iniquitous and flagitious in withdrawing it from such 
exemplary men, such self-devoted citizens, as Epaminondas 
and Thrakybulus. 

Great TiTiters are gifted with that golden wand which neither 
ages can corrode nor violence rend asunder, and are commanded 
to point with it toward the head (be it lofty or low) which 
nations are to contemplate and to revere. 


I should rather have conceived from you that the wand 
ought to designate those who merit the hatred of their species. 


This too is another of its ofl&ces, no less obligatory and 


Not onlv have I particularised such faults as I could 

. - . hI ifpite and detect, but in ihiit UUtorical fragment, which 

1 1.;] ili-dffc to be mine (olthoucli 1 left it in abeyance 

< ii SiKirntcs and Aspasia), I Tiave buded tbe courage 

ij'lu't of our people. 

kiboa Tcroonlest tbe glorious deeds of tlie Atbeiiians by 

fc and bind, stnidly and circumalnntiallj', as if the Athenians 

BMlvrs, or any nation of tlie ujiivene, coul<l doubt tliem. 

t orators d» thi.t wlien some other aball liavc rividled them, 

'•M,M it never hath hap])encd in the myriads of ^nerations 

t liave passed away, ia never likely to happen in Uie myriads 

i will follow. From Asia, from Africa, fifty nations came 

1 in a l>ody, and asstiilei] the citizcms of one sconlv 

; fifty iintiiins fled from before Ibem. All the weallb 

Ipifnerof the worid, ail the civjlisntionj all the barbarism, 

leo^ucil against Alliens; the ocean was covered with 

' priile Mid .HpoilH ; the earth trembled ; moantaina were 

, dktant coasts united: Alhens gave to Natiui; her 

mm again: and equal laws were the unalienable dowry 

brongiit by Ubcrty, to tbe only men capable of hw defence 

OK bcr enjoyment. Did Fericlea, did Aspasia, did Socrates 

IX, thai the descendeiiLt of those, whose licroca and gods 

i bext but like them, should enter into the service of 

1 satraps, and become the parasites of Sicilian kings ? 

isorus, the most tem]>erate and n-liretl of mortids, 
Uir court« of princes. 

he t>nten-d them and cleansed thetn: bis brrath woa 
jtion: Ilia toLcli {lurilied. He iwrsundeti the princc» of 
In renonnee their self-eonstitnted and uidawful authority : 
effeetiug wliieh puqiose, thou must acknowledge, O Plato, 
tluit ciihtT lie was more eloquent t!um thou art, or that he was 
jusler. If, lieing in the conlhlenee of n usurjier, which in 
""If ia among llic most Iminiius of crimes, since they virtu«Ily 
ontlaws, thini never giivent lijm fwh counsel at lliy ease 
letfUK as Pytliagoras gave at tlie iwril of liis life, tliou in 
__ likewise wcrt wanting to thy duty as an Atlientan, » 
f^wbticaD, a philosopher. If thou oiTeredst it, and \i. ««k 




rejected^ and after the rejection thon yet tarriedst with him, 
then wert thou, friend Plato, an importunate sycophant and 
self-bound skve. 


I never heard that you blamed Euripides in this manner for 
frequenting the court of Archeliius. 


I have heard thee blame him for it ; and this brings down 
on thee my indignation. Poets, by the constitution of their 
minds, are neither acute reasoners nor firmly-minded. Their 
vocation was allied to sycophancy bom the b^inning : they 
sang at the tables of the rich : and he who could not make a 
hero could not make a dinner. Those who are possest of 
enthusiasm are fond of everything that excites it ; hence poets 
are fond of festivals, of wine, of beauty, and of glory. They 
can not always make their selection ; and generally they are 
little disposed to make it, from indolence of character. Theirs 
partakes less than others of the philosophical and the heroic. 
vVhat wonder if Euripides hated those who deprived him of 
his right, in adjudging the prize of tragedy to his competitor ? 
From hating the arbitrators who conmiitted the injustice, he 
preceded to hate the people who countenanced it. The 
whole frame of government is bad to those who have suffered 
under any part. Archeliius praised Euripides*s poetry : he 
therefor liked Archeliius : the Athenians bantered his poetry : 
therefor he disliked the Athenians. Beside, he could not love 
those who killed his friend and teacher : if thou canst, I hope 
thy love may be for ever T^ithout a rival. 


He might surely have found, in some republic of Greece, 
the friend who would have sympathized with him. 


He might : nor have I any more inclination to commend 
his choice than thou hast right to condemn it. Terpander and 
Thales and Pherecydes were at Sparta \*'ith Lycui^us: and 
thou too, Plato, mightest have found in Greece a wealthy wise 
man ready to receive thee, or (where words are more acceptable) 
an unwise wealthy one. Wliy dost thou redden and bite thy 
Up ? Wouldst thou rather give instruction, or not give it ? 

Kl wotild ntthcr give il, where I could. 

I ~TVoiddat thou ratlier give it to tliose wlio have if alreadv, 
1 do not need it, or to thoac wlio have it nut, and Jo 

npart it then to the unwisu ; niid to those who arc nc^lthir 
fn prefrrvnce to the rest, as they rer|uire it most, und can do 
moot good with it. 

Is Dot this a contradiction to your owii prwcpts, O 
Diogenes P Have you not been cenauring me, I iieeil not soy 
bow oernely, for my intercourse witli Dionysius? und ytrl 
elr he vu weoltliy, son-ly he required tlic advice of u 
', study he cx)u]d lutvc done much good with it. 

1 Athenian is more degrnde^ by bceoining the counsellor 
KB king, than a kiiif^ is degraded by bi-comiiig the sehooU 

•tor of iNiuiHTs in a free city. Such people na Dionysius 

t Ut be upproLkchcd by tlic brave and honest from two 
notiret ouJy : to convince them of their inutility, or to alay 
tbeta lor their iniauity. Our fathers and ourselves Imve wit- 
BBMed in more tiian one country the curses of kingly power. 

I nations, all cities, all coiiiiiiiiriiLies, »)iouid enter mto one 
I hunt, like that of llie Scrtliiuiis at the npprouch of 
ET, luil nhould follow it np unrelentingly to itn {>erditioa. 

e duutem should designate Uie victim : all who wear it, all 
whn off«T il, all wh<) bow to it, should perish. The smallest, 
the poorest, tlie least accessible village, whoso cott^cs ate 
intbun^tuishablc from the nteks around, should olTer a renatd 
for the ivTAtU of llicw monsters, lu fur tlie wolfs, the kite's, and 
the ri|Kr'» 

Tliou I'lleit us, in thy fourth book on Polity, that it matlers 
but liuli- whether a state Iw povcmed by many or one. if the 
ntic V oUihent to the laws. Why ha.vl not thou likewise told 
Vi, thai it httic matters whether tlie sun bring us h«it or cold, 
it he rijK-ns the fruits of tlie earth hy cold os ni-rfectly as by 
^^(t? Demonstrate that he does ii, iiud I sunacribt Ui \,\itt 


proposition. Demonstrate that Idngs, bj their natoie and 
education^ are obedient to the kws; bear them patientfy; 
deem them no impediment to their wishes, designs, losia, 
violences ; that a whole series of monarchs hath been of this 
character and condition, wherever a whole series hath been 
permitted to continue; that under them independence of 
spirit, dignity of mind, rectitude of conduct, energy of 
character, truth of expression, and even lower and lighter 
things, eloquence, poetry, sculpture, painting, have flourished 
more exuberantly than among the free. On the contrary, some 
of the best princes have rescinded the laws they themselves 
introduced and sanctioned. Impatient of restraint and order 
are even the quiet and inert of tne species. 


There is arestlessness in inactivity : we must find occnpation 
for kings. 


Open the fold to them and they will find it themselves : 
there will be plenty of heads and shaiiks on the morrow. I do 
not see why those who, directly or indirectly, would promote 
a kingly government, should escape the penalty of death, 
whenever it can be inflicted, any more than those who decoy 
men into slave-ships. 


Supposing me to have done it, I have used no deception. 


"What ! it is no deception to call people out of their homes, 
to off^er them a good supper and good beds if they will go 
along ^ith thee ; to take the key out of the house-door, that 
they may not have the trouble of bearing the weight of it ; to 
show them plainly tlirough the window the hot supper and 
comfortable oed, to which indeed the cook and chamoi^lain do 
beckon and invite them, but inform them however onacntering, 
it is only on condition that they never stir a foot beyond the 
supper- room and bed-room; to be conscious, as thou must be, 
when they desire to have rather their own key again, eat their 
own lentils, sleep on their own pallet, that thy friends the cook 
and chamberlain have forged the title-deeds, mortgaged the 
house and homestead, given the lentils to the groom, made a 
horse-cloth of the coverlet and a manger of the paUet ; that, 
on the first complaint against such an apparent injury (for at 


tmsmt they think and call it o>ie), llie said coak and cliain- 
Dcrlain wnxc them by the hair, atrip, scourge, imnrison, and 
CTit tl)pni, sbowinK thtm ihrou^h the grating wliat capital 
ii«tifa »f on the tablf for the mort- deserving, wliat an appetite 
'■ r fumi^ Bttr np, and how sensibk- men fold their omia 
luo ilw hmut contfliitedly, and slumber souu<Uy aft«r the 

I^pk may exercise their judgment. 

Penplc may spend their money. All people have not much 
money ; nil people have not much judfi^nent. It is cruel to 
T or impose on those who have little of either. There is 
ling fi absim) tliat tlie Ignnrunt liave not believed : tliey 
t believi^, and will believe for ever, what thou woaldst 
_h : nunelv, that others who ne^er saw them, nevej are 
•ly to we tliem, will care more about them than they should 
I abcHit tlirniseJvM, This pernicious fraud begins with 
pervcrtias the intellect, and proceeds with seducing and cor- 
■' 5 llie alTcrtions, which it transfers from the nearirst to 
it remote, from the dejirest to llie most iuchfTereut. It 
> (lie fnnhim Iioth of miud mid body ; it anniliilntes 
ll DtUy jKilitiual and moral, but, what nothing else however 
IS can do, even arithmetical projiortiona, making a 
e than a miUion. Odious is it in a jtarent to murder 
■ 0eQ m child, even in time of fataiuc : but lo sell him in the 
iSAt of plenty, to Iny Ids throat at the mercy of a wild and 
riotoni' dir>iH)t, til whet and kiss and present the knife that 
immobile him, and to a^k the same favour of being inimolatml 
for the whole family in pcrpetTiitv, Is not tliis an abomination 

Rl tbonsaitd tiroes more execrable? 
Lei Falsehood be eternally the enemy of Tmth, hut not 
wntHy her mistress ; let Power be eternally the dcspiser of 
mIems, but not etemallv her oppressor : let Genius be 
denially in the tnvin or in tlie trammels of Wealth, but not 
•Hannlly hiit vycopluuit uul his pander. 

^R» oti 

a land is Attiea 1 in which the kings themselves wen 
Jtleit and best citir^-ns, and rcsicned iheserptiv; deeming 
other worthy of supnnmiy tlmn the wisest and mact 


warlike of the immortal Gods. In Attica the oliTe and oom 
were first cultivated. 


Like other Athenians^ thou art idly fond of dwelling on the 
antiquity of the people^ and wouldst fain persuade thyself, not 
only that the first com and olive, but even that the first man, 
sprang from Attica. I rather think that what historians call 
the emigration of the Felasgians under Danatis, was the 
emigration of those ^ shepherds^ as they continued to be 
denominated, who, having long kept possession of Egypt, were 
besieged in the city of Aoudris, by Thoutmosis, and retired by 
capitulation. These probably were of Chaldaic origin. Danaus, 
like every wii<e legislator, introduced such religious lites as 
were adapted to the country in which he settled. The ancient 
being once relaxed, admission was made gradually for honoring 
the brave and beneficent, who in successive generations 
extended the boundary of the colonists, and defended them 
against the resentment and reprisal of the native chieftains. 


This may be ; but evidence is wanting. 


Indeed it is not quite so strong and satisfactory as in that 
piece of history, where thou maintainest that ' each of U9 w 
f-he half of a man! * By Neptune ! a vile man, too, or the 
computation were overchsu-ged. 


We copy these things from old traditions. 


Copy rather the manners of antiquity than the fables ; or 

* In the Banquet. No two qualities are more dissimilar than the imagina- 
tion of Plato and the imagination of Shakspeare. The Androffyne was 
probably of higher antiquity than Grecian fable. Whencesoever it originated, 
we can not but wonder how Shakspeare met with it. In his iSVit^ Jokm, 
the citizen of Angicrs says of the Lady Blanche and of the Dauphin, 

" He is the half-part of a blessed man. 
Left to be finished by such a she ; 
And she a fair divided excellence 
Whose fullness of perfection lies in him.** 

What is beautiful in poetry may be infantine in philosophy, and monstrous 
in physics. 


- i'py tbnse fnbltst only which convey the manners. Tliat one 
; waa ml '<ir niuither, is it trndiUon little meriting prcscr- 
^iiiion. Aiij olil wonmii who drinks and (to-/es, cutiltl recite 
til as mon; intcrcstiiig drpams, and wortliier of the Divinity. 

Sorely thy drronlm is of the calmest and most philosophioLl 
kinil, that llioii mii»rk<»il to mc a want of historic eviocnce, 
whm I olTcn-d 11 sujifp^stion ; mid whm Ihou thyself hast 
■ttribult-'il tn kSohiii the most improbahli^ fiilsehoods on the 
ontiqaity and the exjilftits of yunr ancentors, tpJling us that 
' oil! iU rated' these ' tnemorafile' annals. What is 

itcd at home, Soluu nicks up fresh and vivid in ^gypt. 
Egyptian priest, the oldest and wisest of the body, infotlDB 
I iMt Athens was built a tliousiuid years before Sais, by 
Mew Nwthe.*, as Ilicy cull lier, but as we, Athene, who 
1 tfae »«d of the city from tiie Earth nnd Vulcan. The 
li of j^eua an? \ost, and those of Sais mount up no 
■ Udu eight thousand years. Enough to make her talk 
B BO old woman. 
t I have, in other places and on other occasions, nrtnarked to 
^ JKmt about me nuiiiv, if not equal and similar, yet gross 
aihsarditjes in thy writuigs. 

Gently t I know it. Several of these, supiiosing them to 
rtt *bat yoD denominate them, arc origiunlly from others, and 
Bfa l the ^vcst lueii. 

■ Gross absurdities ore usmilly of that parentage: the idle 
■nil weak uroilnce bat petty onesi, and itueh as gambol at 
■boatro ana (airs. Hiine arc good for notliiikg: inen arc too 
old, and ohililren too young, to laugl) at them. There is no 
niiitu fur extu-M; or apiilogv bi the adoption of another's 
foolery, huogiuation may heat a writer to such a degree, 
that hr T'i'Lh not what drops from him or c1ing!( to liim nf Ids 
ciwD ; auotlkcr's is taken up deUbemtely, and trimmed at 
leisure. I will row proceed with thee. I have heard it 
aSniied (but, ik* nhilo»'ph<-n> are the aftirmers, tlie assertion 
r be qucjilioned) lliat thi-re is not a notion or idea, in the 
t Dumpaas uf thy works, originally thy ovm. 

1 bave made tbcm all mine by D>y manner of trmttng 





If I tbrow my cloak over a fugitive slave to ateol liim, it 
so short aod strait, so threadbare and chiokf, that be maa 
he recognised by the idlest observer who had seen him se»( 
rears ago in the market-place : but if thou lindst envdup 
liim iu thy versicolored aud elondlike vestinry, puffed n 
effuse, rustling and roiling, nobody conld guess wdl wb 
animal was under it, much legs what man. Aud such a tia* 
would conceal a gang of them, as easily as it would a jpusli; 
bed, or the study yonder of young Demosthenes. 'iWrefd 
I no more wonder that thou »rt t«npted to run in obaai 
butterflies, mid catchest many, tluin I am st di«roTeniig 1 
tliou brcjikest their wings and le^ by the weight of the ' 
thou throwest over tliem ; and tliat we find the bead uf 
indented into tlie body of another, and never an iiutiTi^ 
retaining the colour or character of any species. Thou 1 
indeed, I am incHned to believe, eome ideas of tby own : 
instance, when thou tellest us that a nell-govemed city m 
to let her wails go to sleep along the ground. Tallos forn 
that any city should do it where thou art I for thou wouli' 
surely deflower her, before the soldiers of the enemy coi 
break in on the same errand. The poets are bad en 
they every now and then want a check upon them : but 
must be an eternal vigilance against philosophers. Yet 
would not drive you all out of the city-gates, because 1 fa 
would keep the country parts from |)ollution. 

Certainly, O Diogenes, I can not retort on you Iheai 
of employing any language or any sentiments but your ow 
unquesdonubly the purest and most genuine SinopSiui. 

"Welcome to another draught of it, my courteous guea 
By thy own confession, or rather thy owu boa^t, thou stoli 
eveiT idea thy voluminous books convey ; and therefor tin 
wouldsi persuade us that all other ideas must liare an arct 
type ; and that God himself, the Demiurgos, would Uand 
and botch without one. Now c^n not God, by thy good l«i 
gentle Plato ! quite as easily form a thing as conceive it? ai 
execute it as readily at once as at tniee? Or hath he rathi 
in some slight degree, less of plastic power than of menU 
Seriously, if thon hast received these fooleries &um tl 


linn ]mefltd, pr^tliee, for want of urticles more valnable 
[Dg ikoion}; us, l»k« them back on tliy next voyage, &ai 
• them against the husk of a pist-ichio drnpl: from the 
_ of a aacrcd ape. 
Thy God is like thvself, as moat mco's Goda arc : he throws 
_ iivr n vast quantity of stuff, oiul leaves his workpeople to 
eot it out and tiick it togfrthrr, after their o»ii fashion and 
Umcj. Theiie demons or gcriii are miacliievoos nnd fantastical 
rtnpe : it would have been hetter if they liad always ntten with 
their hamh before them, or played and toyed with one unolhcr, 
** the young folks in the garden of Acadcmos. As thou 
niotliticd the ideas of those who went before thee, so those 
follow thee will modify thine. The wiser of them will 
%diere, and reasonably enough, iJiat it is time for the Dcmi- 
tngos to lay bis head npon his pillow, after heating his bmins 
wtth to many false conceptions, and to let the world go on its 



without any amtiety or concern. 

ould not thy dialogues be much better and more 
ing, if thou hadst given more variety to the characters, 
hadal introduced them cunwrsing on a greater variety of 
ipo? Tliy»c'lf and Prodicus, if thou wouldst not disdain to 
meet him, might illustrate the nature of allegorv, might ei]>lain 
to joar vidicueo where it can enter gracefully, and where it 
must be excluded ; wc should learn from you, perhaps, under 
<^lio«e gui^hmcc it first camcitito Orcccc : wbctncr anyone has 
i-irotioiia! the existence of it iu the poems of Orjiheus and 
Miueus (now so lost that we nusse^ no tracer iif them), or 
wbctlu-T it was introduced by llomer, and derived from the 
(aIcs and mythology of the East. Certainly be has given us 
for deities such personages as were never worahipt in our 
oountry ; tome he found, 1 suapeet, in the clirysalia state of 
fDctaphon, and luitcbed tbem by the warmth of hiit genius 
ima allegories, giving them a strength of wing by which they 
were carried to the summit of Olympus. Euripides and 
Ansl«)pluuiea might discourae upon eomedy aud tragedy, and 
npem (bat specie of poetry wluch, though the oarlicst and 
nMMt nnivenial, was cultivsted in Attica with little *ucce» 
BntQ tiic time of Sophodcs. 

Yon nam the Ode. 

I do. There was bonlly a corntT of Greece, Imrdlj aa 



ilety where the children of Pallas were not called to sdiool 
and challenged bj choristers. 


These disquisitions entered into no portion of mj plan. 


Bather say^ ill-suited thy genius ; having laid down no plan 
whatever for a series of dialogues. School-exercises, or, if 
thou pleasest to call them so, disquisitions, require no such 
form as thou hast given to them, and they block up the inlets 
and outlets of conversation, which, to seem natural, should 
not adhere too closely to one subject. The most delightful 
parts both of philosophy and of fiction might have opened 
and expanded before us, if thou hadst selected some fifty or 
sixty of the wisest, most eloquent, and most facetious, and 
hadst made them exert their abilities on what was most at 
their command. 


I am not certain that I could have given to Aristophanes 
all his gaiety and humour. 


Art thou certain thou hast given to Socrates all his irony 
and perspicacity, or even all his virtue ? 


His virtue I think I have given him fully. 


Few can comprehend the whole of it, or see where it is 
separated from wisdom. Being a philosopher, he must have 
known that marriage would render him less contemplative 
and less happy, though he had chosen the most beautiful, the 
most quiet, the most obedient, and most afijectionate woman 
in the world ; yet he preferred what he considered his duty as 
a citizen to his peace of mind. 


He might hope to beget children in sagacity like himself. 


He can never have hoped it at all, or thought about it as 
became him. He must have observed that the sons of medi- 
tative men are usually dull and stupid ; and he might foresee 
that those philosophers or magistrates whom their father had 
excelled would be, openly or covertly, their enemies. 


Ilere then is no proof of Iiifl prudence or his virtue. Trni; 
indeed is TOUT remark on tlie cbildreu of the couteinpliitive; 
and we nave UBoall^r found tbem rejected from the higlier 
uSca, to jniniah Ihctn for the cclebritv of their fathers. 

MTiT didst act thou introduce liiy preceptor arguing fcirly 
) fbllj on some of these topics ? Wert thoo afraid of dis- 
[ his inconsL^tencies ? A man to be tjuitc consistent 
iv« imitc alont;. 1 know not nhclhcr Sucrnivs wouhl 
icceeded in the itttempt ; 1 only know I have failed. 

Il hoff-, most excellent Diogenes, I shall not be acciued of 
' icting mnch longer so desirable nn experiment. 

1 1 will benr wiih ihee soinr time yet. The earth is nn 

uettDu to tlie frrowlli of seed ; but the seed can not ^rov 

X without it. When I have done with thoe, i will dismiss 

e with my u.-<ual eourte.iy. 

There are many wlio marry from utt«r indigence of thought, 

captivated by the plavfulne^s of youth, as if a kitten were 

never to be a cat I Socrates was an unlikely man to h&ve 

I .boen under so sorrowful nn illosion. lliosu nmong you who 

» that he niJirried the too hnndy Xniitippeforthe purpoM 

r aercising hin patience, lurn him from a iihilosouhcr into a 

We should be at least ad moderate in the indulgence of 

e nutters which bring our patience into play, as in the 

nlpncc of any other. It is belter to he sound than liard, 

i better to be hard than callous. 

V that, Diogenca ? 

I do say it ; and I confess to thoo that I am grown hardo 

ihan i» well for me. I'bon wilt not !>o easilv confess tJiat sn 

opposite courtc of life linth midered thee callous. Fnigali^ 

wvehty niiwt w;! ujtoii wa long anil uninli-rruptedlv before 

produce this elfect : plewure ami ^i-llJsliiieMK soon prodnce 

Other. Tlie n^ iron is but one moment in ecnuing op 

^ fuue^ from the puddle it is turned into, and in laong ita 

bigfalDeu and its ocxibilit;. 

loan t» 




I have admitted your definitions^ and now I accede to yonr 
illnstrations. But illustrations are pleasant merdy ; and defi- 
nitions are easier than discoveries. 


The easiest thin^ in the world when th^ are made : never- 
theless thou hast given us some dozens, and there is hardly a 
complete or a just one on the list; hardly one that any wench, 
watcming her bees and spinning on Hymettus, might not have 


As you did, no doubt, when you threw into my school the 
cock you had stript of its feathers. 


Even to the present day, neither thou nor any of thy scholars 
have detected the feJlacy. 


We could not dissemble that our definition was ineuct. 


I do not mean that. 


What then ? 


I would remark that neither thou nor thy disciples found 
me out. 


We saw you plainly enough : we heard you too, crying 
Behold PlaUf9 man ! 


It was not only a reproof of thy temerity in definitions, but 
a trial of the facility with which a light and unjust ridicule of 
them would be received. 


Unjust perhaps not, but certainly rude and vulgar. 


Unjust, I repeat it : because thy definition was of man as 
nature formed nim : and the cock, when I threw it on the 
floor, was no longer as nature had formed it. Thou art 
accustomed to lay down as peculiarities the attributes that 
belong, equally or nearly, to several things or persons. 



^^B The cUartcteristic is not aiwava the deGnitioQ, nor meuit to 

^^^t MCctrted for it. I liave caUed tragedy Sr^^orcpncWaron, 

P 'most Ill-light ful to the people,' aud ^x*'y"y"«^'^'''"'i 'moat 

•giloliiig to the soul ; ' no person can accuse me uf laj'ing 

dovD titrsv t*rm8 ns thf d^'nition of Iriigedy. The former is 

I &5 appliciilile to rat-catching, uiid the Utter to cold- 

llbinfi. I have calki) lh<^ dog ipiXSiiaffti, ' foud of acquiring 

iIiiinDatioii,' and tpMiriMpov, ' fond of wisdom ; ' but 1 never 

JRve denied that num is equally or more. 

Dcny^ it llien iastantly. Every dog has that i»ropcrty ; every 
un has not : I mean the ^diofiaffts. Tike ^t\4iioipov is faUe 
I bath cues : for worda must be taktm as they paaa current 

t our (Lay», and not according to any ancient acceptation. 

'~e autlior of the HargiUt says, 

e certainly the ao^ov has no reference to the higher aud 
rUnAual powers, as with ns, since he is placed by the poet 
g dclvcTs and ploughmen. The compound word ^iki- 
I did not exist when the author of Mar<fit(<* wrote; and 
e lover of wisdom, in liis dtiys, was the lover of the country, 
r as])irants, in ours, are igimrreling and fighting in tlie 
eta about her; and ncvcrlhele-t,", while they rustle their 
Utatic robes around them, Wvo her aa destitute, as naked, 
I u hungry ua they (uuud her. 

^^K I com 
^1 Notwil 

Sid your fcfttherlcss cock render her any service? 

I corroded and enlarged the definition without yonr 

Not without it : the beat assistance is the first, and the first 
WM the detection of insutticiciicy and error. Thy addition 
was, ' that man has broad iiails : ' now art thou certttiu that 
all monkeys have sharp and round ones ? 1 have hconl the 
ooutrary; and 1 know tlial the mole has tliem broad uul tlaX. 



What wouldst thou say man is^ and other animnls are not ? 


I would say^ lying and malicious. 


Because he alone can speak ; he alone can reflect. 


Excellent reason ! If speech be the conununication of 
what is felt, made by means of the voice, thinkest thou other 
creatures are mute? All that have legs, I am inclined to 
believe, have voices : whether fishes have, I know not. Thou 
wouldst hardly wish me to take the trouble of demonstrating 
that men lie, both before their metamorphosis into philosophers 
and after : yet perhaps thou mayst wish to hear wherefor, if 
other animals reason and reflect (which is proved in them by 
apprehending mischief and avoiding it, and likewise by the 
exertion of memory), they are not also malicious. 


Having kept in their memory an evil received, many of 
them evince their malice, by attacking long afterward those 
who did it. 


This is not malice, in man or beast. Malice is ill-will 
without just cause, and desire to injure without any hope of 
benefiting from it. Tigers and serpents seize on the unwary, 
and inflict deadly wounds: tigers from sport or hunger, 
serpents from fear or hurt: neither of them from malice, 
neither of them from hatred. Dogs indeed and horses do 
acquire hatred in their domestic state : they had none origi- 
nally: they must sleep under man's roof before they share 
with him liis high feeling; that high feeling which renders 
him the destroyer of his own kind, and the devourer of his 
own heart. We are willing to consider both revenge and envy 
as much worse blemishes in the character than malice. Yet 
for one who is invidious there are six or seven who are 
malicious, and for one who is revengeful there are fifty. In 
revenge there must be something of energy, however short- 
breathed and indeterminate. Many are exempt from it 
because they are idle and forgetful ; more, because they are 
circumspect and timid ; but nothing hinders the same people 



I bring nutlicioas. £nvy, ubominnble as we cult her, and 

'ip is, ofteu stands ujmn a richly-fieured base, wid is to be 

CTiised only by tlie sadness witn which she leAiis over Uip 

I of power aiid geiiius, 'Die. contracted heiirt of 

e can never swell to sadness. Seeing notliiiig thiit she 

I dr<mble, she covets nothing; she would rather the 

I thim the posM-^ioii of wtiut is amiable; slid hates 

high and low, bod and good, coldly p'^rtiiiacious and laziljr 


'fhou Flato, who hast cause to be invidious of not many, 

"t of nearly all : and thy wit pays the fine, being rendered 

lity tlic poorest I know in any Athenian ambitious of it. 

t tliG fact be thus, the reason is different. 

I^niat eveiy witticism is an inexact thouglit: tJiat what is 
■foctly true is iimxirfeetly witty : and thut I have alIcndG(l 
G sedulously onii more successfully to verity. 

tWliT not bring the KiinpUcitv of truth into the paths of life? 
ff nut try whetlier it would look as beeoniingly in actions aa 
■lord* ; in the wardrobe and at table as in aeiluctions and 
gisnis ? why not demonstrate to the youth of Athens that 
B good earnest canst be cuntntted with a littlu ? 

[ So I coald, if the times required it. 

Thry will soon; and we should at least be taught our 
nulimrut*, before a hard lesson is put into our hands. 

I Biokcs mc think again thai your ^nunmatical kno«> 
:, O Diogenes, is esleiuivc. The phun and only scum 
e Mcontl vase . . 

ut second verte? Were we talking of any such tilings? 
I, josi now. 



I liad forgotten it. 


How I forgotten the Margitea I The meaning of the words 
is, 'nor fit for anything else.' 

Homer in like manner uses €i5ci$ very fireqoently, to indicate 
mere manual skill. The spirit of inquiry, the ^lAofui^es, we 
take upon ourselves with the canine attributes: we talk of 
indagating, of investigating, of questing. 


I know the respect thou bearest to the do^y character, and 
can attribute to nothing else the complacency with which thou 
hast listened to me since I released thy doak. If ever the 
Athenians, in their inconstancy, should issue a decree to 
deprive me of the appellation they have conferred on me, rise 
up, I pray thee, in my defence, and protest that I have not 
merited so severe a mulct. Something I do deserve at thy 
hands ; having supplied thee, first with a store of patience, 
when thou wert going without any about thee, although it is 
the readiest viaticum and the heartiest sustenance of human 
life ; and then with weapons from this tub, wherewith to drive 
the importunate cock before thee out of doors again. 


My presence then may, after so generous and long a hospi- 
tality, be excused. 


Wait a little yet, to accept a few gifts and gratuities at 
parting. The Defence of Socrates comes out somewhat late. 
The style pleases me greatly more than in any of thy dialogues : 
truth is the chief thing wanting in it. 


In what part ? For surely the main is well remembered by 
all the city. 


Socrates, I am credibly informed, never called Meletus a 
strange man, as thou recordest, for accusing him of thinking 
the sun stone, the moon earth, instead of gods ; telling him 
before the judges that such an accusation ought rather to 
have been brought against Anaxagoras, whose treatise to this 
purport was sold at the theatre for a drachma. Never did 
Socrates say that he might fairly be laughed to scorn if he 



ever had ooantenaiiired so absunl a doctriue. Now, Plato, 
allhoDf'b io thy work on the Laws thou ut nplicit in thy 
dccUntiDD that the? sun mid tnoun are deitiea, Anaxagaras 
demcfl tlic fart, and Socrates never asserted it. In this 
inurc{im<nitiitiou of tliiiir, regarding the frieitd of Pericles, 
then wna htti*' Iiunn Wyond the falsehood : for Aiiaxagoras 
WSB dead ; and lit-iulock might be growing ou iiis gmve, hut 
coold not reach his heart or even liis extremities. When I 
VBs B youiipstcr I often tried to throw a stone over the 
moot], unsuspicious that it nas a goddess : had it been, she 
mnat \v ihc best tempcrfil of all iii Iieavcn, or she would have 
tent the st^me back on my head for my impiety. My wonder 
waa, Ibiit, although I clearly saw the stone ascend iis high 
I the moon, ana somewhat higher, it always fell on this 
'a. The moon seemed only to laugh at nic; and so did 
I girls who were reaping. Had they been i)liiIo8opher8, 
my true religion about them, they would have made an 
beat of me, and have tornr me tu pieces. But beinK of 
Mt of Athens, titey thought about uotluiig else Luan 
mt ftt an idle [Klter of the moon. 

D these mntters. 

I Hot, if pbiloaophers are agreed that it is impious to inquire 
■to them, which, as tliou relatcst, was the oninion of Socratca. 
IFithout 6011 and moon wc have more gods tlum wo know 
"what to do with, If the greater nre unsblc to monnge us and 
keep US in order, sun and moon can help Ihnn but lillli'. It is 
long bfionr mi'n apply to any goml tbf tilings that lie before 
thins. Air, lire, wule.r, have been applied to new puiposca 
fnun age to age: poets have seen uimlv some of thcmi 
philowphers would extinguish the Uttle lamps they cany; 
bal nut such pliilosophcrs as Anaxngorns, Common thingv, 
which nl present arc brought into little or no iim', will licrts 
afirr lir applied lo many; nbove other eommon Ihings, 
cniM-. Sticrates eulls ibnt forbidden whirli, piling up 
ou syllogism, and exerting the whole length ol h» 
', he was unable to reach. Pythagoras, as wi«; n man, 
gtiras a wiser, were invited by Nature to irnTXtignt*! her 
: vhmi tbey were advancing too boldly, she gently 
jMhem back, but never threw thi^ door abruptly in 


their faces ; it stands wide open stil. Socrates denounced as 
impious all phpical speculations ; these the religions man^ the 
only true plulosopher, might find manifested to him through 
oracles and omens. If thj master^ among his many acquire- 
ments^ had acquired the faculty of speaking plainly^ he would 
have spoken like Anaxagoras^ whom^ at least it must be 
conceded^ he never had, as thou representest, the folly, the 
disingenuousness, the impudence to decry. 


Did not the priestess of Apollo declare him to be the wisest 
of mankind ? 


The priestess was an old woman, and the fumes were 
potent. I have never been able to find out on what occasion 
this oracle was delivered. Oracles are consulted by those 
who are the most interested. Surely not even a philosopher 
would be so impudent as to ask a god whether he was 
the wisest man upon earth. Nor are such the matters on 
which oracles are pronounced ; but future results of arduous 
undertakings. The story carries a falsehood on the face 
of it. 


You are the first that ever doubted the fact, whatever may 
have been the occasion : there is a cloud of witnesses to its 
universal belief. 


I never could see my way through a cloud of witnesses, 
especially in temples. Lies are as communicative as fleas; 
and truth is as difficult to lay hold upon as air. 


I feel the acuteness of the former simily ; and I wish I 
could controvert the latter. 


Consider well the probability of such a declaration from 
Delphi. Would the people of Athens, religious as they are, 
ever have ventured to accuse of impiety, and to condenm to 
death for it, the very man whom an infallible God had so 
signalised ? If fifty ages and fifty nations had taken up this 
fable, I would reduce it to dust under my feet. 


I dare not listen to such discourse. 

I limitnl ray disooursi! to t,lic ilefence of Socntea: with 
■uch a« Anaiagoras anil Deiiiocritiis we have nothing in 
mmmoii. But consnring Socwics as von do, you must surely 
>t your aaaai modesty, citizen of Sinop& t 

Tnue me then ; since, wanting it, I never took anyone's 

diould I now wonder to hear you cnll vonrself as 
he WHS. 

^ ConlJ lie itpcp at home as I do ? Could he abstain from 
jmtioning nnil ijuibbling, to win the applnusu of bays and 
'^nSaaih ? Am ] not conttTitcd in my own house licry, over 
wboM- roof, stuuding on level ground, I cost my shadow. I 
pn-tcod not to know Uic secrcis of the lower rpgions or the 
»er ; I let tbi; GimIs sit quiet, tind they do tlift same by me. 
■ling tliat tliere tire three yorips, I linve taken the word of 
t wife for it, and never have carried a link down bdow in 
wh of n fourth. He found lier np here. I neither envy 
p kti diR-overr, nor wonder at the tranciuility of his death, 
a is trijuuiite ; saying, doing, avoiding, 

ine, I must acknowledge, has been insuiRcicnt in the 
r qiulily : bat I hope to correct my fault in future, 

I On this particular I am not incredulous. Thou owcat mc 
> nnch ever to let mc smell thy beard again. From this 
mUe and frugal house of mine thou shall canr home whole 
^ _ iba, and none mtitilalcd ; intelligible truths, and none 
Bnbtgnotu. Proliobiy I know not a (juarter of thy writings ; 
but, in the number 1 do know, t RuA more incongruoua 
scnps of philoiiopliy and religion, sweet, sour, and savoury, 
I into one st«wing-paii, and siinmcring and bubbling, 
f stomncli can digest or my fingers separate. 

D encmntaslie! If I may judge by the fumes of the 


garlic^ the stomach is sarelj strong : and^ if anotlier sense 
is equally faithful^ the fingers are armed at all points. 


Well spoken and truelj. I hare improved thee alzeady^ 
go thy way^ and carry thy whole robe safe back. 

Diogenes LaertduA, biographer of the Cynic, is anumg the moot inelegsnt 
and injudicious writers of antiquity ; yet his book is highly valuable for 
the anecdotes it preserves. No philosopher or other man more abounded 
in shrewd wit than the philosopher of Sinop^ whose opinions have been 
somewhat misunderstood, and whose memory hath suffered much injustioe. 
One Diocles, and afterward Eubulides, mention him Q.t appears) as having 
been expeUcd from Sinopd for counterfeiting money : and his biographer 
teUs us that he has recorded it of himself His words led astray these 
authors. He says that he marked false money ; for an equivoke was ever 
the darling of Diogenes, and, by the marking of fiaJse money, he means only 
that he exposed the fallacies of pretenders to virtue and phfloeophy. Had 
he been exiled for the crime of forgery, Alexander of Macedon, we may 
well suppose, would not have visited him, would not have desired him to 
ask any fieivour he chose, would not have declared that if he were not 
Alexander, he would fain have been Diogenes. He did not visit him from 
an idle curiosity, for he had seen him before in his father's camp on his 
first invasion of Greece, where he was apprehended as a spy, and, being 
brought before the king, exclaimed, " I am indeed a spy; a spy of thy temerity 
and cupidity, who hazardest on the cast of a die thy throne and life.** This 
is related by Plutarch in his Ethics Some men may think forgery no very 
hainous crime, but all must think it an act of dishonesty ; and kings (whose 
moral scale is nowhere an exact one) would be likely to hold it in greater 
reprobation than anything but treason and insurrection. Had the 
accusation been true, or credited, or made at the time, the Athenians 
would not have tolerated so long his residence among them, severe as he 
was on their manners, and peculiarly contemptuous and contumelious 
toward the orators and philosophers ; Plato for instance, and afterward 
Demosthenes. Here however we may animadvert on the inaccuracy of 
attributing to him the reply, when somebody asked him what he thought 
of Socrates as having seen him, * thai he thought him a madman,* Diogenes 
was but twelve years old at the death of Socrates, and did not leave 
Sinope til long after. The answer, we may conceive, originated from the 
description that Plato in many of his dialogues had given of his master. 
Among the faults of Plato he ridiculed his affectation of new words 
unnecessary and inelegant; for instance his coinage of Tp€ar€(6rni and 
KvaOArns, which Plato defended very frigidly, telling him that, altiiough he 
had eyes to see a cup and a table, he had not understanding for cuppeUy 
and taJbleity ; and it indeed must be an uncommon one. Plato himself, the 
most invidious of the Greek writers, says that he was another Socrates, but 
a mad one ; meaning (no doubt) that he was a Socrates when he spoke 
generally, a mad one when he spoke of him. Among his hearers was 
JPhocion : a &ct which alone would set aside the tale of his adversaries, a 


In] tuDca rDpcated by their nwdara, aliunt his publit inJuigmoo in 
iaunonbUlMB «liich tio iui(^tmtiini wouiA tolerate, 
in llfo h« *M lakHi] bj irinito, Mid volJ to Xraioau Uie Cormtldon, 
EMIilnm )i« ^luotnl, icd who declu^ thai n i^il geiiiui biul 
^toml kla LiHiM in DioETBUca. Dcro bs died. A eoDtwI uroac, to whom 
aBotiK hi! Ititinuktca mod disciplu should Im allowed tb« diitioctioa of 
mtptijiiHf Ou upoiuoa of Iili ftiiienU : nor wu St seMled til the fttlioreof 
Im mliMn and the leadam of lh» l>«npli> ni«t together, and agreed t» lyorj 
feiM at Um public ehkn^ at tlie mt« of the iMhtun* ; the DtMt remarkablo 
^ot la Oims. b; the aBttnblige of wboae brnron inh^tmti it w« Buda 
' ■BOrad b>7 thagnniM iu hunoiu' of Lor gods. 



Xenophnii, I linri; l(iiigi!d for en opportunitT of conversing 
viUi liim ulonc, on imittt^ra in wliich tliou cxritest mv admira- 
tion. Acciinliitg lo Te]MTt thon wert tJie ilisciplo of Socraict 
the uiASP, whiim tlie AlLeiiiana (condemned to ibink hi'mlock, 
bocsaae be bod a gmus of his ovn. 
^^^Bt is tnu, O C^rus, I wna. 

^^^nerilj, vandcrful nan, llioii lunst be thr best furrier and 

^TEitrr ill Or^vp; nnil, thinking on tliee, I have oftentiineo 

•ifthrd in inv hi^rt timi so deserving a country aa thy Attica, 

whirb i« nut devtilijtt> of wolves, polccata, und foic», bad, for 

traj oneof them, a leopard, a Hon, and a tiger. 


lO MUi of Darina, king of kings I the gods do not bratow 

' Ibctr giftj npon one countn- ; or, havine bestowed them, it 

mtih giKirl unto tbrir tlinne majesties tlint niurtols t-hould 

eoonlcnct tiieir bciieliecnce. \Vc no luOgtT b*vc lli'i-w i-alinnt 

-I tfatuirn among us ; to which priviiliun I attribute it chieJL; 

■|rifa|we pcuWM more eloquent illdeied end leuinini,' Hum tliiMfi 

^^^B haTc tJieru, bat less WUly itctivity and strength. 

^^^Thepe are other and better rewons, Xcnophon, for thcss 


things. You are unbelievers in the tnie religion^ and have 
sunk through your idleness on the bosom of false gods : you 
dasp graven images^ falling at the feet of such as have any. 


O Cyrus^ I have observed that the authors of good make 
men very bad as often as they talk much about them ; whether 
it be to punish us for our presumption, or merely to laugh at 
us, I do not know ; nor have I ever heard my master Somites 
discourse upon the question. Certain it appears to me from 
whatever I have read, that the powerful ana the wise lose both 
their power and their wisdom the moment they enter into this 
dim and sacred inclosure ; just as, on entering the apartment 
of the women in your country, you lay aside both slipper and 
turban, and cover the head with only the extremity of the 


We will try to keep ourselves no less cool and orderly on 
our argument, if thou wilt come into it with me. And now 
inform me, O most excellent, on what difference in religion or 
government you Greeks denominate all other nations, and 
among the rest even us, barbarians ? 


If, Cyrus, I may (as I believe I may) rely on thy wisdom, 
thy modesty and moderation, I will answer the question to the 
best of my abilities. 


I, who aspire to the throne of my ancestors, can not be 
angry at the voice of truth, nor offended that a guest should 
execute my wishes. 


Courtesy and gentleness distinguish the Persians from oth» 
mortals. They are less subject to cruelty than any race among 
men, unless sceptres lie across their path. Now, Cyrus, those 
things must surely be the worst of things which render the 
most humane of men the most inhumane. I deviate a little 
way from the main question, like my teacher, for the purpose 
of asking a preparatory one, which may lead me back again, 
and enable me to conduct thee smoothly and pleasantly. Pray 
inform me, O Cyrus, since I am about to be a leader in thy 
army, what are thy orders if I should happen to intercept the 
concubines of any hostile satrap P 



i O Xcnophon, Itccp ihy liaods, thy cyra, tUy desires, away 
I tliem, ns becomes thy gravity of n'ifidoni and purity of 
t, expressed in a coont^^iiiinee wliere we disceni ami vencrntfl 
D beauty of seiicu-sncss aud reserve. 

I O Cyiu*, I wn a hunter, and, Iwing so, a deviser of stnta- 
aii and may percliance take othera tiuui concubines. I dare 
i utter what bbors iu my bosom : in vain fidelity excitea 
nd uiges mc. 

^cak, O best Xtmopbon ! 


Uicn dfrstiny thonli) r.tutt down before me tbe horse of thy 
et Artaxerxes, and th« chancca of war, or Mars after due 
loe, should place him in my power, what ia my duty F 

Cnist not thou, having in turn with others of thy country- 

tthiB command of t«n thousand (irrck!>, do iby duty 
ut consulting lue, in cnsea wlucb, being unfore^seeu, an 
B fall of B king is terrible, 
e rebound is worse. When your Saturn fell from heaven, 
£d my God or mortal lend a hand to raise bim up again? 

It wen: impiety to contend against Jupit«r. 

It were madnrsa la contend agaiimt Destiny. According to 
3 bbles, Saturn came first ; then came Junitrr. Tlie same 
IM right of expelling and occupying wiQ h?. asserted aa 
inm may require. But Destiny saw the order of things 
L cad Dees it continue : and gods before her are almint as 
\t and weak a* we are : fhc leaches lliem to rcpejit her words 
I obliges them to execute her will. If t hi>u baat any wisdom, 
tbon surely hast, disciple of Socralea the mage, never 
k ne anutbor question on sueh a contingency : hut answer 
s now, 1 mtrwit Ihcf, about llic strange wordiarAanamtvL 


which (I hear) there are satraps and royalets who take offence 
when you apply it to them. 


Attribute not the invention of the word to us, O Cyras ! 
I have been as studious to know the derivation of it, as thoa 
art ; for it is not Greek. On the return of Plato (of whom 
perhaps thou hast heard some mention) from Egypt, I learned 
from him* that the expression was habitual with me priests of 
that country, whence we, who have borrowed much knowledge 
from the Egyptians, borrowed also this term. They apply it 
as we do, to all strangers indiscriminatdy : but originiedly it 
signified those only who live nearest to them, and whom on 
that account, as is customary with every nation in the world, 
they hated most. The Africans to the westward are called by 
themselves ber-ber, a generic name, and probably of honorable 


Xenophon, thou art indeed a treasury of wisdom : and in 
addition to it, I pray thee, do the gods, as I have heard, 
manifest to thee future events in dreams ? 


Some they have truly laid open unto me. 


Couldst not thou, O most wonderful, pray to them (not 
telling them that I said anything about the matter) to give 
thee one about the success of my arms ? For our own pure 
religion does not allow us to expect or to pray for such an 


If we had an oracle near, I would consult it. For dreams 
usually are confined to the eventual good or evil of the 
dreamer ; although there are instances to the contrary ; but in 
these instances the dreams fall upon minds peculiarly gifted, 
and properly fitted for their reception. 


1 have asked the Sun several times for counsel ; and yet I 

* Plato says nothing on the subject: it seems probable that in this 
manner the expression came first among the Greeks, who would otherwise, 
we may suppose, have taken the name of some nearer and more ferodoas 

I ooUeet out of his nuliniice any certain sigii or 
token. Otdy once it vaa attend^ hy a lark, suddenly 

e of our nW poets, in n volume laid Up ut Perscpolis, 
9 her. llie lark herself, iind the m:oileotion u( Ihu 
, comforted nnd aiiimnteil me grmtlj; first the bird, 
J and daring; then the brightness of the air; and lastljr, 
iirindpally, the words " that she was rising where none 
a falKjw hiT," This most certainly mean myself : for who 
B rajinow that Artaxenics at that moment saw another hirk 
•—] the like, or remembered the same verses, which caice 
like voice inspired i* 

Altbnugti larks sre not strictly birds of augury, like eagles 
"* vultures, an<l swans and herons, and owli* and chickens, 
this country, and againitt the Sun, and upon such an 
m, the appearance hath ib weight with me, Cyrus I 
iwrvcr I woiud not neelect to sharpen the scimitar, and to 
Mw tJut tlie hoi«cs be wdl exercised and have plenty of oats 
and barley in the manger, and tliat their manes be c«r«raltv 
oouihnl, lest the advi^ntary lliiiik ns disorderly and unjirovided, 
and inchncd to flight. For the immortal go<ls have often 
changed their mind!< upon finding us too confident and secure, 
Of too negligent and idle, and have enlightened ours, to our 
with a ni:w au<l contrary interpretatioii of BcnU;ncea 
by tlicir graclo«, 

irflccting a little, I think these oracles in general arc 

«uh, O bl&melesa Cyrns, tliat such a word had sbtct 
■ iwn the enclosure of ihy teeth, as the divine Uomcr 

I wowler, most intelligent nnd thoughtful Xcnophcin, that 
~ neks, fo few ■» tiun an of yuu, anuald worship sodi t 
tot gwb. 

I 1, O Cpra, tluit yuu who havt occasion for so many, 


and particularly just at prestnt^ should adore but one. The 
Sun (I would speak it without offence) is nothing but an orb 
of fire ; altliough, as some say, of a prodigious magnitude, 
hardly less than the Pdoponnese. 


I once heard from a slave, a scholar of Democritus, that it 
is many hundred times greater than the earth. 


I seldom laugh, and ought never at insanity, and least of all 
at this. Alas, poor Greek ! when he lost his freedom he lost 
his senses. O immortal Gods! may my countrymen at no 
time be reduced to that calamity, which nothing but this can 


He added that, immense as is the glorious orb, it is only a 
dewdrop on the finger of God, sliining from it under the light 
of his countenance, as he waves his paternal blessing over the 
many-peopled world. 


This is poetry, but oriental. Strange absurdity ! when 
Jupiter is barely a foot taller than 1 am ; as may be well 
imagined by his intermingling with our women, and without 
inconvenience on either side : at least I have heard of none 
recorded by the priests. He has indeed a prodigious power of 
limb, and his expansion at need is proportionate to his 


Give me thy sentiments, freely and entirely. 


I can not but marvel then, O C}tus, at the blindness of the 
Persians. There is no other great nation, at all known to us, 
that does not acknowledge a plurality and variety of Gods ; 
and this consent, so nearly universal, ought to convince the 
ingenuous and unprejudiced. I see the worst consequences 
to a government in countenancing the adoration of a single 
one, to the exclusion and mortification of the rest. 


Perhaps to such a loose fabric as a republic. 


D a monarchy no less. Powt-r )iath la-rc too its gradutioiis ; 
p atcioarch, the nuigcs, anil the sntrnp?. 

I Do not joa sec at once the beauty of this form ? No 

ireniincnt is lianDonious or rntiounl without three estates; 

e decorous or (ttubile. The thrune unst have legs ; but the 

pmiut never fitand uppermost: the king bears upon the 

1, thcY bear njron the floor, or iJcople, The king rcacrvcs 

bmU omnipotence ; he grants to liis magM omniscience ; 

thu people, in the \>ody, omnipresence. In this manner he 

■■^"n himself i but all is on«. Where power is so well 

se of urgency we might impose taxes to the 

int of nearly a tenth, and rarely hear a murmur in the 

If you, the magistrates of free (irccks, were to demand 

r fifteenth of the property in Attica for the purpowra of 

lent, the people voiiid stone yon. Now un<|u<'.->tioniibly 

t r^rocn i» liie best which hath constantly Ihc most [wwcr 

: them: a> tliat is the \)&t riding by wliich tlie hurae is 

I the moMt eiuily and nuietly, in even places and 

Notliinii is truer or plainer. If we had as many 

i and temples as you have, and if our deities and priests 

as good appetites, our armies must be smaller, our horses 

er, and Ihrrv would be more malignity and discord in the 

inoe*. For kII sectJ>, all favorers 1 mean of particular 

I Rtid godtlemes, are united in one sentiment, tliat tlicir 

a ut equally fond of picking bones and breaking them. 


Onr nligion is most hcantifuL 

feExtRInely so on the outside. In this externa] beanty, as in 
it ct women when it is extreme, there is little cxnitvsion, 
k KUBc. Our ritnol is the best that can )jc devisetl for any 
boi dimalc. In order to adon the Sun at his ri:>iiig, we must 
(it is nmllnM lo "uy) rise early. This i% the lime of day when 
tite mind and Ixiitv are mo^t active, and most labour can be 
performed both \>y men and cattle. Hcnco agriculture 
floorishea among n^. Cleanliness, the conscquciioo of our 
ablutions, is another spring of activity and health. We 
poaaof l«rge windy plain^ which nwer would bo cultivated 
unles they jiroduced niyrrii, benzoin, lavender, and other 


odours; the only sacrifices we make to Ghxl. The earth offers 
them to her Creator where she hath Boihiiig else to offer ; and 
he receives with a paternal smile, in these ^ent downs, remote 
from groves, from cities and from temples, her innocent 
oblations, her solitary endearments, her pure breath. I do not 
complain that the Boeotians kill a bull tor the same purpose; 
but a bull is that to which others beside gods and priests 
could sit down at table : and the richer plains of Boeotia would 
be cultivated whether JujHter ate his roast beef or not. 


There are many reasons, O Cyrus, politically speaking, for 
your religion ; but it is not founded on immutable truth, nor 
supported by indubitable miracles. 


What things are those ? 


I could mention several, attested by thousands. Those of 
Bacchus, who traversed your country, are remembered stil 
among you : but as Apollo is the God from whom at this 
crisis we may hope a fevorable oracle, I would represent to 
you his infancy, his flight in the arms of Latona, and his 
victory over the serpent : all as evident as that he sits above 
us arrayed in light, and is worshipped by you, O Cyrus, 
although in ignorance of his godhead. 


I have heard about these things: and since perhaps we 
may consult his oracle, I will not question his power or deity 
until that is over. About the event I have more curiosity 
than inquietude, knowing the force of legitimacy on the minds 
of men. 

Why dost thou sigh, my friend? do I appear to thee light, 
irresolute, inconstant ? 


Not thou, O Cyrus ; but thy evil station. Nothing is so 
restless as royalty : not air, nor ocean, nor fire : nothing can 
content or hold it. Certainties are uninteresting and sating 
to it; uncertainties are solicitous and sad. In its weakness 
it ruins many, in its strength more. Thou, O Cyrus, art the 
most intelligent of kings, and wilt be (let me augur it) the 
most potent. Think that the immortal gods have placed 



1 tirf eminence only as their sentinel, whose wntcti is 
Inog UmI ttitle, stationing thw at tlic principiil gtil? in the 
CBCunpmrnt of mankind. GreHt is the goud or ev-il that is 
abont to llow for anii nonr iiriili^T tLee. 

/ir an/] near! TIimg words, I think, are rather ill pbced, 
who was tlic disciple of Socrates the mage. They 
G tionever llieir uicuniiig, thur proprietT, sud, in tby eyea« 
■ dght order. Thou, Xt-uopliou, 1 perceive, wuiudat 
letrate into inv thoughts relating to the Athenians : 
ady penetralcd into Uh'itb, 1 know thnt iu sound 
I never should let an ally whom you have scr\*ed be 
_ U yourselves, if you can prevent it ; and thul those 

whom yoti iu<sist, like those whom you attack, should come 
oS tbe wor^ for it iu the end. Individuals whom ^ou 
ftuceour id private life muy sometimes be gmteful ; kings 
never arc. Thev will become of an unfriendly temper toward 
vvKi, wrre it only to prove to others, and to uersuado them* 
ftAytM, that they were jjowcrful and flourishing enough to 
'uvc doDt without you, 

L If the victory should be mine, as can not he doubted . . 
' ig born the son of a king, Artaicrxes not . . there is no 
r that so raiall a people as tiie AthtMiinna should attempt 
divide the kingdom, or to compromise it in any way 
rron us : nor would I suffer it : but Policy is my 
icbcr that I will assist you against your enemitTS : iji kucu 
[ Dumnrr however as to provide that you shall ulnaye liare 
me, ixnd diuigrrous enough at least to attnvct vour notice. 
fj tliese words to you in pure confidence. To a friend 
e speaks a friend ; to a wise man here speaks no simple 

^ If Ton would worship, O Cyrus, the gods of Gtoecc, I 
Aoulii \x the more confident of success. 

I have indeed at tiuie>, to a certain degree, a Cuth in 
BOgnries, in which 1 know tlie Greeks are expat : but 
altniiugh jonr religion i» in her youlii, vour gods nru a« 
avaricious as old age could make iJiem. tvcry religion that 
■larts up, liryund I'cnda, takes only as much truth to stsnd 
upon u will raixe her safely to men's purses, llic t^gyptiaa 


priests have extensive lands ! Attica is poorer in soil : there it 
is requisite to have oracles too and sacrifices, gold and cattle, 
oil and milk, wax and honey. If this religion should be 
succeeded by another, as it must be when the fraud is laid 
open, the populace will follow those enthusiasts who threw 
down the images of the gods, and will help them the next 
morning to raise up others in the same places, or even those 
elsewhere, differing but in name. Pride will at first put on 
the garment of Humility ; and soon afterward will Humility 
raise up her sordid baldness out of Pride's. Change in rituals 
is made purely for lucre, and, under the name of Beformation, 
comes only to break up a virgin turf or to pierce into an 
unexplored mine. Beligion with you began in veneration for 
those who delivered you from robbers : it will end in the 
discovery that your temples have been ever the dens of them. 
But in our hopes we catch at straws ; the movement of a 
feather shakes us ; the promise of a priest confirms us. 

Let us now go to the stables : I have intelligence of a 
noble tiger, scarcely three days' hard riding from us. The 
peasant who found the creature shall be exalted in honour, 
and receive the government of a province. 


Is the beast a male or female, to the best of his knowledge ? 


A female : she was giving milk to her young ones. On 
perceiving the countryman, she drew up her feet gently, and 
squared her mouth, and rounded her eyes, slumberous with 
content ; and they looked, he says, like sea-grottoes, obscurely 
green, interminably deep, at once awakening fear and stilling 
and compressing it. 


Fortunate he escaped her ! We might have lost a fine day's 
hunting in ignorance of her lair. 


He passed away gently, as if he had seen nothing ; and she 
lay stm, panting. Come, thou shalt take thy choice, 
wonderful Xenophon, of my spears. 




Hail, O Alcibiades ! Welcome art thou to the Athenian 
who hath retired from the contentions and tunnoils of Athens, 
to spend his latter days among these hills and woodlands. 


Hail also, in return, O Xenophon to thee! Long life, 
and sound health for the enjoyment of it ! Thou wast always 
a lover of the chase, of which there is none within our Attic 
territory; and of whatever else is manly, of which there is but 
little. ' 


My old pursuits are indeed not wanting here. We are, as 
thou discemest, under the ridges of Taygetos; which are 
reflected at this eventime with more than their own grandeur 
on the broad Eurotas. 


Graciously and hospitably am I received by the most iUus- 
trious of the Athenians, under whose command it would have 
been my glory to liave fought. But, pardon my interrogation 
when I dijffidentlv ask thee, in the name of all the gods and 
demiffods, why thou withdrewest thy right-hand so suddenly 
and aoruptly. 


Wait, O Alcibiades, until the servants have brought the salt 


Infinite and immortal thanks, most considerate of mankind! 
but I never drink it salt. 


Of a certainty no such beverage is proposed to thee. Chian 
wine is far preferable. But, unless I see thee duly lustrated, I 
dare not touch thy hand. 


Thine own, Xenophon, hath done bolder things repeatedly. 


It would have prostrated the monarch of the Medes and 
Persians^ the king of kings. 


Surely^ had the gods so willed it. But bdiold^ here comes 
the vase of water ; here also the salt, gift of Poseidon to the 
human race, and virgin oil, strengthener and purifier, gift of 
the virgin goddess. 


Pleasant to the hand, after holding the bridle so many hours 
in the heat of the day, are truly all these appliances ; excepting 
the salt perhaps. 


Precisely.the one thing needful . . Semember, OAlcibiades, 
the statues of Hermes, which it is believed, but believed 
(I hope) erroneously, were disfigured by thee. If it be true 
(and pardon my fears) lustration in this fortunate house may 
be accepted in some sort as expiatory . . Grant it, ye gods ! 
and especially thou, O son of Maia, grant it, I beseech thee ! 
Methinks the dogs are howling ominously in the courtyard. 
Wliether it portend good or evil, will perhaps be manifested 
imto me in my dreams this night. Meanwhile, let me 
propitiate the Blessed by a libation . . And now, O Alcibiades, 
the divine thing having been performed, tell me, are the girls 
and the youths and the philosophers as fond of thee as ever ? 
Do they play as formerly with thy crisp glossy curls, so 
delicate and umbrageous? Do they attempt to make thee 
angry by applying the odious flute to thy lips, and threatening 
a worse indiction on thy refusal to blow it? . . O cruel 
Summer that absorbest Spring ! thou deservest that Autumn 
should wither all thy flowers . . Youth is a precious thing, 
O Alcibiades, and I would rather be the possessor of it than of 
nearly all my dogs and half my farms. 


Our teacher Socrates was entirely of the same opinion in 
regard to its value ; but then indeed he had no land where- 
with to make the barter ; and no such an inmate and confident 
as that grave, sagacious old hound, that soothsayer in the 
courtyard, whose language methinks is unambiguous and 


Thou mockest inconsiderately, I am loth to say impiously. 



tadinonitious :sont us from dx>vc thruugli the bratf creation. 
• wiMst men that i-ver exisltil iiiioii eartb have impbcitly 
ipvpci in tliem. If birds ua events, iind guiiie ua 
tlicir voiet^ auci their (light, aarely tho:ie auimaU maj as 
reaaoaablT be bstcned to whicb have spent tbcir lives with as, 
and koow onr bahitudcp and tempers, our dcsirea and imper- 
fections. But, jJas 1 there an' men in the present limes who 
■^Bobt whrthcT Ml image of Pidliia fvtT brandialiei] n s)>«ir; 
HBrtM-llier Apbroditr' ever smiled on her worsltijier; wlietbcr 
^pttci erer fmwncd with indignntiou on the wife who had 
™ irlobted her vowa; whether Apollo Hayed Marsyaa for impioua 
prasomptiun ; whrtlicr the marble brow of Zens or Poseidon 
«rcr sweated. 


Incrednlous men indeed t sheer atlieists I I myself have 
?d philosophers, who douliteJ, or pretended to 
ibt, whether l*ull»« spmng in full growth and complele 
T from the forcheud of i^us. 

PoMablT Uiis may be allegrineid : I would Doither sax nor 
T it; nor WTlIiii(fiy entertain the question. Hesitation and 
! become us iu the presenci! of the gods ; resolution 
I courage in presenee of mortal men . . Cavillers 1 they 
' ". mm object, to the recorded fact, that Bai.'chiu' wa« 
' 11 the thigh of his fnthvr for safely, und cut out from 

a fathiT would liavo aflbnlcd him a residence more oom- 
» to l»>lh jiiirtie*, hnd he rceoUdetiMl hi* own, at nearly 
_.iMt Bgf, iiiijrtiig the Nympiu of (.'rete. Hcndilv do t 
ii-ve that bntli /ensi and I'oseidon sweateil : Zfii^i, wuen the 
« almost ns bad toward him as if they had been, one 
1 all, hi:* own fathers; and Poseidon, when the flaming ear 
Apollo waa within a bair*»-brcadth of liis beard. But 
■Ribly it was only the rtntun that w«n in quotioD, and not 
it gods penoually. 


■ilr, O Aleibiiuloi, in the truly rejigiiius mind there is no 

irnci: wbatiMX-ver, Zeus is omnipresi'iit, but more jiarlieo- 

T existent within his image. And, when his votaries hare 

m, he lometimes liath noddcrl aJGrmaLindy, 


sometimes negatively. Aphrodite herself, who listois in 
general more complacently, hath been known to torn qmte 


What did she refase by this extraordinary tergiyersationP 


To listen. 


I have always found that Aphrodite is best disposed toward 
those who are least importunate. Her ears were as nigh to 
the supplicant as before. Neither would I have left her until 
I had lound her placable. 


Thou speakest now discreetly and devoutly, as becomes the 
scholar of Socrates. 


There are some, I grieve to say it, who doubt his discretion j 
many, his devotion. 


His last command ought to have given those sceptics the 
most complete satisfaction in that matter. The cock, I hope 
and trust, was duly sacrificed : otherwise, ye may expect ere 
long another plague within your city. 


Certainly the offence would deserve it. 


Asclepius is among the most beneficent of the Immortals, 
yet he demands his dues. 


Our teacher was accused of impiety, and of corrupting the 
youth of Athens. Pious men have lately turned the tide, and 
stand ready and alert to take all the youth into their own 
hands and all their little sins into their own bosoms. They 
come with authority, they tell us. 


With whose ? 


A priest's, whom they have chosen and appointed from their 
own body. 


i they say that a god alwa}-e guides them 


[ iHfT give the aulharily first, nnd then receive it ? 

It teems so. 
B tbeir choice. 

Hun the object of their choice must always be pure, bene- 
aiid coiisislciit. But is it possible tlint a morUl, who 
!» ill the exisleiici' of aiiv gtitl, should nwume thnt gml's 
n aittl exerrisc his authcinty ? The worst atheists are not 
who deny the existence of a Deity, but thase who 
arrogate to themselves tlie attributes. Every mail must be 
conacjoiis of hLi daily wants and weaknesses, common alike to 
lutD and to all liis fiHow creatures. And if it were in the 
nature of things thai bis vanity shotdd mtder hira blind to 
tikcm, or (hnt liis p resumption shouhl i[ni>ell him to sei/.e with 
iiUly what the iialiecik' or the wicked in.iy offer, yet tiiere arf 
irt of repentance and of remorse ; there arc hghts brought by 
inhJe liands into the midnight chamber ; and there is an 
lOOt-houk laid b; them on his hreatit, of iu»iitferable weight 
he rises to open it, and even less tolerable when lie 
pcnucs its conlcnt«. 

The world is '>rcHpied, O Xciiophtiii, and occupied almost 
cliuivdy, by knaves who deceive and by fools who are 
nved. Our nursi^ lull us to t>leep by their cant; other 
I take na out of their aniie and prolong it by thotr 

r in these there be efficacy, or none, I would not 

_, «. Bnl snnpufiing a hicropluint such as thou host 

mtti to me, witti power uiitimitcl and divine, uiid wiual 

BTolenrc, he must lie able and willing to compose nil Ihe 

I of matikiud, and to ditfusc universal peace oud 

Do those unda hiui preach such doctrine? 

Siof them do. Indeed I believe it ts to br found in the 

I, wlrirh all of them profe-'* to n-ai and to ho guided 

However, the universtj t^Kidwill is confined to their own 

raliar *nrt's uuiviTsality. lleiicvolent n* they profess lliem- 

I to b<^ Ihry have been known to shut np ;ouug persoBS 


in the dark^ as we shut up quails, and to keep them all their 
lifetime in such a situation. The refractory or incredoloos 
they lash and famish. Those who only laugh at them, or 
refuse to be handled by them, or recalcitrate at their caresses, 
they threaten with Tartarus and Cerberus and Phlegethon and 
the Furies. 


Gomminations such as these are against the laws. Intimi- 
dation is not for men, but for children ; and the parent is the 
only judge in the court. Beligious men show us the way to the 
goos, but never drag us by the throat to them, nor fire us as 
we do horses to correct the bad humours and to increase the 
speed. But who and whence, Alcibiades, are these priests ? 


Egyptian mostly. Even Athenians are beginning to incul- 
cate their dogmas, together with other oriental superstitions, 
pretending that, as they are the most ancient, they are also 
for this reason the most venerable, and that our own religion 
is only a cutting or slip from theirs, much withered and 
dwarfed by transplantation. Isis is striding up rapidly to the 
Parthenon ; and some sagacious ones smell the sludge of the 
Nile, and dream of its inundating the Ilyssus. 


O saviour Zeus ! O protectress Pallas ! avert this dire 
calamity ! Return ye also, twin sons of Leda, from your 
beneficent and warning stars ; stand again on the confines of 
your country and defend her ! If Athens falls, Sparta falls 
too. Civilisation and manliness are carried down the same 
torrent, and courage makes vain efforts in the dark. 
Incredible ! that men deriding the sophist, denoimcing the 
philosopher, conterauing the institutions of our city, defying 
its enactments, should embrace the most humiliating and 
emasculating of Egyptian superstitions ! 


!Many have gone over into Egypt, and have thought them- 
selves as mse as Pythagoras, or Herodotus, or Plato, for 
hanng made the same voyage. Some indeed have found 
such favour with the priesthood of that country, as to have 
received a scale of a crocodile, a tail of an ichneumon, or a 
feather of an ibis. Pew of them however are disposed to 


I Uieir crowns until the hair is thinner and grejer, 
c that tliey might be less efficient in bringing over 
sibk tex lo embrace their tenets. 

^There pricsta have much influence, the gods have little ; 
1 where they are numerous and wealthy, the population is 
f aad niiscmblj' poor. War may be, and certainly is, 
ictive ; but war, as thou well kuowcst, if it cuts off 
ighM anil famuchi'M, yet withers not the trunk. Priests, 
c aiitA, currude and corrupt whatever they cnt-er. (!^naider 
potent was Kg\pt in the reiyn of her king Scsostris, 
n the mililarj, lor ever iu action, kept the priesthooil 
^ jta own duties and subordinate. Consider what she after- 
1 bcuHQic when tlie helmet was less honoured than the 
Cain by sea uverrsn )ier fertile regions, thromng 

the iniaci^s of gtids mid heroes, under which, it u 

probable, lleiiekus, holding tlie hand of ll«-leu, stood iu 
anusement at their majesty and antiquity. Unconscious that 
h« was fllwut to meet auotiicr Meniiion oil the banks of tlie 
uder, he gazed intently on the trauquil fcaturua of the 
a who had held his station for agea by the Pyramid. Mo 
3 period before the invusiou of Greece, which ended with 
a dtKUler mid shume lo liie burhuriun, the monuments of 
:^l, tim Mjlid U> bi- oviTlhriiwii, were inutibited luid effaced f 
D the records of her ^incient ghiry wk obliterated. 'I'ho 
ion of peace is indeed a happy season ; and sorrowful is 
' Kv a motlier and her daughters in the field all day 
mt » stronger anii to help tJicm in their hibonr. Yes, 
J is' the seoMiu of iteuce even to men ; but it is only 
) stXTiiuous toil hata preceded a harvest which without 
Iry and foretliought must be unproductive. Whatever 
I jupposea that peace is (he grcalcat of blessings, will 
none; and peace itself will rrmiiin with it more uneu- 
and pr«;ariouxly than any. ^Ylull hath rendered Sjmrla 
'ul iu>d prwpurtiua r not her prienlx, not even the 
jti, (with trvurencc he it spoken I) her pairous and 
lora, hut prudent kings, valiant citizens, disciphucd 
a, dutiful wives, virtuous mothers and maidens, who 
B courage into the heart before it beats tu love. 

the aoldiw 

I tlut bluDt the swonl and 


level tlie road for despotism. ^Vhcn I hear the sooiid of 
aiid trumpet let it not be (>^bele's. 

Powerful as is Cybele, and mother of tlie gods, the manlit 
Qreeks erect no temples and offex no SHcriUces or prayers t 
her : enough of Lonour to be mother of the gods. Palli 
and Aiiia we supplicate. 

Believe me, those importations from Egypt will 
bring toward our no welcome custoiacn 

Philip, king of that country, is politic and warlike. 
He is reported to be given to dmnkeimess. 



Dnmken men often imagine vain things, and sometil 
dreadfnl ones. Martial order I have seen among them, sui 
my friend, as we soberer conid with difBculty extingiu: 
Although the Macedonians are addicted to ronviviality u 
indulge somewhat largely in wine, do not fancy Chat tbi 
are in the daily habitude of such excesses. ITiey rise 
which habitual drunkards never do : and mauy hours of cvtn 
day are spent in the habitual esercise of anna, not oIwb] 
singly, nor by twos and threes, but oftener in divisions of t] 
ph^aiix. Sometimes the whole phalanx is ranged in ordt 
performs its evolutions, and remains in the Held the grcal 
part of the morning. Moreover the king of jlfaccdon 
archers and stingers from among his tributaries and i 
Tariety of arms hath frequently becu disastrous to ami) 
well disciplined, but ill prepared to encounter them. AV 
may despise the barbarians at a distance ; but there are pine 
and occurrences where they are far from despicable. Be su 
the feces of the Macedonians are not always turaed nortJiwar 
The fountain of Dirce may tremble and dry up under t] 
hoof of the Thessalian charger; and he may stamp and po' 
to make it sufficiently turbid for his draught, the clear Ismeno 
Sorrow and shame and indignation seize and agitate me whi 
J think it possible (0 ye goda avert it!) that in oar vb 
birthplace, in the city of Tlieseus, of Codrus, and of Solo 


Tldlu may Inver her spciir, aud lie wlio aliukcs the earth may 
dnp his mdent. Ana shall these locastd from l!)g)'pt settle 
in uw bol; places wbcrc thcv stood P 


._ IfoUung more likelv. The schools of Pj'tliagorns, no longer 
^"•"-it, no loiijier tncitiini, are sending over to as from the 
e of Italy thfiTiless though busy swarms. 

■ Beligion and irreligion seem to prevail b; turns. Better 
Vcmjitf cnp than a cup of poison. 

It appears to mc, O Xenophoii, who indeed Iiave thonsht 

bot btilc And incuriuusl; about the varieties of religion, that 

whicheviT is llie least intrusive and dogmaticul is tlie best. 

.\I1 are ancient ; as juicieut as man's feurs and nishca : the 

mkU would all be kind enough if nations would not call upon 

them to scatter aud extcrminalc their oucmies. Hitherto it 

has been our privilege to worship them in our own way, whether 

^jB the temple or round the domestic hearth ; grateful to those 

^^Kpor hmilj who taugbl us bow best to prupitJalc them, but 

^^^Bigiuuil at any impudent intruder from Smu'ilhracc or from 

^^Hiviila who exncted bloody sitcritJees. And indeed at the 

^|ment day we ure not highly plcjiscd ut tlie near prospect of 

■traagen, leas ferocious but more jiertidious, raising up their 

altar un our olive-grounds or tinkling their brass to Attmct 

the bees from our gudcos. 

Let even' man hive his own bees iii bis own garden ; let 
1 worsliip bis own God in his own boose. 

a those who itssume to themselves the right of cunlrutliiig 
□ out with Moui^^ &om the precincts of tlie city. 

Now, Alcibiades, come iuto another room, and, tliis 
haag the supper hour, partako with me, compbcentljr ud 
heugaij, of our Spartaa fitrc:. 




You have always convinced me, O Demosthenes, while yon 
were speaking; but I had afterward need to be convinced 
again ; and 1 acknowledge that I do not yet believe in the 
necessity, or indeed in the mtility, of a war with Philip. 


He is too powerful. 


This is my principal reason for recommending that we 
should abstain from hostilities. When you have said that he 
is too powerful, you have admitted that we are too weak : we 
are stif bleeding from the Spartan. 


^Yhatever I could offer in reply, O Eubulides, I have 
already spoken in public, and I would rather not enlarge at 
present on it. Come, tell me freely what you think of my 


In your language, O Demosthenes, there is, I think, 
a resemblance to the Kephisos, whose waters, as you must 
have observed, are in most seasons pure and limpid and 
equable in their course, yet abounding in depths oi which, 
when we discern the bottom, we wonder that we discern it so 
clearly : the same river at every storm swells into a torrent, 
without ford or boundary, and is the stronger and the more 
impetuous from resistance. 


Language is part of a man's character. 


It often is artificial. 


Often both are. I speak not of such language as that of 

* A philosopher of Miletus and a dramatic poet : Demosthenes is said to 
have been his scholar. 


s and Isocratcs and oUicr rhetoricians, but of thai which 
lungs In eloqiiPNce, of that which entire the lienrt however 
agsiiisl it, of timt whii-h jiicrce* like the swiinl of 
I, of Ihnt which cnrrit^s us uloft mid easily a? Medea her 
I, Mid holds the world below in the same auspeuac. 

"When I httil rcjH-nted \a the morning to Cvnohalanos part 
|f A coiivPTwitiim 1 held with you tiie evening before, woril for 
ird, iny memorj' being very exact, as vou know, and e^pe- 
illy in retaining your phrases, ho looked at me »-ith a smile 
_ 1 his couiitennncc, and said, " I'aHon me, KubuUdcs, but 
ftis surely is not tlic language of Uemosthciies." In reality, 
OB had then, as you ofte.n do when we are alone logetiier, 
ifen way to your gi-Jiius, and hud hazard(-d an exuberance of 
iought, iinagtnaliiiii, and ex])rrs3ion, whieh delighted aod 
— "ported me. For there was noliiing idle, nothing tncor- 
bot much both sobd and ornamental ; «s those voxcs and 
s are which tlie wealthy and puwerfiil ulfer la the gods, 


PCynobolanos is a sensible man, and eonver«tnt in »tylc; but 
noluliuiDs never liaa remarked that I do not wear among 
• frieuda at table the same short drtss I pul on for the 
A more sweeping train would be trodden down, nnd 
am not hstencd tn, but laughed at. Look into the 
lefors yon. Sec those anemones, wliile, piuk, and 
, floltoing in the hrerzK ; and those other flowers, 
«r they arc, wilh elo»e-knotte^ spirn! blossoms, in (he 
Wtttt thyprus. Some of borh spi-ciw riw above ihe young 
h'tni art- very pn-Ity ; but ihe farmer will root them out 
Hentsh to his cultivation, and unprofitable in sustaining 
> family. In such a mantu-r must we treat the iiudergrowth 
' ma thoughts, pleasinir us iher may be at their tirst appearance 
i the ffpnng of life. One fellow thinks him.«elf like Dcmos- 
Rtiesi Owawnw h"- em|)loy(i the sniiie moveineiit of the arnia 
d IkmIv ; aiKithi-r, for no better reitson thuii bt-ciiUM- he ia 
(nperativv, acrid, and inwdi'iit, ami, before lie was hissed 
1 hooted from the Agora, had excited the populace by the 
kmenre of bis harangni-s. But you, who knnw th« fant 
1 featores of Demosthenes, his joints and miueles and whoht 
hfomialiiiR, know that niilure hiith wjiaralcd this imitatiinB 
'mal iiio»t wideJv rmm him. 



Mischievous as an ape^ noisy as a lap-dog, and restless as a 
squirrel, he runs along to the extremity oi every twig, leaps 
over from party to party, and, shaken off from all^ creeps under 
the throne at r ella. 


Philip is the fittest ruler for his own people, but he is bdter 
for anyone else to dine with than to act or think with. His 
conversation is far above the kingly : it is that of an urbane 
companion, of a scholar, I was going to say of a philosopher, 
I wul say more, of a sount^ unwrangling reasoner, of a plain, 
intelligent, and intelligible man. But those qualities, not 
being glanng, do not attract to him the insects from without. 
Even the wise become as the unwise in the enchanted chambers 
of Power, whose lamps make every face of the same colour. 
Royalty is fed incessantly by the fiiel of slavish desires, blown 
by fulsome breath and fanned by crinsine^ follies. It melts 
nfankind into one inert mass, car^Tf ^confounding afl 
beneath it, like a torrent of iStnean lava, bright amid the 
darkness^ and dark again amid the light. 


O for Cynobalanos! how would he stare and lift up his 
shoulders at this torrent. 


He never can have seen me but in the Agora; and I do not 
carry a full purse into the crowd. Thither I go with a tight 
girdle round my body : in the country I walk and wander 
about discinct. How I became what I am, you know as well 
as I do. I was to form a manner, nith great models on one 
side of me, and nature on the other. Had I imitated Plato 
(the writer then most admired) 1 must have fallen short of his 
amplitude ; and liis sentences are seldom such as could be 
admitted into a popular harangue. Xenophon is elegant, but 
unimpassioned, and not entirely free, I think, from affectation. 
Herodotus is exempt from it : what simplicity ! what sweet- 
ness ! what harmony ! not to mention his sagacity of inquiry 
and his accuracy of description. He could not however form 
an orator for the times in which we live; nor indeed is vigour 
a characteristic or a constituent of his style. I profited 
more from Isasus, from the study of whose writings, and 
attendance on whose pleadings, I acquired greater strength. 


ind Thncvdidea 

; 1 trembli'd Icat tlicv should lead me where 1 

J A rtcol I Motion of l\-rifli;s, whose plniniiess nnit 

k, nnd concentration. Anstotelca e 
tnc : I trembli'd Icat tlicv a 
« rtcollu^tioii of l\-nfli;s, 
and gravitjr tliey iiuilnted, not always with s 
L>ytng down these qualities as titc fomidatioii, I have vimtiired 
on more Roli-ninitv, more passion : I have also been stadious 
^^to bhng the powers of acbon into plav, that great instrument 
l^^kodlin^ tliR affections which Pericles disdained. lie and 
^^^hqiiter cuuld Ntrikc any head with their thunderbolts, and 
^^Htuid serene and iiuniovable ; I could nut. 

Toot opinion of Pericles hatli alwaja been the same, but 1 
ronncrljr licard >ou mention Plato with much less c«tocin 


WImtd wc talk diversely of the same person or thing, we do 
it of ncccuily talk inconsistcDtly, There is much in Pluto 
which a wim man will commend; there is morp that will 
eqitirate an unwise one. The irony iu his Diidogue^ tuu 
anoacd me frequently luid greatly, nud the more becnuN iu 
flthera I Iixve rarely fuiirid it aoxjiniianied with fancy and 
filiation. If I however wert; U> become a writer of 
iogoca, I should bo afraid of using it constaotlv, often as I 
Quliged to do it in my orations. Woe betide those who 
into it by injustice and presumption ! I>o llioy dare 
e us't tbi-y who are tht'msclvcs tlie dust that sullim 
of t^nius. Had I formed my opinion of Aicratcs 
lalii, [ ^liould call Sncrulr» a sophist. VVlio would 
10 on nsuliug Pinto, lliat liift master, instead of questjon- 
' quibbling, had ocrrupied hiM time in ttnching the uses 
ces of philosophy P Theie is as wide a dilTcrcticu 
the imputed and the real character of this man, as 
bctwern him who fbst iliscovercd cum growing, and 
Hrrt instructed us how to grind ami cleamw and 
it for our Kusteuanre. We :ire osluuiied to givu a 
of a slave, and n«l at all In give a falser of our 
]n tliis predicameut ^t^inds Plato, regarding his 
his sdioLua, and Ids o[t[Kjncnts. 

Before him Pythagoras and Ptanocritua and, eariiier id^ 


Pherecydes, tauglit important truths, and, what is rarer, 
separated them from pernicious falsehoods. Pjrthagoras, who 
preceded Plato in Egypt, ^nd from whom many of his fiuicies 
are taken, must have oeen a true lover of wisdom, to have 
travelled so far into countries known hardly by name in 


Perhaps he sought some congenial soul ; for if two great 
men are existing at the extremities of the earth, they will seek 
each other. 


Their greatness then must be of a different form and texture 
from what mankind hath usually admired. Greatness, as we 
daily see it, is unsociable. 


The perfect loves what generates it, what proceeds from it, 
what partakes its essence. If you have formed an idea of 
greatness, O Eubulides, which corresponds not with this 
description, eff^ace it and cast it out. Pythagoras adapted his 
institutions to the people he would enlighten and direct. 
AVhat portion of the world .was ever so happy, so peaceable, 
so well-governed, as the cities of southern Italy. While they 
retained his manners they were free and powerful : some have 
since declined, others are declining, and perhaps at a future 
and not a distant time they may yield themselves up to 
despotism. In a few ages more, those flourishing towns, 
those inexpugnable citadels, those temples which you might 
deem eternal, will be hunted for in their wildernesses like the 
boars and stags. Already there are philosophers who would 
remedy what they call popular commotions by hereditary 
despotism, and who think it as natural and reasonable as that 
children who cry should be compelled to sleep: and there 
likewise are honest citizens who, when they have chewed their 
fig and swallowed it, say, " Yes, 'twere well.'' What a 
eulogy on the human understanding! to assert that it is 
dangerous to choose a succession of administrators from the 
wisest of mankind, and advisable to derive it from the 
weakest ! There have been free Greeks within our memory 
who would have entered into alliance with the most iniquitous 
and most insolent of usurjiers, Alexander of Pherai, a territory 
in which Thebe, who murdered her husband, is praised above 


aOten of botli soxea. Jano I ma^ sncli marnngca be 
freijucni in such countries I 

Look at historv: where do yon find in continuution three 
B^nvdilnry kings, of whom oiii.' nt Imst was not tnhiunan in 
■ttlptMitiuii or wt-ak in intelleot? Kitlier of Uicin^ qualities 
^Bm; subvert a ttlAte, exposing it tirst to many sutTcrinftis. In 
Fonr Alhenitui constitution, if we &rc weakly or indiscreetly 
guremed, or capriciously, which hardly can happen, tlie 
nicbief i* transitory and reparable : one year eloses it ; and 
thm people, both for its satisfaction and its adioonilion, scch 
that no rorrujition, no tninsgrcssion, in its iniiipstratc.«, is 
nun^nUH) or uni'liastieied. This uf all advuntugi.-s is the 
grenint, liir niosi corroborative of power, the most tutelary of 
I know that there are many in Thrace, and some in 
10 would recall ray wanderings with perfect good- 
tour and complacency. Demostliencs has not lived, lias 
^^,_C rcBSoncd, has not ablated hia soul, for these: he lenvcs 
iQinn in the quiet po»se*»iou of nil their inoullen iirgumeiits, 
and in the jUTniuasive ho{M' uf all their briglit reversions. 
Pjlbngom.* e^'uid have hud little or no influence on such men: 
_Jie nuM^ up litglier, who kept them down. It is easier to 
' e an iiupreaHiun upon sand than upon niarblc : but it is 
!r to make a just one upon marble than upon sand, 
hiliscd as were the Oauls, lie with liis moderation and 
nice liath softened the ferocity of tlieir religion, and liath 
it iw contradictory and ineonsinU'nt, lliat the first of 
B who reuMina will subvert it. lie did not aav, " I'ou sliall 
o lonpT sacrifice your fellow -creatures ; " he said, " Sacrifice 
tbe criminal." Other nations do the same: often wantonly, 
always vindictively -. the Gauls appease by it, as they imagiur, 
bolli Rortely and the gods. He iliti not say, " AAer a certain 
" "" le even thi» outrage on Nature must ceuse : " but he wdd, 
(Vc have souls wluch [»«•» into otlna" cretttnrea." A belief 
t the trtiiNHiigraliun of soula would aliolish by degrees our 

Bat what absurdity 1 

lUligion. when it is intended for the uncivilised, most 
Hintain llungi marvplloDs, things quite absurd to the wiser. 
Bui 1 diM-over no absurdity in making men gciiller and 
kinder; and 1 would rulhi-r w»r»iiip an onion or a cruiil of 


bread, ihan a god vbo requires me to immolate an ox or kid 
to appease Iiim. The idea, not of having lost ber dauglittf, 
but of baving lost bet by a sacrifice, fixed tbe ilagL;c7 to tha 
gntsp of Clj*tenmestrn. Let us observe, O Eubulidcs, ihs 
■ religion of our country, be it wlut it msj, unless it oommuid 
I us to be cruel or unjust. In religion, if we are right, we da 
^ not kuow we are; if we are wrong, we would not. Above all, 
let ua do nothing and say nothing which may abulkh Of 
dimiuish in the hearts of the \-ulgiir the sentiments of lovo 
and awe : ou the contrary, let us perpetually give them fiesh 
excitement and actiWtj'. by baring tliera to the heaveus. On 
the modificatious of lo\e it is unnecessary to expatiate ; but £ 
tan aware that you may demand of me what exdtenient is 
required to fear. Among it* modidcations or dependcn<' 
are veneration and obedience, againit the weakening of wh_ 
we ought to provide, particularly in what relates to oi 
magisterial and mihtary chiefs. 


I do not conceive that Pythagoras has left behind him 
Gaul, unless at MassilJa, the remembrance of his doctrinea 
or of his name. 

We hear little of the Gauls. It appears however that they 
have not forgotten the wisdom or the services of Pythagoras. I 
The man of Samos was to some extent their teaclier. It ii 
Rmarkahlc that they should have preserved the appvllatioiii 
He was too prudent, I susi>ect, to trust himself many paca 
beyond the newlv-built walls of Massilxa; for the ignorand 
and barbarous pncsts would be loth to pardon him the crimw 
of withdrawing a dependent in a proselyte. 

The Druids, the most ferocious and ignorant of all the! 
I priests our countrymen have anywhere dwcovered, fell back] 
1 fartlier into their woods and « ilderness at seeing the white 

stones of the citadel rise higher than their altars. Even thes 
I rude altars were not of their construction, but were the 
I of a much earlier race. Tbe PhocBeans and other Ionia 

:« FufSciently well versed in i»olicy to leave the nntivet 
I unmolested in their religion. Already does that lively ■ 
I imitative people prefer a worship in v^ch the song and thti 

dauce ajid geuiality worm the blood, to one which i 


it in the wiuAv dowm and ftloomy woodlands, and spills it 
CO the channeled stone, and CHtch(4 it dropping from the 
saapuulod wicker. Young men crowned with llou^rs are 
likdier to be objects of iiveraioTi to the ancient priests than 
to the mnnt timnroiis and shy of their disciples^. Tlie religion 
of UcHxl, lite the beAstii of prey, wil! continue to trend 
BMthwiird. VYoraliipers of Apolio, and follower of Broniius 
and the nymphs, would perish in the sunless oak forests; 
mtkl tbc Druid has no inliuritnncu in the country of the vine 
Bat it bcvoinrs tlie qniet religion iind placid wisdom of the 
QrKkji, to lenvi- iuviolat« all the institutions of the circum- 
•at people, and especiaUy of those who wish to live among 
m. Bv dfgrees they will acknowledge a superiority which 
f could contend against were it asserted. 

I^rthngoras is said to hare been vigorous in enforcing Lis 

In his whool; not beyond. Tliey are such indeed as we 

would little wish to sec efttahlished ui a free state, but none 

■everwcre better ailapted to prepare the road for civiUsstion. 

KVic find it difficult to bcliex-e in the mrtempsychosis. In fact, 

• other tilings grow easy, belief is apt to grow difficult. 

Wbere there is mysticijun wc mav pause and listen ; where 
J is argiinient we may eonkma and rejily. Democritus, 
miyota you oiten mention, certainly no mystic, often contra- 
a OUT senses. He tclb us that colours have no colour : 
DUt his arguments arc so strong, liis language so clear, his 
ctensiona so modest and becoming, 1 phieu more eoniidcnoe 
m UiD than in other* ; future philowphun may demonstrate 
o aimer minds what we liuve not thepatienee to iiivest^atc* 

Fhto hath not mentioned htm. 

O gmtnen ! what art thm, and where is thy fDUndation I 

n bw (Jo^UmI tL* Uioorr of mloun Bnl propoMj by nan» 
^ Iks lo« of wImm volnuinawi woriu la llio tnatMt Uutt phUoMp^ 


I speak not^ Eubulides^ of that which the vulgar call greatness, 
a phantom stalking forward from a salt-marsh in BGeotia, or 
from a crevice in some rock of Sunion or of Taxos;* but 
the highest^ the most illustrious^ the most solid among men, 
what is it ! Philosophy gives us arms against others, not 
against ourselves, not against those domestic traitors, those 
homestead incendiaries, the malignant passions; arms that are 
brilliant on the exercise-ground, but brittle in the fight, when 
the most dangerous of enemies is pressing us. £arlj love 
was never so jealous in anyone as philosophy in Plato. He 
resembles his own idea of Grod, whose pleasure in the soh- 
tudes of eternity is the contemplation of himself. 


Jealousy is not quite excluded from the school opposite. 
Aristoteles, it has been suggested to me, when he remarks 
that by the elongation of the last member in a sentence a 
dignity is added to composition, looked toward you, who, as 
you have heard the rhetoricians say, are sometimes inattentive 
or indifferent to nobility of expression. 


When Aristoteles gives an opinion upon eloquence I listen 
with earnestness and respect : so wise a man can say nothing 
inconsideratelv. His own style on every occasion is exactly 
what it should be : his sentences, in which there are no cracks 
or inequalities, have always their proper tone : for whatever is 
rightly said, sounds rightly. 

Ought I to speak nobly, as you call it, of base matters and 
base men ? ought my pauses to be invariably the same ? would 
Aristoteles wish that a coat of mail should be as flowing as his 
gown ? Let peace be perfect peace, war decisive war ; but 
let Eloquence move upon earth with all the facilities of change 
that belong to the gods themselves ; only let her never be 
idle, never be vain, never be ostentatious ; for these are indi- 
cations of debility. We, who have habituated ourselves from 
early youth to the composition of sonorous periods, know 
that it requires more skill to finger and stop our instnunent 
than to blow it. When we have gained over the ear to our 
party, we have other work to do, and sterner and rougher. 
Then comes forward action, not unaccompanied by vehemence. 

* TaxoB was rich in silver-mines. 


.1, JOB have bean], u»eJ uoiie, but kept his arm wrapped 
hin liu viwl. Ptriclcs wait in the enjoyment of that 
which his virtues and liis nbilitiua wtil lincrvcd. If he 
met) in his buaom the lire ihst burns in mine, he wonld 
;{it his hand outaidi*. By the couKitiiplatiun uf men 
AriftoteltH in whut be ia; and, instead uf uiiclt^r- 
,. 1 love huu thp better for it. Do we not see with 
r iMTlialil}' and fondness those who have been educated 
d uiion our (iinns, Lhoti those who come from Urcho- 
> or Maiitinca? If he were uuw among us in Athnis, 
kvuuld ba itiiiik uf Iwu or three haruu^uera, who dr«l 
tophytiics by the pailful iu their addresses U) the 

d one, a little time since, who believed lie was doing 
t that the buBincaa of uctaphysica is rather to 
n to involve. He avoided plum matter, he rejected 

I liUcrcd the language of tlie people luid made them 

asdmirablcdelinition have you givcn.unintmtionally, 

^tnrl pubhc speaker possible, and, 1 will add with 

nlldencY, of tlie wortt writer. If 1 send to iiynietlos 

«, I expect Ui distinguiith it at dinner by Its lluviiur 

y lu before diimir by ita ears and feel. The {M-opIc 

aihc to me soak out all tlie juices of our diuli-et. 

i* so amusing t« m<' aa to hear them talk on iJo- 

No disciple at the fouLsloul is so silent aud ductile 

I ai Ihe lewouii 1 rect:ive ; none ultends with such 

wure, itoiie dejinrt:! with such liilaritv. 

Mve be«ii careful to retain as mQcu idiom as 1 c»uld, 

t Uuipi'Ti) of being called oniiuar; and vulgar. Natiuus 

tale of decay loec their idiom, which loss is always 

wry to lliat of frvcdoni. AVhst your fnlher and yuar 

Ihcr usrti ta an elcyanct! in couvcrHttion, t* now 

d to the )iopuliuTe, and every day wc misN a litrle of 

aud culkft a liiUi' from »lrangvrs: tluii prcpitirs us 

e iutiniale onion with tbtra, m which wc merifr nt 

llUip:lh(rr. Evi-ry good wrildf has Euneh idiom ; it is 

Ue Otxi spirit of biniruji^; nnd none xuch cter r-nlcf- 

1 a tan or apprrhenaion Uut strength aud subliniily 

' I be luw<veu aud neukuied by iu Sjicaking to ibe 


people, I use the people's phraseology : I temper mj metal 
according to the nses 1 intend it for. In &ct no limgiiage 
is very weak in its natural course, until it runs too hi ; mi 
then the poorest and the richest are ineffectual equally. The 
habitude of pleasing by flattery makes a language soft; the 
fear of offending by truth makes it circuitous and conventionaL 
Free governments, where such necessity can not exist, will 
always produce true eloquence. 


We have in Athens young orators from the schools, who 
inform us that no determinate and masculine peculiarities of 
manner should appear in public : they would dance without 
displaying their muscles, they would sing without discomposing 
their Ups. 


I will drag them, so help me Jupit^ ! back again to their 
fathers and mothers : I will grasp their wrists so tightly, the 
most perverse of them shall not break away from me. Tem- 
pestuous times are coming. Another month, or two at farthest 
and I will throw such animation into their features and their 
gestures, you shall imagine they have been singing to the 
drum and horn, and dancing to dithyrambics. The dustbox 
of metaphysics shall be emptied no more from the schoolroom 
into the council. 

I suspect I have heard the chatterer you mentioned. The 
other day in the market-place, I saw a vulgar and shuffling 
man lifted on a honey-barrel by some grocers and slave- 
merchants, and the crowd was so dense around me I could 
not walk away. A fresh-looking citizen, next me, nodded 
and winked in my face at the close of every sentence. Dis- 
sembling as well as I could my impatience at his importunity, 
"Friend,'^ said I, "do believe me, I understand not a 
syllable of the discourse.'' 

'' Ah Demosthenes !" whispered he, " your time is feirly 
gone by : we have orators now whom even you, with all your 
acuteness and capacity, can not comprehend." 

'* Whom will they convince ?" said I. 

"Convince!" cried my narrator; "who has ever wisht 
to be persuaded against the grain in any matter of importance 
or utility ? A child, if you tell him a horrible or a pathetic 
story, is anxious to be persuaded it is true ; men and women. 



tjm Udl thnn one itijurioun to the respectuhility of a 
jghbour. Ucaire of persuasion rests and dies here. We 
ten to those wliom ne know to fae of tlie some opinion us 
ndvcs. Mid wc call them wise for being of it; but we 
itoh) such ns dilTer from its ; we proiiounc^e them rash before 
we bale heani tliem, and stil more afterwurd, lest we should 
be thought at any time to have erred. Wc come already 
^Mdnviiicnl : we want surprise, aa at our theaters ; astoniab- 
Hbent, as at the mysteries of Eleusis." 
^B^ " l)ut nlmt astonishes, wlist surprises you ?" 
^m "To hear an Athenian talk two hours together, hold us 
ninit uiil immovable as the figures of Uermea before our 
dour>, and find nut a single oue mnoiie us that can carry home 
widi him a thought or an expression.' 

" 'I'liou art nght," I exelaimod ; " he ta fjreater than 
Triptolemos ; he not only gives you a plentiful meal out of chaff 
BDU husks, but lie pcrsuailes yon thai it is a savoury n-pnst." 
"ByJupiliT!" Bworc aloud my fricud, "he persuutles as 
DO Miih llniig: but everyone b ashamed of being the first to 
acknou'l'-'lge that he never was lunstcr of a particle out of 
what lie liail listened to and apjilandeil." 

Kiad llic curiosity to inquire who the spe^er was. 
What ! do yoTi not know Anaaiestatos ?" said he, making 
ark of interrogation upon my ribs, with a sharper 
r than from his countenance 1 could liuvc imagined Iiod 
belonged to him ; " the clever Ans:dc3tatos, who come into 
notice BS a youth bv the celebration iu verie of a pebble at 
the bottom of the flyssos. He forthwith was preseutci) to 
Anyios, who experienced a hearty pleasure in seduciug him 
away from his guardians. Anytos on hia deathbed (for the 
pxia allowed him one) reeonuncndcd the young AnRdcslalos 
varmly to bis friends : such men have always inuiiy, and tlio*e 
the piiHcrful, I'ortunate lind it bivn for our conntry if he 
lud pilfcn-d only the vi^rses he pmnouiieed. His new patrona 
eo wnivfil at bis withdrawing from the treasury no less tluui 
^^ hundred talents." 

"Impossible! six hundred talents are sufficient fi>r tlio 
al stipend of all our civil magistrates, from the highest 
c lownt, and of dl the generals iu our republic and its 

^ It wan beiore you eauiu forward into poblic Ufe, O 
s I but my Either can prove the exactness of my 


statement. The last little sip firom the lesenroir was aeventjr 
talents'*" for a voyage to I^bos, and a residence there of 
about three months^ to settle the value of forty skins of wine^ 
owing to the Lesbians in the time of Thrasybulos. This^ I 
know not by what oversight^ is legible among the accounts.'' 

Indignant at what I heard^ I threatened to call him before 
the people. 

''Let him alone/' said slowly in an undervoice my prudent 
friend : '' he has those about him who will swear, and adduce 
the proofs^ that you are holding a traitorous correspondence 
with Phihp or ijiaxerxes.'' 

I began to gaze in indignation on his florid and calm 
countenance; he winked again, again accosted me with his 
elbow, and withdrew. 


Happy Athenians ! who have so many great men of so 
many kinds, pecuUar to yourselves, and can make one even 
out of Ansedestatos. 



It was nearly in this place that we met once before ; but not 
so early in the day ; for then the western sun had withdrawn 
from the plain, and was throwing its last rays among the 
columns of the Parthenon. 


I think it was about the time when the question was agitated 
of war or peace with the king of Macedon. 


It was. Why do you look so cheerful on a sudden ? Soon 
afterward followed the disastrous battle at Cheronsea. 


Certainly, I derive no cheerfulness out of that. 


Well, I believe there is little reason at the present hour why 
we should be melancholy. 

* 14,000 poundfl. 



If there is, I hope it lies not on the side of the Agora. 


Ton have composed jour features again^ and seem to be 
listening : but rather (I suspect) at your own internal thoughts 
than in the expectation of mine. 


Let us avoids I entreat you, my dear Eubulides, those 
thorny questions which we can not so well avoid within the 
walls. Our opinions in matters of state are different: let 
us walk together where our pursuits are similar or the same. 


Demosthenes! it is seldom that we have conversed on 
politics, sad refuge of restless minds, averse from business and 
Irom study. 


Say worse against them, Eubulides ! and I, who am tossed 
on the summit of the wave, will cry out to you to curse them 
deeplier. There are few men who have not been witnesses 
that, on some shght divergence of incondite and unsound 
opinions, they have rolled away the stone from the cavern- 
mouth of the worst passions, and have evoked them up between 
two friends. I, of all men, am the least inclined to make 
them the subject of conversation ; and particularly when I 
meet a literary man as you arc, from whom I can receive, and 
often have received, some useful information, some philoso- 
phical thought, some generous sentiment, or some pleasant 
image. Beside, wishing to make an impression on the public 
mind, I must not let my ideas run off in every channel that 
lies before me : I must not hear the words, '* Demosthenes 
will say this or this to-day.'^ People ought to come toward 
me in expectation, and not carrying my sentiments, crude and 
broken, walleted before them. 


There however are occasions when even politics are delightful; 
when they rejoice and exult as a stripling, or breathe softly as 
an infant. 


Then we can not do better than sit (juict and regard them in 

silence : for it is such a silence as the good citizen and good 



father of a familj would be unwilling to disturb. Why do 
jou smile and shake your head^ Eubundes ? 


Answer me first ; had you no morning dream^ Demosthenes, 
a few hours ago ; which dreams (they tell us) are sure to be 
accomplished, or show us things that are already so p 


I dream seldom. 


Were you awakened by no voices ? 


I sleep soundly. Come, do not fall from philosophy to 
divination. We usually have conversed on eloquence. I am 
not reminding you of this, from the recollection that jou once, 
and indeed more than once, have commended me. I took 
many lessons in the art from you ; and will take more^ if you 
please, as we walk along. 


Be contented : none surpasses you. 


Many speak differently upon that subject, lying to the 
public, and to their own hearts, which I agitate as violently 
as those incited by me to bleed in the service of our country. 
If among our literary men I have an enemy so rash and impu- 
dent as to decry my writings, or to compare them with the 
evanescences of the day, I desire for him no severer punish- 
ment than the record of his sentence. The cross will be more 
durable than the malefactor. 


In proportion as men approach you, they applaud you. To 
those far distant and far below, you seem as little as they seem 
to you. Fellows who can not come near enough to reverence 
you, think they are only a stone's tlirow distant; and they 
throw it. Unfortunate men ! Choked by their criticisms ! 
which others expectorate so easily ! 


Commiserate them more stil : ignorant or regardless, as 
ihey are, that they have indented and incorporated a mark of 


ignominy in their names. Ay, by the dog I (as Socrates used 
to swear) and such too as no anger of mine could have heated 
for them, no ability of mine impressed. 


There are few among the ignorant, and especially if they 
are pompous and inflated, who, if we attend to them patiently, 
may not amuse us by the clumsy display of some rash opinion. 
I was present a few nights ago at a company where you were 
mentioned . . . 


My master in rhetoric ! dear Eubulides ! do we correctly 
say " present at a company ? " 


You and I do. We are present at many companies ; we 
form a part of few. 


Gintinue the narrative : the objection is overcome. 


Willingly do I continue it, for it reminds me of an evenii^ 
in which your spirits had all their play, and soared above the 
city-walls, and oeyond the confines of Attica. Men whose 
brains are like ^gs boiled hard, thought your ideas or your 
speech exuberant ; and very different was indeed your diction 
m>m its usual economy and frugality. This conversation of 
jours was repeated, the reciter employing the many metaphors 
jou had used. Halmurus sat next mc, kicking my legs now 
and then, in his impatience to express that ill-humour which 
urges him on all occasions to querulousness and contradiction. 
At last he sprang up, and wiping the comers of Ids mouth, 
declared that your mind was not rich enough for all those 
metaphors which an injudicious friend had quoted as yours. 
I replied to him calmly, that it was natural he should be 
i^orant of the fact, and certain that he must remain so, 
nnoe Demosthenes only used such langua^ when it was 
excited by the wit or the wisdom or the geniality of his friends; 
and I consoled him with the assurance that a warier man 
might have fisdlen into the same pit, without the same help of 
extrication. Although he saw how friendly I had been to 
him, he was not pacified, but protested that many doubts 
remained upon his mind. He appealed to Cliniades who sate 
opposite. ''I have been present,'' said Cliniades, "at my 


father's and in other places^ when Demosthenes hath scattered 
among us all the ornaments of diction ; it would puzzle me to 
recount, and you to remember, the names of them.'^ '' That 
is a modest youth/' said Halmuros in my ear, " but rather too 
zealous in partisanship/' 


Inconsiderate and silly is the criticism of Halmuros. Must 
a pugilist, because he is a pugilist, always clench his fist ? may 
he not relax it at dinner, at wine, at the reception of a friend ? 
Is it necessary to display the strength of my muscles when 
I have no assailant to vanquish or intimidate ? When we are 
wrestling we do not display the same attitudes as when we are 
dancing. On the sand and in the circle we contend for the 
crown ; amid the modulations of flute and lyre, of tabor and 
symbal, we wear it. And it is there, among our friends and 
favorites, among the elegant and refined, we draw attention 
to the brightness and the copiousness and the pliancv of its 
constituent parts. It is permitted me, I trust, O Eubulides, 
to indulge in a flowery and flowing robe when I descend from 
the bema, and relax my limbs in the cool retirement at home. 
If I did it in public I should be powerless; for there is 
paralysis in derision. Plainness and somewhat of austerity 
ought to be habitual with the orator. If he relinquishes 
them rarely, when he does relinquish them he gains the afiec- 
tions of his audience by his heartiness, warmth, and condescen- 
sion. But sentences well measured and well moulded are 
never thrown away on the meanest of the Athenians : and 
many of them perhaps are as sensible of the variety I give to 
mine as the most delicate of the critics, and are readier to do 
me justice. 


It appears to be among the laws of Nature that the mighty 
of intellect should be pursued and carped by the little, as the 
solitary flight one of great bird is followed by the twittering 
petulance of many smaller. 


The higher and richer bank is corroded by the stream, 
which is gentle to the flat and barren sand : and philosophers 
tell us that mountains are shaken by the vilest of the minerals 
below them. 


BcTc, O DcmosthcncB, let the pnralk-1 be broken. And now, 
i not I drnw fruui you the iirunaJ, that yon have hconl tbc 
W9 boat Pellu, brouglit hjr the messiijfer at suu-rise? Your 
denaioD lias not (let«rreil the people from asking " Is Philip 


!lie messager ciinie first to my house, knowing my habitude 
irly riaiiiff. My order aa magistrate was, that he keep 
t this visit of his to rae, threatening him with thp tUsplca- 
ceasuru of the mort ftntieilt, if ever they should 
(fijicover I tiat the intelligence reached them after. My thoughts 
rn>"ii'-il upon me wo fast aud (iirbulenlly, that, no "ooticr Liul 
1 micliid the inonunieitt of Antjopc, than I slopjHnl fnini 
Mhauslioti, aud &at£ down b«iiciith it. Huppy as I iilways am 
lu mill you, my good Eubulides, I acknowledge I never was 
lew so than on llus occasion. For it i« my practice, and ever 
liD» li<x-n, ti> walk rpiitv done. In my Hulks I eoUeiH my 
■rGTitii'iils, amuigi- my sentences, and utter them aloua. 
KI<w]U<-Ti(-e with me ean do little else in tlie eity, timn put oa 
licr hnucletj, tighten licr sandals, and show herself to the 
pr>fji!e. Hir healih, wid vigour, and hejiuty, if i-he has any, 
an- till' fruit* of the ojxtn lleliis. 'I'he slownesit or c*'lerity of 
niy si'-p> u MOW regulated and impelled by the gravity and 
preci.'^iuii, now by the enlbitsiasm and agitation of my mind : 
Bwl the presence of anyone, however dear and intimat?, is a 
rhrrk mid imprdiment to the free ngeney of these emotions, 
Tti'Hmiid.', I know, liod I rfmaiiieJin the eily, would have 
come ninntng up to ine with rutigratulutiom aud einbraees; 
ma if danffcr eould befall us only from tlie hand of Philip I 
^■nothct Jorc, who alouc upon curlh can ribrnte the thunder. 

be hour afterward 1 passed throusb them hastily, and eaw 
I lusnl theju wandering and buzzing along the strt^ets in 
r diicdioo. 

Mring to 01 the country luid fresh air, and, wliat itself is 
tile l«ut tnu'iuil thing in nutntr, but is the most potent 
Inini|uiUii:ef of an eiciied ioul, the s-'a. Tii-d»y 1 avoid the 
l^morrow 1 strike my brass oud cuUeet it. 


How soon^ O Eubulides^ may this ancient hive be subyerted, 
and these busy creatures lie under it extinct ! 


That greatest and most fortunate event, the death of Philip, 
seems at one moment in the course of our conversation to have 
given you more than your ordinary vigour, and at another (as 
now again) to have almost torpefied you. 


Inattention and taciturnity are not always proofs of incivility 
and disrespect. I was revolving in my mind what I might 
utter as we went along, less unworthy of your approbation 
than many things I have spoken in public, and with great 
anxiety that they should be well received. 

There is then one truth, O Eubulides, far more important 
than every other ; far more conducive to the duration oi states, 
to the glory of citizens, to the adornment of social life, to the 
encouragement of arts and sciences, to the extension of the 
commerce and intercourse of nations, to the foundation and 
growth of colonies, to the exaltation and dominion of genius, 
and indeed to whatever is desirable to the weU-educatai and 
the free. • 


Enounce it. 


There is, I repeat it, one truth above all the rest ; above all 
promulgated by the wisdom of legislators, the zeal of orators, 
the enthusiasm of poets, or the revelation of gods : a truth 
whose brightness and magnitude are almost lost to view by its 
stupendous heighth. If I never have pointed it out, knowing 
it as I do, let the forbearance be assigned not to timidity but 
to prudence. 


May I hope at last to hear it ? 


I must conduct you circuitously, and interrogate you before- 
hand, as those do who lead us to the mysteries.* 

You have many sheep and goats upon the mountain, which 
were lately bequeathed to you by your nephew Timocles. Do 
you think it the most advantageous to let some mastiff, with 
nobod/s chain or collar about his neck, run among them and 



them one after another, or to prepare a hiJWr ami lay 
in and a trap for him ? 

Certainli' here, Demosthenes, you arc not lentling me into 
mjstcries. The answer is plaio : the poison, trap, and 
tr, aic ready. 

, TTcU spoken. You have several eliihlren and grandcliililren ; 
II study economy in their bclinlT: would you rather spend 
nty dntctimns (or fuel, thiin three for the same quantity of 
umtcriul ? 


^^Hnay, njij, Demosthenes, if this is not mystery, it is worse. 

^^Bdu ore like a teacher to whom a studious man goes to learn 
the meaning of a »enteuec, and who, instead of opening the 
volume that contains it, asks him gravely whether he has 
Wnit bis alphabet. Prjihec do not banter mc. 

BcO me, tlien, which you would ratiicr; luake one drunken 
I Mibur fur ever, or ten thousand men drunk for many 

By all the god.-> I nbstain from >uch iille questions. 


The wlution of this, idle as yuu e.ill it, may save you much 
man; than ihe twenty dmehmos. Kubuhdes I we liavn seen, 
JU) our Mimiw and ignominy, the pluin of Chemnira bc»trcwu 
ibe bodies of our liraveHt citi/.eim ; had one barbarian fallen, 
had not. Itapiuc and Ueentiousneas are the precursors and 
fgllowers of even the most righteous war. A single blow 
inat the worst of mortuN may prevent tliem. Many years 
and much treasure arc ui*uidly rc(|iiiriMl fur un uncertain inHue, 
basidt: lite (lugiiutiun of tnillie, the prostmtiou of iiulu.-itry, and 
ituinuicruble maladies arising from towns bc»ieged and regions 
ilMKipaUted. A momeikt ia sufficient to avert all these 
caumiticfl. \o osarjier, no invader, should be ptTmitl^d (o 
nut on earth. And on whom can the vengeance of the gods 
b»r fjp-cli-'l lo dexocnd, if it descend not on that guilty 
wie(<h, alio would mther tliut ti-n ihousatul innocent, ten 
lliuu*iiiid virlHiiu^ cili/.enii Kli>iu!d periiih, than lliat one 
iitwua and atroeioua de^iput should be without his daily 



bath of blood. A single brave man might have followed the 
late tyrant into Scythia and have given his carcass to the 
vulture ; by which heroic deed we should have been spared the 
spectacle of Greece in mourning. What columns^ what pro- 
cessions^ would have been decreed to this deliverer^ out of the 
treasure we may soon be condemned to pay^ whether as tribute 
or subsidy^ to our enslaver. 


No^ no. Praises to the Immortals ! he is dead. 


Philip has left the world. But regard not, O my friend, 
the mutual congratulations, the intemperate and intempestive 
joy of the Athenians, with any otlier sentiment than pity ; for 
while Alexander lives, or Alexander's successor, while any 
king whatever breathes on any of our confines, Philip is not 


Baise up thy brow, Demosthenes ! raise up again that 
arm, hanging aown before thee as if a flame from heaven had 
blasted it. Have we not seen it in its godlike strength, terrible 
even in beneficence, like Neptune's, when the horse sprang 
from under his trident ? Take courage ! give it ! Inspire it 
in a breath from the inner and outer Keramicus to the 
Parthenon, from the temple of tlie Eumenides to the gates of 
the Piraeus. What is the successor of Philip ? a mad youth. 


Does much mischief require much wisdom ? Is a firebrand 
sensible ; is a tempest prudent ? It is a very indifferent rat 
or weasel that hani not as much courage as Alexander, and 
more prudence : I say nothing of temperance, in which even 
inferior beasts, if there be any such, are his betters. We 
know this : the knowledge of it does not ensure our quiet, but 
rather is a reason, at least the latter part of it, why we can 
trust in him for none. 

If men considered the happiness of others, or their own ; in 
fewer words, if they were rational or provident^ no state would 
be depopulated, no city pillaged, not a village would be laid in 
ashes, not a farm deserted. But there always have been, and 
always will be, men about the despot, who persuade him that 
terror is better than esteem ; that no one knows M'hether he is 
reverenced or not, but that he who is dreaded has indubitable 

DKMoaniictKs i 

ill KUBULU1H& 


Iof it, and ia regarded bj' inortala ns a God. My pam- 
litis foible in tlie pri»ct, lliev arc adtuitU'd lu couuj 
and clost-r to liim ; and from the iiidutgeiico of lii» 
^Icd buniuurs tlii^ derive their wealth aud iiiflueuce. 

Evcrr nuui in ihr world would be a mmblican, if he did not 
hope from fortmiti and fnvour mort^ tluin from indiuliy and 
liaai ; in sliort, if he did unt expect to carry off sooner or 
later, from under another Bystem, what never could belong to 
hiin HfchtfuUv, and wlmt can not (he tliinks) accrue to Tiim 
from tliiy. lo suppose the contrary, would be the game as to 
c tliat be would rather liave a master in Ins bouse, tkan 
nd, brother, or k>ii ; and ibut be ba; both more coutidcnce 
c ploasure in an alien's Tniiiiag<:uieut uf il, tlum in liia 
I, ur in any person's selected by liis ex[K)rieuce and deputed 
' 's diotoc. 


wity to imagine it I 


In reliffionv and gorcmmcnts, Knbulidp^, there arc things 
vn which few men reason, and at whieh those who do reason, 
^^^rnik and shudder, liie nortliless cling upon these lofty 
^HHt», aiMt UKc (hem as the wntcbtowen; uf Ambition. We 
^^K mn reproved by tlirm in tuni for like propunsittea : and 
^^^Hjr 1 wisn it coulil l)e aaid that every human motive were 
^^^ciiuiius and pure. Wo can not say anything similar. Come, 
let u<i uvn the worst ; we arc ambitious. But is it not evident 
of 115 onitDn in a rrpubUc, tliat our ambition and the scope of 
it ifinil dri^p together when we no longer can beiietit ur fore- 
want our oilixen^P Inkingilomi the men are mont commended 
and miKit elevated who acrve the fewest, and who, serving tlie 
fewest, injure the most; in republics, those who serve the 
nuny, and injure none. The toss of tins privilege is tlie 
gicjilnt loM liumanily can sustain. To you, because I ponder 
aud ine>htale, [ ap[>ejir deieefwl. Clejvrly do I sec iniK^d how 
niueh Kuiv Miou eeu»e to lie within my jwwer ; but 1 [lOMen 
the cuiirnlenee of streuuth within me, and the conseiousueas of 
having t\i«cd it for the glory of my country and the utility 
of niiitikind. Look at that oliro uefoTc us. Season* and 
iron Imir ^rarcbed deeply into ita heart; yet it ■linkca ila 
Itemr- 1(1 the air, promising you suttimance and li^ht. In 
olit •'-- It ii eLitiimou to nee n-nuiiniiig juit enon^'h of the body 
Kip|>un the bark ; and tliis is oflcu so jicrfurated, that, u 


near the ground^ a dog or sheep may pass throagh. Neither 
the vitality nor the fecundity of the tree appears in the least 
to suffer by it. While I remember what I have been^ I never 
can be less. External power affects those only who have none 
intrinsically. I have seen the day^ EubuUdes^ when the most 
august of cities had but one voice within her waUs ; and when 
the stranger on entering them stopped at the silence of the 
gateway^ and said^ '' Demosthenes is speaking in the assembly 
of the people.'' 

This is an ambition which no other can supplant or reach. 
The image of it stands eternally between me and kings^ and 
separates me by an immeasurable interval fix)m their courts 
and satraps. I swear against them^ in the name of our 
country^ in the name of Pallas Athene and of all the gods^ 
amid the victims that have fallen by them and are about to 
fall^ everlasting hatred. 

Go now to the city, Eubulides, and report my oath. Add, 
that you left me contemplating in solitude the posture of our 
affairs, reluctant to lay before the Athenians any plan or 
project until I have viewed it long and measured it correctly; 
and to deUver any words to them, whether of counsel or 
comfort or congratulation, unworthy of so sedate and circum- 
spect a people. 


How gravely and seriously you speak ! do you think of them 
so higlily ? 


I have said it ; go ; repeat it. 



Phocion, again I kiss the hand that hath ever raised up 
the unfortunate. 


1 know not, JEschines, to what your discourse would tend. 


Yesterday, when the malice of Demosthenes would have 


turned against me the vengeance of the people ; by pointing 
me out as him whom the priestess of ApoUo had designated^ 
in declaring the Atheiiians were unammous, one excepted ; 
did yon not cry aloud, / am the man ; I approve of nothing 
ym do f That I see you again, that I can express to you my 
grmdtnde, these are your gifts. 


And does .£schines then suppose that I should not have 
performed my duty, whether he were alive or dead ? To have 
removed from the envy of an ungenerous rival, and from the 
resentment of an inconsiderate populace, the citizen who pos- 
sesses my confidence, the orator who defends my country, and 
the soldier who has fought by my side, was among those 
actions which are always well repaid. The line is drawn 
across the account : let us close it. 

I am not insensible, nor have ever been, to the afflicted ; 
my compassion hath been excited in the city and in the field ; 
but when have I been moved, as I am now, to weepiDs ? Your 
generosity is more pathetic than pity ; and at your eloquence, 
stem as it is, O rhocion, my tears gush like those warm 
fountains which burst forth suddenly from some convulsion of 
the earth. 

Immortal Gods I that Demades and Folyeuctus and Demos- 
thenes should prevail in the council over Phocion I that even 
their projects for a campaign should be adopted, in preference 
to that general's who hatli defeated Philip in every encounter, 
and should precipitate the war against the advice of a politi- 
cian, by whose presages, and his only, the Athenians have 
never been deceived. 


It is true, I am not popular. 

Become so. 


It has been frequently and with impunity in my power to 
commit base actions; and I abstained: woula my friend advise 
me at last to commit the basest of all ? to court the suffrages 
of people I despise 1 

You court not even those who love and honor you. 


Thirty times and oftener Iiave yon been chosen to lead 
our armies, and never once were present at the election. 
Unparalleled glory ! when have the Gods shown anything 
similar among men ! Not Aristides nor Epaminondas, the 
most virtuous of mortals, not Miltiades nor Cimon, the most 
glorious in their exploits, enjoyed the favour of Heaven so 
uninterruptedly. No presents, no solicitations, no flatteries, 
no concessions : you never even asked a vote, however duly, 
customarily, and gravely. 


The lii^hest price we can pay for anything is, to ask it : 
and to sohcit a vote appears to me as unworthy an action as 
to solicit a place in a will : it is not ours, and might have 
been another's. 


A question unconnected with my visit now obtrudes itself; 
and indeed, Phocion, I have remarked heretofore that an 
observation from you hath made Athenians, on several occasions, 
forget their own business and debates, and fix themselves 
upon it. Wliat is your opinion on the right and expediency 
of making wills ? 


Tliat it is neither expedient nor just to make them ; and 
that the proliibition would ob\iate and remove (to say nothing 
of duplicity and servility) much injustice and discontent ; the 
two things against which every legislator should provide the 
most cautiously. General and positive laws should secure the 
order of succession, as far as unto the grandchildren of brother 
and sister : beyond and out of these, property of every kind 
should devolve to the commonwealth. Thousands have 
remained unmarried, that, by gi>'ing hopes of legacies, they 
may obtain votes for public offices ; thus being dishonest, and 
making others so, defrauding the community of many citizens 
by their celibacy, and deteriorating many by their ambition. 
Luxury and irregular love have produced in thousands the 
same effect. They care neither about offspring nor about 
offices, but gratify the most sordid passions at their country^s 
most ruinous expense. If these two descriptions of citizens 
were prohibited from appointing heirs at their option, and 
obliged to indemnify the repubUc for their inutility and nullity, 
at least by so insensible a fine as that which is levied on them 


after deaths the members would shortly be reduced to few^ 
and much of distress and indigence^ much of dishonour and 
iniquity^ would be averted from the people of Athens. 

But services and friendships . . • 

• • • are rewarded by friendships and services. 

You have never ddivered your opinion upon this subject 
before the people. 


While passions and minds are agitated^ the fewer opinions 
wc deliver before them the better. We have laws enough ; 
and we should not accustom men to changes. Though many 
things might be altered and improved^ yet alteration in state- 
matters^ important or unimportant in themselves, is weighty 
in their complex and their consequences. A little car in 
motion shakes all the houses of a street : let it stand quiet, 
and you or I could almost bear it on our foot : it is thus with 

On wills you have excited my inquiry rather than satisfied 
it : you have given me new thoughts, but you have also made 
room for more. 


.£schine9, would you take possession of a vineyard or olive- 
ground which nobody had given to you ? 

Certainly not. 


Tet if it were bequeathed by will, you would ? 

Who would hesitate P 

In many cases the just man. 

In some indeed. 


There is a parity in all between a will and my hypothesis of 


vineyard or oUve-CTonnd. Inheriting by means of a will, we 
take to ourselves what nobody has given. 


Quite the contrary ; we take what he has given who does 
not deprive himself of any enjoyment or advantage by his 



Again I say^ we take it^ ^schines^ from no giver at all; 
for he whom you denominate the giver does not exist: he 
who does not exist can do nothing, can accept nothing, can 
exchange nothing, can give nothing. 


He gave it while he was living, and while he had these 
powers and faculties. 


If he gave it while he was living, then it was not what 
lawyers and jurists and legislators call a will or testament^ on 
which alone we spoke. 


True ; I yield. 


The absurdities we do not see are more numerous and 
greater than those we discover; for truly there are few 
imaginable that have not crept from some comer or other into 
common use, and these escape our notice by familiarity. 


We pass easily over great inequalities, and smaller shock 
us. He who leaps down resolutely and with impunity from a 
crag of Lycabettos,* may be lamed perhaps for liJFe by missing 
a step in the descent from a temple. 

Again, if you please, to our first question. 


I would change it willingly for another, if you had not 
dropt something out of which I collect that you think me 
too indiflerent to the administration of public affairs. In- 
difference to the welfare of our country is a crime ; but when 
our country is reduced to a condition in which the bad are 
preferred to the good, the foolish to the wise, hardly any 

* Callod afterwards A nketmoa. 

jacHtKcs xsD pnociox. 

roplte is to be dcprcculed or opposed tiiat inny shake 
llinii trvm Uielr pUces. 

Tti ilingwrous ontl tiding timca they fnll nalumlij and 

' , ;i« flics drop out of 11 curtniii h-t dowu in winter. 

;ii-uple dcmiuid of me what better I would propose 

iiUeniaric§, sut-h are the extremities to which tlieir 

fucii n <ii.-iie^ and levity have reduced us, I can return no 

ivcr. Wc arc in the condition of a woU bitiug off hia leg 

anpc from the Imp tliut has cuughl it. 

railies tiavc aasaulled mankind in so great a variety of 
, that nothing new can bo doised against them, llo 
I would strike oot a novelty in architecture, commits a 
By ill safety; Ikis house and he mny fit:ind : he who ultmipts 
I IB politir;!, nirrius a torch, from which t>t the first narrow 
_ ! wo may expect a egnlbgration. ExpiTiewcta is our 
r tau;ht!r both in war and peace. Aa we formerly did 
1 the Lacedemonians and their ulties, wc might by iiur 
I raperiority »eize or blockado tlie maritime towns of 
s; we might coneiliate Sparta, who has outraged and 
I bim ; wc might wait even for his dititli, impending 
I drunk tmnesx, lust, ferocity, niid inevil:ibltt in n short 
cot time from the vengeance to which they expose, him 
P Itomc It id a dangerous thing for a monarch to corrupt a 
iun yvt uni-iviUsed ; to corrupt a civilised one is the wuust 
f be can do. 

1 Kc no reajioii why wc should not send an executioner to 

duae him from the prison-house of liis crime;«, with his 

to attend him. Kings pby at war uiilnirly witli 

ibbn : ihry can only loxc some «nrth and some cTentun'it 

If value aa little, while republics loM! in every soldier a iMtt 

L U»enu«Kc». 'ihcrefor no wise repnhlic ouglit to be 

■liffletl, uidcss she bring to punishment the cnminal most 

obnoxmus, and those about him who miiy be supposed to liarc 

tm^ bim m, liis connscllor* aiirl his courtiers. Kelnlintion 

; a thing to be fciui'd. You mitfhl as nwoiialily be 

<-d with hrt'ikking tin- tublea and ciiuini of a wrcich who 

HnlerL'd jouf children, as with slaying tlic nildirrs of ■ 

(wbo wages war against yoo. The leut yoa can do in 


justice or in safety, is, to demand his blood of the people who 
are under him, tearing in pieces the nest of his brood. The 
Locrians have admitted only two new laws in two hundred 
years ; because he who proposes to establish or to change one, 
comes with a halter round his throat, and is strangled if his 
proposition is rejected. Let wars, which ought to be more 
perilous to the adviser, be but equally so: let those who 
engage in them perish if they lose, I mean the principals, and 
new wars will be as rare among others as new laws among the 


Both laws and wars are much addicted to the process of 
generation. Phihp, I am afraid, has prepared the Athenians 
for his government ; and yet I wonder how, in a free state, 
any man of common sense can be bribed. The corrupter 
would only spend his money on persons of some calculation 
and reflection: with how little of either must those be 
endowed, who do not see that they are paying a perpetuity for 
an annuity ! Suppose that they, amid suspicions, both from 
him in whose favour, and from those to whose detriment, they 
betray, can enjoy everything they receive, yet what security 
have their children and dependents? Property is usually 
gained in hope no less of bequeathing than of enjoying it ; 
how certain is it that these will lose more than was acquired 
for them ! If they lose their country and their laws, what 
have they ? The bribes of monarchs will be discovered, by 
the receiver, to be like pieces of furniture given to a man 
who, on returning home, finds that his house, in which he 
intended to place them, has another master. I can conceive 
no bribery at all seductive to the most profligate, short of 
that which establishes the citizen bribed among the members 
of a hereditary aristocracy, which in the midst of a people is 
a kind of foren state, where the spoiler and traitor may 
take refuge. Now Philip is not so inhuman, as, in case he 
should be the conqueror, to inflict on us so humiliating a 
punishment. Our ditf*erences with him are recent, and he 
marches from policy, not from enmity. The Lacedemonians 
did indeed attempt it, in the imposition of the thirty tyrants ; 
but such a monstrous state of degradation and of infamy 
roused us from our torpor, threw under us and beneath our 
view all other wretchedness, and we recovered (I wish we could 
retain it as easily !) our independence. What depresses you? 

jE9ctirK£3 AMI niucioy. 

fOI conlil I onboJy tbe spirit I rcraive from you, and 
kdL il iu all its |}urity lo tlic Athenians, they would suretjr 
e with HA njuch ntleutioii, hs that invokcr and violator 
f the Godi, Den lost bet I cs, 1» u-hoin my blood would be the 
It acceptable libation at the feiists of Phiiip. Pertinacity 
I rUmorousness, hi; ioiagint^ are t^sta of aiuferity nnd 
(rath ; although we know that a weak orator raises his voice 
hiirli-r a [wwcrful one, a^ the lame riiisc thfir legs higlier 
iliaii ihr liHiiio. Ht! ci-usurcsnie for repeating my accusation ; 
he lalkfl iif tautology aTid diffuw-ncss ; lie who t*-lls us gravely 
that A niaii had lived maiiif yean, and . . . whnt then P . . . 
Out he was rather old when he died ! * Can anytiiing be 
(u ndirnlouB as the pret^-nsions of this man, who, because I 
lor no action, fuy», action U tSefr»t, ike leeoud, Ike third 
imle ff oratory, wlulti he hiuiH-if is the uiost uugraceful 
four ^jtcakcnt, and, cvt^n in oppcaliiig to the gods, begins by 
lebing his lirad i' 


■ u surely no innttrntion or indifference to the powers 
Gnat men lose soincwhiit of their grealnpM by being 

— ■; (inlinnry xtwn gain mueh. hs we are drawing nig^ 

I bmnble building*, those at a dinlance beyond them sink 

How : but we may 'Inw so nigh to the grand and elevated 

f to laic in oniv a small part of the whole. 1 smile at 

nrfliTtii)^ on the li-.iity with which we conti-mporaries often 

jvAer- of those authors whom posterity will rmd with most 

'miralion : such is nemosllifne!", liifTer as we may from 

I politifui, we uuisl aeknowWgi- lliat no languiigc i> 

', DO thoughts more natural, no words more proper, no 

Baduns more unexpected, no cadcnees more divcrKilied 

i Wmouious. Accustomed to consider as the beat nhat 

t anoe the uia< mmpic and emphatic, and knowing that 

t mi»fir« iho understanding, uuneiliatcs the car, 1 think 

I litllo if at all inferior to Arislol4-lus in »tyle, though in 

1 )tc is an a utotf to a sutilieani ; and sujierior to raj 

■ Plato, eieellent as he is ; gorgeous indeed, but b^ 
^y, like wealtliy kings. Defective however and faulty 

: the compositioit in prose, which you and X with oor 

1 study and attention cjin nut. imdcrsland. In noetr; 

4 oxuclly BO ; the greater share of it must be intelligible 


to the multitude ; but in the best there is often an undersong 
of sense^ which none beside the poetical mind, or one deepljr 
versed in its mysteries, can comprehend. Euripides and Pindtf 
have been blamed by many, who perceived not that the arrow 
drawn against them fell on Homer. The gods have denied to 
Demosthenes many parts of genius; the urbane, the witty, 
the pleasurable, the pathetic. But, O iBschines ! the tree of 
strongest fibre and longest duration is not looked up to for 
its flower nor for its leaf. 

Let us praise whatever we can reasonably : nothing is less 
laborious or irksome, no office is less importunate or nearer 
a sinecure. Above others praise those who contend with 
you for glory, since they have already borne their suffrages 
to your judgment by entering on the same career. Dean 
it a peculiar talent, and what no three men in any age have 
possessed, to give each great citizen or great writer his just 

Sroportion of applause. A barbarian king or his eunuch can 
istributc equally and fairly beans and lentils ; but I perceive 
that JEschines himself finds a difficulty in awarding just 

A few days ago an old woman, who wrote formerly a poem 
on Codrus, such as Codrus with all his self-devotion would 
hardly have read to save his country, met me in the street, 
and taxed me with injustice toward Demosthenes. 

" You do not know him,'' said she ; " he has heart, and 
somewhat of genius ; true he is singular and eccentric ; yet 1 
assure you I have seen compositions of liis that do him credit. 
We must not judge of him from his speeches in public: 
there he is violent ; but a billet of his, I do declare, is quite a 


Wliat answer of yours could be the return for such 
silliness ? 


"Lady!" replied I, "Demosthenes is fortunate to be 
protected by the same cuirass as Codrus." 

The commendations of these people are not always, wliat 
you would tliink them, left-handed and detractive : for singular 
must every man appear who is different from the rest ; and 
he is most different from them who is most above them. If 
the clouds were inhabited by men, the men must be of other 
form and features than those on earth, and their gait would 



tbe ttie snmc ns upon tlie ffrasa or pavement. Diversity 
ns b coQtmcted bv tbe Imbitations, tts it were, and hnuiita, 
dercises, of our minds. SiiKfulanty, when it is nutiinil, 
. MBifiiim no apology ; when it is nirecl«d, is del«sUkble. Such 
'■ thkt of our young people in bad handwriting. On my 
-.;irdition to Hyxanlion, the citj decreed that a cloak 
Lould be given mc worth forty drachmas : and, wlieii 1 was 
Ijuiil to return, 1 fuUled it up carefully, in reAdinrsB for any 
fiiee in «hiili I might be employed hereafter. An officer, 
- udions to iniilatt my neatness, packed up his in the same 
luarmcr, not without the hope perhap.t that I might remark 
^^L ud my serx-ant, or his, on our return, mistook it. I sailed 
^HBt Alhenai; he, H*ith a detaclmiml, for Ucraclca; whence he 
^Pnte to uie that lie hud »ent my cloak, requesting his OH'n 
^oy tlie first conveyance. The name was quite illegible, and 
Ibc earner, whoever he was, had ])ursiicd his roail homeward : 
J dLrrctcd it then, as the only safe way, if indeed there waa 

J mxk line, to tie officer who teriUt vortl at lleraeUa. 
[ Cptiie,a few more words upon Bemosthctie^. Do not, my 
'tncl, ioTvigh against litm, lest a pari, of your opjKisilion be 
tributnl tu envy. How many arguments is it wurtli to him 
I you a]>pear to act from another motive than principle I 
T(ie, his eloquence is imixrrfect : what among men is not ? 
■ \m ippartecs there is no playfulness, in lus voice there is no 
BifaQily, in his action there is neither dignity nor grue« : but 
Iiow often has he iftrickcn you dumb with his irony 1 liow often 
ton he to«ied you from one Iiand lo the other with his intcr- 
rotEitoricei I dmcenlrated ore his arguments, select and distinct 
and orderly his topics, ready and imfastidious his cxprcssioos, 
popular his allusions, plain his illustrations, easy the swell and 
soOMdence of his periods, his dialet^t purely attic. Is this no 
^^MtHP I* it none in an age of idle rheioririans, who liavc 
^^^^otl«ii Itow Uusir fathers and molhers sjioke to them ? 

^Bf a thi 

t what repetitioi 

f a thing is good it may be re[wateJ; not indeed too 
E^ueutlv nor too closely, nuT in wards exactly the same. The 
repetition shows no want of invention : it shows only what ii 
Djipo-niiiist in the mind, and by what the writer is moat 
' ' diuid iiillnmcd. 




Demosthenes tells us liiinaelf, that he has prcpaml fiftf^a 
comnieucements for his future speeches: liow cati he furecea 
the maiii subject of Ihem all? 'JTiej' are indeed nU inrretwi 
against Pliilip : but does Deuostlienes imagine lliat Pliilip 
not greatly more fertile in the menits of annoyance lltau any 
Athenian is in the terms of vituperation? And which giires 
most annoyance? Fire and sword ravage far and wide: the 
tongue can not break through the shii.'ld nor citingui^h tim 
conAagration : it brings don-n many blows, bat heals nu woands 

I perceive in the number of these overtures to the choraswa 
of tJie Furies, a stronger argument of liis temerity than youc 
aeuteness hath exposed. He mu-^t liave believed th&t P1iilt|h 
could not conquer us liefore he liad time enough to cainpoae 
and deliver his fifty-six speeches. 1 differ from him widely i«' 
my calculation. But, returning to your fonner charge, I wuti]il 
rather praise him for what he has omitted, than censure him for 
what he has repeated. 

And 1 too. 

Those words were spoken in the tone uf a competilur ratlur 
I th&n of a romrodc, as you soon may be. 

I am jealous then ? Did 1 demonstrate any jfalonsr nf bti 
vhen 1 went into tlie Pelopouese, to second and pnipel tbs 
courage his representations of the common danger Lad excited f 
where I beheld the youths of Olyntlius, sent as slavi 
donatives to his partisans, in that country of degenera._ 
dastard Greeks ! What his orations had failed to bring al 
my energy and zeal, my $iiirerity and singleness of aim, effected. 
The Atlieuians there followed me to the temple of Agrauloa^ 
and denounced lu one voice the most awful iinprecntioiu 
against the Peloponesians corrupted by the gold of MacedoD. 

You luive many advantages over your rival : let him haw 
some over you. 'fhere are merits which appear demerits tc| 
vulgar minds and inconsiderate auditors. Many, in the popu- 
lace of hearers and readers, want links and cramps to hold 
together the thoughts that are given them, and cry out if yon 

^acmSKS AS» PHOCION. 183 

y thrai on Um fsst. You must leap over no gnp, or von 
imvr. tlinn boliimi mid ptartic tliem from Tolluwiiig yoa. W itli 
Ibrm tlie jitonrfr i* n cleverer uiaii llian the contmauder. 
I luve oliservcd in Uemosllkcnes and Thucydidcs, that they lay 
I as a rule, never to saj wliat thcv have rcasou to 
e would occur to the noditor and rcwler in consequence 
uirtbing aaid before, knowing every one lo he more pleased 
Mill iDorc nL^ilv led by u.i, when we bring forwiird liiii thuughLs 
imlirrcllr and intpcrceplibly, than when we elbow and outstrip 
I wilh our own. Thu ncntcucea of your adversary arc 
lot and compact aa the Macedonian phnlani, animated and 
lent an thtr sacred band of Thebes. Praise hint, jEschiiies, 
jr jou wtfb to be victon'uus ; if you ockiiowledge you are 
MoquUhed, then revile him und complain. In eumpoaition t 
Idbw nut a xuperior to him ; and in an aasenibly of tne people 
be denves advantages from liis defects themselves, from the 
violence of his action and from the vnlgarity of hi« mien. 
I'crmit liim to possess these mlvautsges over you ; look on bim 
M ■ wn-»tlcr whose body is robust, but whose feet rest upon 
something slrpjie-ry: use your dexterity, and reserve your 
blow*. (.}oii!ii<ler liiiii, if Uits excellent as a statearaaii, cituen, 
or aiildier, rather aa a getiiua or demon, who, whether bene> 
&ccat or malignant, hath, from an elevation far above ua, 
. iMtadied forth mauv new stan into the firmament of mind. 

R had b«!en born in other days! Tlic best mtn 
nyi fuU upon tlie worst. 


> Gods have not gninied ua, if^chtnes, the choice of 

J bom wheu we would; that of dying when we would, 

have. 'l*hank tliem for it, as one among the must 

dlent of their gifts, and remain or go, as utility or dignity 

^juirc, Whatever can happen to a wise and virtuous 

I fiuni his won't enemy, whatever is most ilreiuled by the 

■iilcjule uud irresolute, hns hapiteued lo lum fre<|uently 

1 bim»elf, and not oulv uithout his inconvenience, bnt 

1 bis observation. We are prisoners as often a* we 

t our doors, exiles as often as «c walk to Munychia, and 

A often as we steep. It would be a fullv anJ u sliame 

fuc tW ihc*e liungs are voluntary, niiil tlint nhnt our 

I are tut : thej aliould be the more if they 


befall US from necessity^ unless necessify be a weaker reason 
than caprice. In fine^ iEschines^ I shall then call the times 
bad when they make me so : at present they are to be boniey 
as must be the storm that follows them. 



Like my father, as ignorant men called King Philip, I have 
at all times been the friend and defender of the gods. 


Hitherto it was rather my belief that the gods may befriend 
and defend us mortals : but I am now instructed that a king 
of Macedon has taken them under his shield. Philip, if report 
be true, was less remarkable for his devotion. 


He was the most religious prince of the age. 


On what, Alexander, rests the support of such an exalted 


Not only did he swear more frequently and more awfully 
than any officer in the army, or any priest in the temples, but 
his sacrifices were more numerous and more costly. 


More costly ? It must be either to those whose ruin is con- 
summated or to those whose ruin is commenced; in other 
words, either to the vanquished, or to those whose ill-fortune 
is of earlier date, the bom subjects of the vanquisher. 


He exhibited the surest and most manifest proof of his 
piety when he defeated (Euomarchus, general of the Phocians, 
who had dared to plough a piece of ground belonging to 


Apollo might have made it as hot work for the Phocians who 


wef€ ploughing his ground^ as he formerly did at Troy to those 
unruly Greeks who took away his priest^s daughter. He shot 
a good many mules^ to show he was in earnest^ and would 
have gone on shooting both cattle and men until he came at 
last to the offender. 


He instructed kings by slaying their people before their 
eyes : surely he would never set so bad an example as striking 
at the kings themselves. Philip^ to demonstrate in the presence 
of all Greece his regard for ApoUo of Delphi^ slew six 
thousand^ and threw into the sea three thousand^ enemies of 


Alexander! Alexander! the enemies of religion are the 
cmel, and not the sufferers by cruelty. Is it unpardonable in 
the ignorant to be in error about their gods when the wise are 
in doubt about their fathers ? 


I am not : Philip is not mine. 


Probable enough. 


Who then is, or ought to be, but Jupiter himself ? 


The priests of Pella are abler to return an oracle on that 
matter Uian we of the Oasis. 


We have no oracle at Pella. 


If you had, it might be dumb for once. 


I am losing my patience. 


I have given thee part of mine, seeing thee but scantily 
provided ; yet, if thy gestures are any signification, it sits but 
awkwardly upon thy shoulders. 


This to me ! the begotten of a god ! the benefactor of all 



Such as Philip was to the three thousand, when he devised 
80 magnificent a bath for their recreation. Plenty of pnmioel 
rather a lack of napkins I 


No trifling ! no false wit ! 


True wit, to every man, is that which falls on another. 


To come at once to the point ; I am ready to prove that 
neither Jason nor Bacchus, in their memorable expeditions, 
did greater service to mankind than I have done, and am about 
to do. 


Jason gave them an example of falsehood and ingratitude : 
Bacchus made them drunk : thou appearest a proper successor 
to these worthies. 


Such insolence to crowned heads ! such levity on heroes 
and gods ! 


Hark ye, Alexander ! we priests are privileged. 


I too am privileged to speak of my own great actions ; if 
not as liberator of Greece and consolidator of her disjointed 
and jarring interests, at least as the benefactor of Egypt and 
of Jupiter. 


Here indeed it would be unseemly to laugh ; for it is evident 
on thy royal word that Jupiter is much indebted to thee ; and 
equally evident, from the same authority, that thou wantest 
nothing from him but his blessing . . . unless it be a public 
acknowledgment that he has been guilty of another act of 
bastardy, more becoming his black curls than his grey 


Amazement ! to talk thus of Jupiter ! 


Only to those who are in his confidence : a mistress for 
instance, or a son, as thou sayest thou art. 



Yea, by my head and by my scepter am I. Nothing is 
more certain, 


We wOl discourse apon that presently. 


Diacom^ upon it this instant. 


How is it possible that Jupiter should be thy father, 
when . • • 


When what ? 


Couldst not thou hear me on ? 


Thou askest a fooUsh question. 


I did not ask whether I should be acknowledged the son of 


Thou indeed I 


Yet, by the common consent of mankind, lands and tene- 
ments are assimed to us, and we are called '* divine,'^ as their 
children; ana there are some who assert that the gods 
themselves have less influence and less property on earth 
than we. 


All this is well : only use your influence for your bene- 


Before we proceed any farther, tell me in what manner thou 
art or wilt ever be the benefactor of Egypt. 


The same exposition will demonstrate that I shall be like- 
wise the benefactor of Jupiter. It is my intention to build a 
city, in a situation very advantageous for commerce : of course 
the frequenters of such a mart will continually make offerings 
to Jupiter. 


For what ? 


For prosperity. 


Alas ! Alexander, the prosperous make few offerings ; and 
Hermes has the dexterity to intercept the greater part of them. 
In Egypt there are cities enow already : I should say too 
many : for men prey upon one another when they are penned 
together close. 


There is then no glory in building a magnificent city ? 


Great may be the glory. 


Here at least thou art disposed to do me justice. 


I never heard until this hour that among thy other attain- 
ments was architecture. 


Scornful and insolent man! dost thou take me for an 
architect ? 


I was about to do so ; and certainly not in scorn, but to 
assuage the feeling of it. 




He who devises the plan of a great city, of its streets, its 
squares, its palaces, its temples, must exercise much reflection 
and many kinds of knowledge : and yet those which strike 
most the vulgar, most even the scientific, require less care, less 
knowledge, less beneficence, than what are caUed the viler parts, 
and are the most obscure and unobserved ; the construction 
of the sewers ; the method of exempting the aqueducts from the 
incroachment of their impurities ; the conduct of canals for fresh 
air in every part of the house, attempering the summer heats ; 
the exclusion of reptiles ; and even the protection from insects. 
The conveniences and comforts of life, in these countries, 
depend on such matters. 


My architect, I doubt not, has considered them maturely. 



Who is he ? 


T will not tell thee : the whole glory is mine : I gave the 
orders^ and first conceived the idea. 


A hound upon a heap of dust may dream of a fine city^ if 
he has ever seen one ; and a madman in chains may dream of 
building it^ and may even give directions about it. 


I will not bear this. 


Were it false, thou couldst bear it; thou wouldst call the 
bearing of it magnanimity ; and wiser men would do the same 
for centuries. As such wisdom and such greatness are not 
what I bend mv back to measure, do favor me with what 
thou wert about to say when tiiou begannest '^ uotliing is more 
certain ; " since I presume it must appertain to geometry, of 
which I am fond. 


I did not come hither to make figures upon the sand. 


Fortunate for thee, if the figure thou wilt leave behind thee 
could be as easily wiped out. 


What didst thou say ? 


I was musing. 


Even the building of cities is in thy sight neither glorious 
nor commendable. 


Truly, to build them is not among the undertakings I the 
most applaud in the powerful ; but to destroy them is the 
very foremost of the excesses I abhor. All the cities of tlie 
earth should rise up against the man who ruins one. Until 
this s(*ntiment is predominant, the peaceful can have no 
protection, the virtuous no encouragement, the brave no coun- 
tcaancp, the prosperous no security. We priests communicate 
one with another extensively ; and even in these solitudes thy 
exploits against Thebes have reached and shocked us. Wliat 


liearts must lie in the bosoms of those who applaad thee for 
preserving the mansion of a deceased poet in the general roin^ 
while the relatives of the greatest patriot that ever drew breath 
under heaven^ of the soldier at whose hospitable hearth ihj 
father learned all that thou knowest and much more, of 
Epaminondas (dost thou hear me?) were murdered or 
enslaved. Now b^in the demonstration than which '' nothing 
is more certain/' 


Nothing is more certain, or what a greater number of 
witnesses are ready to attest, tlian that my mother Olympias, 
who hated Philip, was pregnant of me by a serpent. 


Of what race ? 




Thy mother Olympias hated Philip, a well-made man, young, 
courageous, libidinous, witty, prodigal of splendour, indifferent 
to wealth, the greatest captain, the most jovial companion^ and 
the most potent monarch in Europe. 


My father Philip, I would have thee to know ... I mean 
my reputed father . . . was also the greatest politician in the 


This indeed I am well aware of ; but I did not number it 
among his excellences in the eyes of a woman : it would have 
been almost the only reason why she should have preferred 
the serpent, the head of the family. We live here, Alexander, 
in solitude; yet we are not the less curious, but on the 
contrary the more, to learn what passes in the world around. 

Olympias then did really fall in love with a serpent ? and 
she was induced . . . 


Induced ! do serpents induce people ! They coil and climb 
and subdue them. 


The serpent must have been dexterous . . . 


No doubt he was. 

alexa:ndeb and the pbibst or hamkon. 191 


Bat women have such an abhorrence of serpents^ that 
Oljmpias would surely have rather run away. 


How could she ? 


Or called out. 


Women never do that^ lest somebody should hear them. 


All mortals seem to bear an innate antipathy to this 


Mind I mind what thou sayest ! Do not call my father a 


Even thou, with all thy fortitude, wouldst experience a 
diaddering at the sight of a serpent in thy bed-clothes. 


Not at all. Beside, I do not hesitate in my belief that on 
this occasion it was Jupiter himself. The priests in Macedon 
were unanimous upon it. 


When it happened ? 


When it happened no one mentioned it, for fear of Philip. 


What would he have done ? 


He was choleric. 


Would he have made war upon Jupiter ? 


By my soul I I know not ; but I would have done it in his 
place. As a son, I am dutiful and compliant : as a husband 
and king, there is not a thunderbolt in heaven that should 
deter me from my rights. 


Did anv of the priesthood sec the dragon, as he was entering 
or retreating from the chamber P 



Many saw a great light in it. 


He would want one. 


This seems like irony : sacred things do not admit it. What 
thousands saw^ nobody should doubt. The sky opened^ li^it- 
nings flew athwart it^ and strange voices were heard. 


Juno's the loudest^ I suspect. 


Being' a" king, and the conqueror of kings, let me remind 
thee, surely I may be treated here with as much deference and 
solemnity as one priest uses toward another. 


Certainly with no less, king ! Since thou hast insisted 
that I should devise the best means of persuading the world 
of this awful veritv, thou vnlt excuse me, in thv clemencv, if 
my remarks and interrogatories should appear prolix. 


Remark anything ; but do not interrogate and press me : 
kings are unaccustomed to it. I will consign to thee every 
land from the center to the extremities of Africa ; the Fortu- 
nate lies will I also give to thee, adding the Hyperborean : 
I wish only the consent of the religious who officiate in this 
temple, and their testimony to the world in declaration of my 


Many thanks ! we have all we want. 


I can not think you are true priests then ; and if your oath 
on the divinity of my descent were not my object, and there- 
for not to be abandoned, I should regret that I had offered so 
much in advance, and should be provoked to deduct one half 
of the Fortunate Hes, and the greater part of the Hyper- 


Those are exactly the regions, king, which our modera- 
tion would induce us to resign. Africa, we know, is worth 
little: yet we are as well contented with the almonds^ the 


ditesy the melons^ the figs, the fresh butter, the stags, the 
antelopes, the kids, the tortoises, and the cpiails about us, as 
we should be if they were brought to us after fifty days' 
journey through the desert. 

Beally now, is it possible that, in a matter so evident, your 
oracle can find any obstacle or difficulty in proclaioung. me 
what I am ? 


The difficulty (slight it must be acknowledged) is this : our 
Jupiter is homed. 


So was my father. 

The children of Jupiter love one another : this we believe 
here in Lybia. 


And rightly : no affection was ever so strong as that of 
Castor ana Pollux. I myself feel a genuine love for them, 
and greater stil for Hercules. 

If thou hadst a brother or sister on earth, Jove-bom, thou 
wooldst embrace the same most ardently. 


As becomes my birth and heart. 


O Alexander I may thy godlike race never degenerate I 


Now indeed the Powers above do inspire thee. 


Jupiter, I am commanded by him to declare, is verily thy 


He owns me then I he owns me I What sacrifice worthy of 
this indulgence can I offer to him ? 

An obedient wad, and a camel-load of nard and amomum 
for his altar. 


I smell here the exquisite perfume of benzoiii. 


It grows in onr vicinity. The nostrils of Jupiter love 
changes : he is consistent in all parts, being Jupiter. He has 
other sons and daughters in the world, begotten by him under 
the same serpentine form^ although unknown to conmioii 




I dechtre it unto thee. 


I can not doubt it then. 


Not all indeed of thy comeliness in form and features, but 
awful and majestic. It is the wiU of Jupiter^ that^ like the 
Persian monarchs, whose scepter he hath transferred to the^ 
thou marriest thy sister. 


Willingly. In what land upon earth liveth she whom thou 
designest for me ? 


The Destinies and Jupiter himself have conducted thee, 
O Alexander, to the place where thy nuptials shall be cele- 


When did they so ? 

Now ; at this very hour. 


Let me see the bride, if it be lawful to lift np her veiL 


Follow me. 


The steps of this cavern are dark and slippery; but it 
terminates, no doubt, like the Eleusinian^ in pure light and 
refreshing shades. 

Wait here an instant : it will grow lighter. 


What do I see yonder ? 





Close under the wall, rising and lowering, regularly and 
slowly, like a long weed on a quiet river, when a fragment 
hath dropt into it from the bank above. 


Thou descriest, Alexander, the daughter of Jupiter, the 
watchful virgin, the preserver of our treasures. Without her 
they might be carried away by the wanderers of the desert ; 

ay Dy i 
uld do. 

but they fear, as they should do, the daughter of Jupiter. 


Hdl and Furies I what hast thou been saying? I heard 
little of it. Daughter of Jupiter ! 


Hast thou any fancy for the silent and shy maiden ? I will 
leave you together. . . . 


Orcus and Erebus I 


Be discreet I Eestrain your raptures until the rites are 


Bites I Infernal pest I O horror I abomination ! A vast 
panting snake I 


Say ^^ dragon,*^ O king ! and beware how thou callest horrid 
and abominable the truly begotten of our lord thy father. 


What means this ? inhuman traitor I Open the door again : 
lead me back. Are my conquests to terminate in the jaws of 
a reptile ? 

Do the kings of Macedon call their sisters such names? 


Let me out, I say ! 

Inconstant man I I doubt even whether the marriage hath 

been consummated. Dost thou question her worthiness? prove 

her, prove her. We have certain signs and manifestations 



that Jupiter b^t this powerful creature, thy elder sister. 
Her mother hid. her shame and confusion in the desert, 
where she stil wanders, and looks with an evil eye on 
eyerything in the form of man. The poorest, Yikst, oiost 
abject (^ the sex, holdeth her head no lower than she. 



Do not the sympathies of thy heart inform: thee that this 
soUtary queen is of the same Ui^&age as thine ? 


What temerity ! what impudence I what deceit ! 

Temerity ! How so, Alexander 1 Surely man can not daim 
too near an affinity to his Creator, if he will but obey him, as 
I know 11k>u certs^nly wilt in this tender alliance. Impudence 
and deceit were thy other accusations : how little merited ! 
I only traced the collateral branches of the genealogical tree 
thou pointedst out to me. 


Draw back the bolt : let me pass : stand out of my way* 
Thy hand upon my shoulder ! Were my sword beside me, 
this monster should lick thy blood. 


Patience ! king ! The iron portal is in my hand : if the 
hinges turn, thy godhead is extinct. No, Alexander, no ! it 
must not be. 


Lead me then forth. I swear to silence. 


As thou wilt. 


I swear to friendship ; lead me but out again. 


Come ; although I am much interested in the happiness of 
his two children whom I serve. . . . 


Persecute me no longer ; in the name of Jupiter ! 



I can hardlj give it up. To have been the maker of such a 
match ! what feulicity I what fflory I Think once more upon 
it. There are many who could measure themselves with tnee^ 
head to head ; let me see the man who will do it with your 
child at the end of the year^ if thou embracest with good heart 
and desirable success this daughter of deity. 


Enottghy my friend I I have deserved it ; but we must 
deceive men, or they wiU either hate us or despise us. 

Now thou talked reasonably. I here pronounce thy divorce. 
Moreover, thou shalt be the son of Hammon in Libya, of 
Mithras in Persia, of Philip in Macedon, of Olympian Jove in 
Greece : but never for the future teach priests new creeds. 


How my father Philip would have laughed over his cups at 
such a story as this ! 

Alexander I let it prove to thee thy folly. 


If such is my folly, what is that of others ? Thou wilt 
acknowledge and proclaim me the progeny of Jupiter. 


Ay, ay. 


People must believe it. 


The only doubt will be among the shrewder, whether, being 
so extremely old and having left off his pilgrimages so many 
years, he could have given our unworthy world so spirited an 
offiBpring as thou art. 

Come and sacrifice. 


Priest I I see thou art a man of courage : henceforward 
we are in confidence. Take mine with my hand : give me 
thine. Conf^ to me, as the first proof of it, didbt thou 
never shrink back from so voracious and intractable a monster 
as that accursed snake P 



We caught her young, and fed her on goafs nulk, as our 
Jupiter himself was fed in the caTems of (>ete. 


Tour Jupiter ! tAat was another. 


Some people say so: but the same cradle serves for the 
whole family, the same story will do for them all. As for 
fearing this young personage in the treasury-vault, we fear her 
no more, son Alexander, than the priests of Egypt do his 
holiness the crocodile-god. The gods and their pedagogues 
are manageable to the hand that f^ds them. 


Canst thou talk thus ? 


Of false gods, not of the true one. 


One ! are there not many ? Some dozens ? some hundreds ? 


Not in our vicinity ; praised be Hammon ! And plainly to 
speak, there is nowhere another, let who will have begotten 
lum, whether on cloud or meadow, feather-bed or barn-floor, 
worth a salt locust or a last year's date-fruit. 

These are our mysteries, if thou must needs know them ; 
and those of other priesthoods are the like. 

Alexander, my Boy, do not stand there, with thy arms 
folded and thy head aside, pondering. Jupiter the Bam for 


Glory to Jupiter the Bam ! 


Thou stoppest on a sudden thy prayers and praises to father 
Jupiter. Son Alexander ! art thou not satisfied P What ails 
thee, drawing the back of thy hand across thine eyes ? 


A little dust flew into them as the door opened. 


Of that dust are the sands of the desert and the kings of 

▲siarroTELEs and callisthenes. 199 


— ♦ — 


I rejoice^ O Callisthenes, at your return ; and the more as 
I see you in the dress of your country ; while others, who 
appear to me of the lowest rank by their language and physio- 
gnomy, are arrayed in the Persian robe, and mix the essence of 
rose with pitch. 


I thank the Gods, O Aristoteles, that I embrace you again ; 
that my dress is a greek one and an old one ; that the con- 
quests of Alexander have cost me no shame and have 
encumbered me with no treasures. 


Jupiter! what then are those tapestries, for I will not 
call them dresses, which the slaves are carrying after you, in 
attendance (as they say) on your orders ? 


They are presents from Alexander to Xenocrates ; by which 
he punishes, as he declared to the Macedonians, both me and 
joa. And I am well convinced that the punishment will not 
terminate here, but that he, so irascible and vindictive, will 
soon exercise his new dignity of godship, by breaking our 
heads, or, in the wisdom of his providence, by removing them 
an arm's length from our bodies. 


On tills subject we must talk again. Xenocrates is indeed 
ft wise and virtuous man ; and although I could wish that 
Alexander had rather sent him a box of books than a bale of 
woollen, I acknowledge that the gift could hardly have been 
better bestowed. 


Tou do not appear to value very highly the learning of this 


To talk and dispute are more the practices of the Platonic 



Bcliool tliaa to rea<l aud meditate. Talkative men seldom rod. 
This is among ihe few truths which appear the more 
the more we reflect upon them. For what is rendinir but 
conversation? Peo|)ie make extriMnelj fm: use of their 
senses ; and I know not what dilBcnlty tliey cuold find or 
apprehend in ntiiking use of their eves, particularlj in the 
gnitificatiou of a priipensity which ihey indulf^ so profiuely 
by the tongue. The fatigue, jou would think, is less ; tbe 
«ne oi^an requiring much motion, the other little. hMed t 
Triiidi, they may leave their opponent when tber please, an 
never are subject to captiousness or persotiality. Tn ope 
Contention with an argumentative adversary, the worst bnud 
victor imposes is a blush. The talkative man blows Ibe & 
himself for the reception of it ; and we can not denv that 
may likewise be suffered by a reader, if his consocnce lit 
open to reproach : yet even in this case, tlie stigiiu is illeKihb 
on his brow ; no one triumphs in his defeat, or even ficsoeoi 
his wound, as may sometimes ha])peu, by the warmth uf ^m 
pathy. All men, you and I among the rest, are more desuuoi 
of converging with a great philosopher, or other celebnted 
man, than of reading his works. There are several rcASODi 
for this ; some of wliicli it would he well if we could deny oi 
palliate. In justice to ourselves and him, we ought to prac 
Ilia writings to his speech; for even the wisest sny many lluBe 
iiicDneideRitely ; anil there never was one of them in thcworii 
whoever uttered estemporaneously three sentences in sni 
such as, if he thought soundly and maturely upon them 
WBJ-d, he would not iu some sort modifj- and correct. Eltroni 
and hardness of heart are the characteristics of eveir 
speaker I can mention, excepting Phocion ; and if he is exeiBp 
from them, it is because eloquence, in which no otw ora 
excelled or ever will excel! him, is secondary to philosoph; 
this man, and philosophy to generosity of spirit. On the s 

principle as impudence is the quality of great speakers , 

disputants, modesty is that of great readers and composefai 
Not oidy are they abstracted bv tlieir studies from the faralitir- 
of ordinary conversation, but they discover, from time lo tinn 
things of wliich they were ignorant before, and on which th(_^ 
had not even the ability of doubting. We, my CallisLhcnes 
may consider them not only as gales that refresh us while Uiq| 
propell us forward, but as a more compendious engine of tht 
gods, whereby we are brought securely into harbaor, wai 


^^BqiI; Udeu with impefi^balik wealth. Let us tJieii strive 
^^Hur ud iiiglit to iacr^asc tbt^' tiuiiibor of lliese lieiii^ficvnt 
^Hpilg^ wid to slatid amuiig tliftn in tlu: sight of the living 
^Qnd die future. It it requireil uf lu Llut we give more tliau 
WE nceived. 


O tnir ffiride adiI teucherf vmi tire one of the blessed fev 

■1 vbow oanda tiie Ouds niay demand it : if they liad intended 

to pUec it in my duties, they would have clioscn mc a diOcrcnt 

HUUtcT. How small a part of what I Imve acquiretl fmm you 

^^UkI to you I owe all of Ltiowlrd^ and wisdom I posseto) 

icoimip' bftt<T hopiw. Agjin 1 k-H you, it is required of 
n<)t mrrelv tluit wc plnev tlif grain in a gnrner, butttiKl we 
tilali* ntiif sifl it, that we sejianile liie full from the t-mptj, 
bully from the »ontid, snd timt, if it must form the greater, 
it dn nift form the more clegniit part of the enlcrtaimncrit our 
fnends ex|)«7t from n». I am now in the decline of life : 
to fhovp rap from behind would be a boriah trick : but wbcre- 
I fall I shall fall soAly: the Godsliuving pLieed me in a 
out uf wbieh no A-iolencc can reniovc me. In vouth our 
aixl tbr or{;»ns of them WAiider; in the middle of life 
ccane to do it ; in old age the body itaelf, and chiefly the 
bcBQ, bends over ami {Kiintii to the cMh which must soon 
recdvc it, and paritikcs in some measure of its torpor. 

Yoa appear to me freefa and healthy, and your ratmmsRond 
tndiftmice to accidents an the effects of philosophy rutlier 
iitMn of years. 

f SUUt » oilier bv twenty, and hn* last nothing of juvenility 
It tbe cuiiiur of lii» linir. llie liijrlier deliglils of the mind 
D thi», ai in everything else, itiry different in their effect* 
1 seductive paa«ion». 'ITiese cease to gratify u» the 
• tbe earlier wc indulsr in them: on the eontrary, the 
r WT indulge in thought and reflection Ibc lim(^r dolhcy 
* ud die more faithfully do they wrve lis. So far are they 
from ihiirt.ninK or drbililAting onr animal life, that they 
jouiiiii^- ind .iltinglheii it greatly, 'llic Imdy is as much at 
c iu tiu: midst of high ima^natioos as in the uudrt of 


profound sleep. In imperfect deep it wears away much, 2S 
also in imperfect thoughts ; in thoughts that can not rise from 
the earth and sustain themselves above it. The object which 
is in a direct line behind a thing, seems near : now nothing is 
in a more direct line than death to life : why should it not 
also be considered, on the first sight, as near at hand ? Swells 
and depressions, smooth ground and rough, usually lie between; 
the distance may be rather more or rather less ; the proximity 
is certain. Alexander, a god, descends from his throne to 
conduct me. 


Endurance on the part of the injured is more pathetic than 
passion. The intimate friends of this conductor will quarrel 
over his carcase while yet warm, as dogs over a dish after 
su])per. How different are our conquests from his! how 
different our friends ! not united for robbery and revelry, but 
joyous in discovery, calm in meditation, and intrepid in research* 
How often, and throughout how many ages, shall you be a 
refuge from such men as he and his accomplices : liow often 
will the studious, the neglected, the deserted, fly toward you 
for compensation in the wrongs of fortune, and for solace in 
the rigour of destiny ! His judgment-seat is covered by hb 
sepulcher : after one year hence no appeals are made to him : 
after ten thousand there will be momentous questions, not of 
avarice or litigation, not of violence or fraud, but of reason 
and of science, brought before your judgment-seat and settled 
by your decree. Dyers and tailors, carvers and gilders, grooms 
and trumpeters, make greater men than God makes ; but God's 
last longer, throw them where you will. 


Alexander hath really punished me by his gifts to Xenocrates; 
for he obliges me to send him the best tunic I have : and you 
know that in my wardrobe I am, as appears to many, un- 
philosophically splendid. There are indeed no pearls in this 
tunic ; but golden threads pursue the most intricate and most 
deganf design, the texture is the finest of Miletus, the wool 
is the softest of Tarentum, and the purple is Hermionic. He 
will sell Alexander's dresses, and wear mine ; the consequence 
of which will be imprisonment or scourges. 


A provident god forsooth in his benefits is our Alexander ! 


VacJi to be pitird if ever hf. returns to his senses 1 JiisUjr 
do we call barbariniis the wretched uationa that are govcniea 
■ bf one man ; niid nmuog them the most de4*pl_T plunged in 
HMriuHfRi if the nilcr. Li-t us tJikc auv fiivornblc spt-cimm : 
Hl^mia far iiistuicL-, ur Cainhjses, or ibis AJctumlcT: fur boir< 
K-Mw much ,vnu and I n\)\y dtspiw hiui, seeing him nfleii and 
nnrir, he vrill perhaps leave bchitii] him as celebrated a name 
M tlirv. Ho II very liltlc amid philofiopbers, though ver^ 
t nniid moiiun^hs. Is \ie not undoing with all his might 
>l cteny wi« mati, nnd indeed i-vcrj mnn in the order of 
m, ia innst solicitoua tu do ? Nainrlv, dolh he notaiiolish 
oly and affectionate intercourse ? doth he not dmw u line 
idiatiiictioD (which of all follicft and aluurditiea ia the wildest 
mort jKTnicious) between fidelity and trulliP la the 
t of dirtrwB nnd miser)' the eje of every mortal turns to 
ndstiip : iu tlie hour »! ghulne^s and connvinlity wbal ia 
rwanti' it is Eriendahip. When the heart overilows with 
■titude, or with anv oilier sweel and sacred sieutiment, what 
l^tlw word to whicli it would give utterance P my frieud. 
f thus displaced the right fcchng, he finds it necessary to 
<tiluu^ at least a !>tTong one. The warmth which should 
Ke been ditfuH^ from giTirrosity and mihiness, must eome 

MB the spicemaii, the vintner, nnd the milliner; he must bo 

perfuroed, he must be drunk, he must toss about sihitwl and 
tiAT*. You would imagine that bis lirst passion, his ambition, 
had an object : jet, before he was a god, lie prayed that no one 
aftcrwani might piu« the boundaries of his cxptHhlion: and be 
(Icstroyeil at Abdera, and in other plaees, tlie pillars erected ts 
tnemonafa by the Ai^imuta uid by Scaostria, 

I have many doable upon the Argonauts. We GrreJ^s ore 
* uf Bttiibutiug to vunielves all llic great actions of remote 
juiiy : we feign lliat Itis, Daughter •/ Inackiu, taught ifae 
I^jilians bws and letters. It may he (jiu-!itiuned whetiier 
(be nw'nunitiDts asai^ied to the Argonauts were not really tliose 

uf StruMtri* or Osins, or soma other ciuteru c 


; and 

even whrther the l«lc of Troy be not, in iwirt at leasl, traua- 
Utcd. Many prineipaj names, evidently not Qreeian, and the 
meutiou of a language apoken by the (i'xls (meaning their 
R{)rescuUtivcs and otiiciaU) in which the rivers ana other 


things are professed to be called differently from what they 
were callea among men^ are the foundataons of my query. 
The Hindoos^ the Egyptians, and probably the Phrygians (a 
very priestly nation), had thc^ learned language^ qoite diatanct 
from the vulgar.* 


We will discuss this question another time. Perhaps you 
were present when Alexander ran around the tomb of Achilles 
in honour of his memory : if Achilles were now liTing, or any 
hero like him, Alexander would swear his perdition. Neith^ 
his affection for virtue nor his enmity to vice is pure or rationaL 
Observation has taught me that we do not hate those who are 
worse than ourselves because they are worse, but because we 
are liable to injury from them, and because (as almost always 
is the case) they are preferred to us; while those who are 
better we hate purely for being so. After their decease, if we 
remit our hatred, it is because then they are more like virtue 
in the abstract than virtuous men, and are fairly out of our 


Disappointment made him at all times outrageous. What 
is worse, he hated his own virtues in another ; as dogs growl 
at their own faces in a mirror. The courage of Tyre, and many 
other cities, provoked not admiration but cruelty. Even hu 
friends were unspared; even Clitus and Parmenio. 

Cruelty, if we consider it as a crime, is the greatest of all : 
if we consider it as a madness, we are equafiy justifiable in 
applying to it the readiest and the surest means of suppression. 
Bonds may hold the weak; the stronger break them, and 
strangle the administrator. Cruelty quite destroys our sym- 

fathies, and, doing so, supersedes and masters our intellects, 
t removes from us those who can help us, and brings against 
us those who can injure us. Hence it opposes the great 
principle of our nature, self-preservation, and endangers not 
only our well-being, but our being. Season is then the most 
perfect when it enables us in the highest degree to benefit our 
fellow-men ; reason is then the most deranged when there is 
that over it which disables it. Cruelty is that. As for the 

* The ChdUambic of Catullus may be a relic (the only one) of Phrygian 
poetry. He resided in the country, and may hare acquired the language ; 
but faia translation Came through the Qrsek. 


^^pidoiii of Aleiatiili-r, 1 ilo not expect from a MocedoniaD, 
^^HRouDdcd bv tliiLlcrcirs niiti liriiikcrs, the prudence uf an 
HnunuioiiilM i>r a Phodoii : but inliiratctl hy such n fiilhcr ns 
ViPailip, and baviug nitb liiu in his «nnj so iiuiiiy vi^tenin 
c^rtainx, it Dxctlou no small ridicule in Auiciis, when it was 
uocrtAUi(<d tlut hr and Diunua, then equally eager for combat, 
miaMtd csch other's uiny in Cilicia. 
Re baa done ^at things, but wilb great nieaiis; the 
gcnmls jaa mcDtion overcame more difiicullies with less, and 
nercr wen: vcnsureil for any fiuluro from deficiency of 

Tbetv i» as much difTcrcnci^ betweeu Epaminondas sind 
Alexander as bclwwn the Nile and a winter torrent. In this 
then is more iinpftuositj-, foam, and fury ; more aslonisbment 
froiD spcctilors ; but it is followed by devastation and barren- 
tn Ibat lliire is an (M]ual)le, a ateddr, and perennial 

,-, itwelluitr from its ordiiitiry slut* only for the benefit 

f tniuiVind. mid Nuhsiding only whni that bus l)ren secured. 

I have not uit^utioiicd Phocion »o oftrn a» I ought to have 
don«: but now, Callistbencs, I will aclcnowleilgi> tliut i eoo- 
nder him as the greatest man upon earth. He foresaw long 
■CO what has berallcn our country; and while others were 
pnxring to you tlint your wife, if a good wouiiui, should be at 
Hu- disposal of your friend, and tliat if you love your cliildren 
TOO should procure them as many fathers as you can, Pbocion 
WM pnctisiujf all iIk domestic and all the social duties. 

I have oftm tbougbl thai his style membles youRi. Are 
yon MU^? 

I will not ilisscnible to you that mine was formed npou hi*. 
Polieuct(u>, by uo mi-ans n friend to him, prcffm^ it openly 
to tiiat of Drmoalbi'ue!', for its brevity, its oomprchciuivcDeaa, 
sud its |wr^)icuity. Tbere is somewhat mure of pomp and 
•olonnity in Uemoithencs, and perhups uf hannnuy ; hut bis 
wWBth IS on many occasions tlic warmth of i'iiarseuE«s, and 
hi" tidieulc tlir rm^rheat part of him ; wlule in Fhocion there 
is ihe w:iiti.'ii>-K> III' rrriclcs, and, wherever it is injuiiite, the 
W tA An*l»phuiics. He conquered with few soldiers, and he 


convinced with few words. I know not what better description 
I could give you^ either of a great captain or a great orator. 

Now imagine for a moment the mischief which the system 
of Plato^ just alluded to, would produce : that women should 
be common. We hear that among the Etrurians they were so, 
and perhaps are yet : but of what illustrious action do we 
read ever performed by that ancient people P A thousand 
years have elapsed without a single instance on record of 
courage or generosity. With us one word, altered only in its 
termination, signifies hoth/afier and caunlry : can he who is 
ignorant of the one be solicitous about the other? Nevw 
was there a true patriot who was not, if a father, a kind one : 
never was there a good citizen who was not an obedient and 
reverential son. Strange, to be ambitious of pleasing the 
multitude, and indifferent to the delight we may afford to 
those nearest us, our parents and our children ! Ambition is 
indeed the most inconsiderate of passions, none of which are 
considerate; for the ambitious man, by the weakest incon- 
sistency, proud as he may be of his faculties, and impatient as 
he may be to display them, prefers the opinion of the ignorant 
to his own. He would be what others can make him, and 
not what he could make himself without them. Nothing 
in fact is consistent and unambiguous but virtue. 

Plato would make wives common, to aboHsh selfishness; 
the mischief which above others it would directly and imme- 
diately bring forth. There is no selfishness where there is 
a wife and family: the house is lighted up by the mutual 
charities : everything achieved for them is a victory, every- 
thing endured for them is a triumph. IIow many vices are 
suppressed, that there may be no bad example ! how many 
exertions made, to recommend and inculcate a good one ! 
Selfishness then is thrown out of the question. He would per- 
haps render men braver by his exercises in the common 
field of affections. Now bravery is of two kinds ; the courage 
of instinct and the courage of reason : animals have more of 
the former, men more of the latter ; for I would not assert, 
what many do, that animals have no reason, as I would not 
that men have no instinct. Whatever creature can be taught, 
must be taught by the operation of reason upon reason, small 
as may be the quantity (^ed forth or employed in calling it, 
and however harsh may be the means. Instinct has no opera- 
tion but upon the wants and desires. Those who entertain a 



ttnrr nptuion, are iiniwur<^ how inconsi^iiueriflv tht'y spenlc 
m tliev employ sued expresMoii.i iis thew ' \Vc iire timght 
iiudiu't.' Couragp, so uec*8-:ary to the nreservation wf 
», b t)(i( weakened by doiuestir tics, but ia braced by tlicm. 
AdudaIs protect their yuung wliile llii-y know it to ho tlidrs, 
uid neglrrt it wlien thfl tra<*s of timt memory are enscfl, 
Man mi not so ttoon lone the memory of it, beeiinse his 
rwiilleirtivp faculties are more comprehensivp and more tcua- 
dott>, iinrl because, while in the brtite creation the parental 
lave, whitii in mo:<t is only ou the female side, lessens after 
llic emrlirr dnyit, his ioercJisfa as the or)^3 of the new 
nvnlurc ;irf develu]i»). There ia a desire of proiwrty in the 
mtiiut and best men, whieli Nature Be«ni.t to have mipinnt^-d u 
oo]i»rrMkiivD of her works, and which ianeoct<sary t^eneoiintse 
and kp" j> alive the arts. I'hidias and our friejid ApeJles wotud 
iK-vor iiiivi- cxistt'd OS the Apelies and Phidias Ihcy appear, if 
prtijUTij (1 am anlmnii'd of the solecism which I'lato now 
fiirm <iti mr) were in cuiiimoii. A part of his K^lieme indeed 
may he accompliahed in seleet and small communitifs, holden 
tuic< ibrr by some religious bond, as we tind among the disciples 
of I'jihiutoraa : but he never tan(;ht bis followers that prosti* 
tutiijo ia n virtue, much leM that it is the summit of perfeclion. 
Tlipy rwen-d bim, nnd deservedly, as s fatbcr. As what 
fttliitr? Nut .iiirU iw Flaki would fashion ; but as a parent 
■lui had gained authority over hi:* cliildren by liis assiduous 
vigdancc, liis tender and peculiar core, in separating tlicm aa 
(u u possible from whatever ia noxious in an intercourse wilii 

To complete the system of selftshnrss, idleness, and liccn- 
tioosnetix, the worshipful triad of Plato, nothing waa wanting 
but to throw ail other property where he Imd thrown ihe wives 
and chddren. Who tiicn shonhl curb the raparious ? who 
should m<-demte tlic violent ? I'he weaker eould not work, 
thr Rtnin>!er would not. Fiwd nnd raiment would fail ; and 
we should be reduced to souietbing worec than a state of 
natore, into which we iiin never he ai«t hack, any mon; than 
we I3UI become children again. Civilisation soddeniy retrograde, 
geDrmles at once the crimes and vices, not only of its varioua 
ttagn, but of the state anterior to it, withont sny of ilsadvan* 
ta{R», if il indeed have any. Pluto would make for ever uU 
tlte dtReno, what we punish with death a single one for being 
Uc u u man of iuuty fancy and indistinct reflection ; 



wore tlifl'erent from Socrates tlian the mojt violmt of I 
adversaries. If lie Iiiul said ihnt in certain caste n portioo 
lauded property should be divided amoug ilie citizeiiA, he Ii 
Bpokcu aagelj and equitably. After a loug war, when a «Ca 
is oppressed fay debt, nnd wlien many who have borne an 
for their country have moreover consumed their patrimocT 
its service, these, if they ure fathers of fMuilies, should nod 
allotments from the estates Qi others who are not, and wl 
either were too joune for warfare, or were occupied in le 
daogerons and more lucrative pnrsuits. It ia also condiKT 
to the public good that no person shtmld possess mom tfaan 
certain and ilefiuite extent of laud, to be hmited by the pojr 
ktion and produce : else the freedom of vote and the honr«tj 
election must be violated, and the least active members of t 
community will occupy those places which require the roc 
activity. This is peculiarly needful in mercantile si 
like ours, tiiat everyone may enjoy the prospect of 
a landliolder, and that the money accruing from the sajv i 
what is curtailed on the larger properties, may agatn fnll inl 
cornmeice. A state may eventually be reduced to sac 
distresses by war, even aft» victories, that it shall be ei 
dient to deprive the rich of whatever they possess berond 
portion requisite for the decent and frugal sustenaoc« of 
family. This extremity it is difficult to foresee; nor da 
think it ia arrived at until the industrious and nell-educatn 
io vears of plen^, are unable by all their ciertions to BMUil 
ana instruct their cliildren. A speculative case, which it a 
not be dangerous or mischievous to state ; for certainly, wlw 
it occurs, the sufferers will appeal to the laws and forces i 
Nature, and not to tlie schools of rlifloric or philosopby. N 
aitnation can be imagined more painful or more abomtnabl 
tliau ihis : while many, and indeed most, are « one than lln 
whereunto tlie wcaltliicr would be reduced in amendii^ il^ 
since they would lose no comforts, no conveniences, no gnw * 
and uniucumbering orufimenls of life, and few hiinries; wl 
would be abundantly compensated to the generality of 
by SDioothening their mutual pretensions, and by extioj 
the restless ^lirit of their rivalry. 

The visions of Fkto have led io Reason ; I maml 1 
thai he ahoold have been so extiavaguit, thso that ha Aua 


have scattered on that volume so little of what we admire in 
his shorter Dialogues. 


I respect his genius^ which however has not accompanied 
all his steps in this discussion : nor indeed do I censure in 
him what nas been condemned by Xenophon, who wonders 
that he should attribute to Socrates long dissertations on the 
soul and other abstruse doctrines^ when that singularly acute 
leasoner discoursed with his followers on topics only of plain 
utility. For it is requisite that important things should be 
attriouted to important men ; and a sentiment would derive 
but small importance from the authority of Crito or Phcedo. 
A much greater fault is attributable to Xenophon himself, 
who has not even preserved the coarse features of nations and 
of ages in liis Cyropadia, A small circle of wise men should 
mark the rise of mind^ as the Egyptian priests marked the 
rise of their river, and should leave it chronicled in their 
temples. Cyrus should not discourse like Solon. 


You must likewise then blame Herodotus. 


If I blame Herodotus, whom can I commend ? He reminds 
me of Homer by his facility and liis variety, and by the suavity 
and fulness of his laniruage. His view of histor}' was, never- 
theless, like that of the Asiatics, who write to instruct and 
please. Now truly there is little that could instruct, and less 
that could please us, in the actions and s|)eeches of barbarians, 
from among whom the kings alone come forth distinctly. 
Deliffhtful tales and apposite speeches are the best things yuu 
could devise ; and many of these undoubtedly were current in 
the East^ and were collected by Herodotus ; some, it is probable, 
were invented by him. It is of no importance to the world 
whether the greater part of historical facts, in such countries, 
be true or false ; but they may be rendered of the highest, by 
the manner in which a writer of genius shall reprt»sent them. 
If history were altogether true, it would be not only undig- 
nified but unsightly : great orators would often be merely the 
mouth-pieces of prostitutes, and great ciiptains would be 
hardly more than gladiators or buffoons, llie prime movers 
of those actions which appall and shake the world, are 


general] J the vilest things in it; and the historian^ if he 
discovers them, must conceal them or hold them back. 


Pray tell me whether, since I left Athens, your literary men 
are busy. 


More than ever ; as the tettix chirps loudest in time of dronghi 
Among them we have some excellent writers, and such as 
(under Pallas) will keep out the Persian tongue from the 
Pirseus. Others are employed in lucrative offices, are made 
ambassadors and salt-surveyors, and whatever else is most 
desirable to common minds, for proving the necessity of more 
effectual (this is always the preamble) and less changeful laws, 
such as those of the Medes and Indians. Several of our 
orators, whose grandfathers were in a condition little bett» 
than servile, have had our fortunes and lives at their disposal, 
and are now declaiming on the advantages of what they call 
" regular government/' You would suppose they meant that 
perfect order which exists when citizens rule themselves, and 
when every family is to the republic what every individual is 
to the family : a svstem of mutual zeal and mutual forbear- 
ance. No such thing : they mean a government with them- 
selves at the head, and such as may ensure to them impunity 
for their treasons and peculations. One of them a short time 
ago was deputed to consult with Metanyctius, a leading man 
among the Thracians, in what manner and by what instal- 
ments a sum of money, lent to them by our republic, should 
be repaid. Metanyctius burst into laughter on reading the 
first words of the decree. " Dine with me " said he " and we 
will conclude the business when we are alone.'' The dinner 
was magnificent ; wliich in such business is the best economy : 
few contractors or financiers are generous enough to give a 
plain one. " Your repubUc " said Metanyctius " is no longer 
able to enforce its claim ; and we are as little likelv to want 
vour assistance in future, as vou would be inclined to afford 
it. A seventh of the amount is at my disposal : you shall 
possess it. I shall enjoy about the same emolument for my 
fideUty to my worthy masters. The return of peace is so 
desirable, and regular government so divine a blessing, added 
to which, your countrymen are become of late so indifferent 
to inquiry into what the factious call abuses, that, I pledge 


my eiperience, you will return amid their acclamations and 

Our negotiator became one of the wealthiest men in the 
city, although wealth is now accumulated in some families to 
such an amount, as our ancestors, even in the age of Croesus 
or of Midas, would have deemed incredible. For wars drive 
up riches in heaps, as winds drive up snows, making and 
concealing many abysses. Metanyctius was the more provident 
and the more prosperous of the two. I know not in what 
king's interest he was, but probably the Persian's ; be this as 
it may^ it was resolved for the sake of good understanding 
(another new expression) to abolish the name of republic 
throughout the world. This appeared an easy matter. Our 
negotiator rejoiced in the promise exacted from him, to employ 
his address in bringing about a thing so desirable : for republic 
aounded in his cars like retribution. It was then demanded 
that laws should be abolished, and that kings should govern at 
their sole discretion. This was better, but more difficult to 
accomplish. He promised it however ; and a large body of 
barbarian troops was raised in readiness to invade our territory, 
when the decree of Alexander reached the city, ordering that 
the states both of Greece and Asia should retain their pristine 
laws. The conqueror had found letters and accounts which 
his loquacity would not allow him to keep secret; and the 
negotiator, whose opinion (a very common one) was, that 
exposure alone is ignominy, at last severed his weason vdih an 
iTory-handled knife. 


On this ivory the Goddess of our city will look down with 
more complacency than on that whereof her own image is 
composed ; and the blade should be preserved with those which, 
on the holiest of our festivals, are displayed to us in tlie 
handful of myrtle, as they were carried by Harmodius and 
Aiistoffiton. And now tell me, Aristoteles, for the ouestion 
much mterests me, are you happy in the mid^t of Macedonians, 
Illyrians, and other strange creatures, at which we wonder 
when we see their bodies and habiliments like ours ? 


Dark reflections do occasionally come, as it were by stealth, 

upon my mind; but philosophy has power to dispell thrm. 

1 care not whether the dog that defends my house and fauiily 



be of the Laconian breed or the Molossan : if he steals mv 
bread or bites the hand that offers it, I strangle him or cat 
his throat, or engage a more dexterous man to do it, the 
moment I catch him sleeping. 


The times are unfavorable to knowledge. 


Knowledge and wisdom are different. We may know many 
things without an increase of wisdom; but it would be a 
contradiction to say that we can know anything new without 
an increase of knowledge. The knowledge that is to be 
acquired by communication, is intercepted or impeded by 
tyranny. I have lost an ibis, or perhaps a hippopotamus, bv 
losing the favour of Alexander; he has lost an Aristoteles. 
He may deprive me of life ; but in doing it, he must deprive 
himself of all he has ever been contending for, of glory ; and 
even a more reasonable man than he, will acknowledge that 
there is as much difference between life and glory, as there is 
between an ash-flake from the brow of j£tna, and the untamable 
and eternal fire within its center. I may lose disciples : he 
may put me out of fashion : a tailor's lad can do as much. 
He may forbid the reading of my works ; less than a tailor's 
lad can do that. Idleness can do it, night can do it, sleep 
can do it, a sunbeam rather too hot, a few hailstones, a few 
drops of rain, a call to dinner. By his wealth and power he 
might have afforded me opportunities of improving some 
branches of science, which I alone have cultivated with 
assiduity and success. Fools may make wise men wiser more 
easily than wise men can make them so. At all events, 
Callisthenes, I have prepared for myself a monument, from 
which perhaps some atoms may be detached by time, but 
which will retain the testimoniads of its magnificence and the 
traces of its symmetry, when the substaiice and site of 
Alexander's shall be forgotten. Who knows but that the verj' 
ant-hill whereon I stand, may preserve its figure and con- 
texture, when the sepulcher of this Macedonian shall be the 
solitary shed of a robber, or the manger of mules and camels !* 
If I live I will leave behind me the history of our times, from 

* Cluysostom, in hifl 25th homily, says, that neither the tomb of 
Alexander nor the day of his death in-as known. IToO, €iir« fiotf rh o^^ 


the accession of Philip to the decease of Alexander. For our 
comet must disappear soon; the moral order of the world 
requires it. How happy and glorious was Greece at the 
conmiencement of the period ! how pestilential was the folly of 
those rulers, who rendered, by a series of idle irritations and 
untimely attacks, a patient for Anticyra the arbiter of the 
universe ! 

I will now return with you to Plato, whose plan of govern- 
ment, by the indulgence of the gods, lias lain hitherto on tlieir 


I was unwilling to interrupt you ; otherwise I should have 
remarked the bad consequences of excluding the poets from 
liis commonwealth ; not because they are in general the most 
useful members of it, but because we should punish a song 
more severely than a larceny. There are verses in Euripides 
such as every man utters who has the tooth-ache: and all 
expressions of ardent love have the modulation and emphasis 
of poetry. \\Tiat a spheristerion is opened here to the exer- 
cise of informers ! We should create more of these than we 
should drive out of poets. Judges would often be puzzled in 
deciding a criminal suit ; for, before they could lay down the 
nature of the crime, they must ascertain what are the qualities 
and quantities of a dithyrambic. Now, Aristoteles, I suspect 
that even you can not do this : for I observe in Pindar a vast 
variety of commutable feet, sonorous, it is true, in their 
cadences, but irregular and unrestricted. You avoid, as all 
good writers do carefully, whatever is dactylic ; for the dactyl 
is the bindweed of prose ; but I know not what other author 
has trimmed it with such frugal and attentive husbaudry.t 
One alone, in writing or conversation, would subject a man to 
violent suspicion of bad citizenship; and he who should 

* The Homeric exprcfleion for ' remaining to be decrted by them* Bcmv 
9W% yv i m ri artircu. 

"Y Cklliiihenet means the instance where another dactyl, or a sponclee, 
follows it ; in which case only is the period to be called dactylic. Cicero 
on one occasion took it in preference to a weak elision, or to the concurrence 
of two euei. 

''Quinctus Mutius au^ir 
Scsevola multa ; ac . . ." 

He judged rightly ; but he could easily hare done better. Longinus 
says that dactyls are the noblest of feet and the most adapted to the 


employ it twice in a page or an oration, woold be deemed so 
dangerous and desperate a malefactor, that it might be requisite 
to dig a pitfall or to lay an iron trap for him, or to noose him 
in his bed. 


Demosthenes has committed it in his jBrst Philippic, where 
two dactyls and a spondee come after a tumultuous concourse 
of syllables, many sounding alike. 'Ovdc yap auros vapa rj\9 
avTov poifirjv tbavvrov emiv^fiTai d<rov irapa rtiv rjiier^pop 
a/xeXeior. Here are seven dactyls: the same number is 
nowhere else to be found within the same number of words. 


Throughout your works there is certainly no period that 
has not an iambic in it : now our grammarians tell us that one 

sublime. He adduces no proof, although he quotes a sentdDce of 
Demosthenes as retembling the dactylic. 

Totrro ro y^tj^urfia rov rare r^ iroXci irtfuffrcanra 
Ktv^wow wap€K$tty eroniffty winrtp rt^s. 

Here is plenty of alliteration, but only one dactyl, for tovtoto is not one, 
being followed by lifr. The letter r recurs nine times in fifteen syllables. 
A dactyl succeeded by a dichoroe, or by a trochee with a spondee at the 
close, is among the sweetest of pauses ; the gravest and most majestic is 
composed of a dactyl, a dichoree, and a dispondee. He however wiU soon 
grow tiresome who permits his partiality to any one close to be obtruBive 
or apparent. 

The remark attributed to Callisthenes, on the ^edom of Aristoteles 
from pieces of verse in his sentences, is applicable to Plato, and surprisingly, 
if we consider how florid and decorated is his language. Among the 
Romans T. Livius is the most abundant in them ; and among the Greeks 
there is a curious instance in the prefatory words of Dionysius of 
Halicamassus. ^^tws 8^ ySfios iwcuri Kowhs, hy oifitls^ KcrroAiiHrct xp^^y 
(ipx*^ ^1 ''**'' rjrrSywy robs KptiTToyas. 

These words appear to have been taken ftx>m some tragedy : the last 
constitute a perfect iambic; and the preceding, with scarcely a touch, 
assume the same appearance : the diction too is quite poetical : finuri 
Koiyhs. . . . KarakiKrtt, &C. 

"Avaci Koiy6s iori irris ^vatvs y6nos, 
*Oy. . .oi)5«lf. . jraroA^ci xP^^^^i 
"Apxtiy A<i r&y ^Tr6yoty robs Kpfirroytis. 

In the Gorgias of Plato is the same idea in nearly the same words. 
Ar}Xo7 hi ravra voAAaxov 8ti odroits fx*h f^o^ ^^ fots iWois C^toiSf xal tw 
ayBpwntay iy tXais rcut v6\«a'i K<d ydy^triv, Sri ofhtt rh SiKcuoy KiKpvraif rhy 
Kptlrrw rov iyrroyos ipX**" '^^ wKtoy fx**^* 


18 enough to make a verae^ as one theft is enough to make a 
thief : an informer then has only to place it last in his bill of 
indictment, and not Minos himself could absolve you. 

They will not easily take me for a poet. 


Nor Plato for anything else : he would be like a bee caught 
in his own honey. 


I must remark to jo\x, Callisthenes, that among the writers 
of luxuriant and flond prose, however rich and fanciful, there 
never was one who wrote eood poetry. Imagination seems to 
start back when they would lead her into a narrower walk, and 
to forsake them at the first prelude of the lyre. Plato has 
written much poetry, of which a few epigrams alone are 
remembered. He burned his iambics, but not imtil he found 
that they were thoroughly dry and withered. If ever a good 
poet should excell in prose, we, who know how distinct are the 
quahties, and how neat must be the comprehension and the 
vigour that unites them, shall contemplate him as an object of 
wonder, and almost of worship. It is remarkable in Plato 
that he is the only florid writer who is animated. He will 
always be admired by those who have attained much learning 
and little precision, from the persuasion that they understand 
him, and that others do not ; for men universally are ungrateful 
toward him who instructs them, unless in the hours or in the 
intervals of instruction he present a sweet cake to their self- 


I never saw two men so different as you and he. 


Yet many of those sentiments in which we appear most at 
variance, can be drawn together until they meet. I Iiad 
represented excessive wealth as the contingency most dangerous 
to a republic ; he took the opposite side, and asserted that 
excessive poverty is more.* Now wherever there is excessive 
wealth, there is also in the train of it excessive poverty; a9 

* It iB evidant that AristotelM wrot« his Polity after Plato, for he 
mimadTerti on a &la6 opinioD of Plato's in the prooemium : but many of 
kha opinions mnat haT« been promulgated by both, before the publication 
of their worka. 


where the sun is brightest the shade is deepest. Many lepnUics 
have stood for ages^ while no citizen of them was in veiy great 
affluence, and while on the contrary most were veiy poor : but 
none hath stood long after many, or indeed a few, have grova 
inordinately wealthy. Riches cause poverty, then irritate, thai 
corrupt it ; so throughout their whole prepress and action they 
are dangerous to the state. Plato defends his thesis with hu 
usual ingenuity ; for if there is nowhere a worse philosopher, 
there is hardly anywhere a better writer. He says, and tnalj, 
that the poor become wild and terrible animals, when they no 
longer can gain their bread by their trades and occupations : 
and that, laden to excess with taxes, they learn a lesson from 
Necessity, which they never would have taken up without her. 
Upon this all philosophers, all men of common sense indeed, 
think alike, usually, if not always, the poor are quiet while 
there is among them no apprehension of becoming poorer, that 
is, while the government is not oppressive and unjust : but the 
rich are often the most satisfied while the government is the 
most unjust and oppressive. In civil dissensions, we find the 
wealtliy lead forth the idle and dissolute poor against the 
honest and industrious ; and generally with success ; because 
the numbers are greater in calamitous times; because this 
party has ready at hand the means of equipment ; because the 
young and active, never prone to reflection, are influenced 
more by the hope of a speedy fortune than by the calculation 
of a slower ; and because there are few so firm and independent 
as not to rest wilhngly on patronage, or so blind and indilferent 
as not to prefer that of the most potent. 

In writing on government, we ought not only to search for 
what is best, but for what is practicable. Plato has done 
neither, nor indeed has he searched at all ; instead of it he has 
thouglit it sufficient to stud a plain argument with an endless 
variety of bright and prominent topics. Now diversity of 
topics has not even the merit of invention in every case : he is 
the most inventive who finds most to say upon one subject, 
and renders the whole of it appUcable and useful. Splendid 
things are the most easy to find and the most difficult to 
manage. If I order a bridle for my horse, and he of whom I 
order it brings me rich trappings in place of it, do I not justly 
deem it an importunate and sifiy answer to my remonstrances, 
when he tells me that the trappings are more costly than the 


Be aasuied^ my Callistheiies^ I speak not from any disrespect 
to a writer so highly and so lastly celebrated, fieflecting with 
admiration upon his manifold and extraordinary endowments, 
I wish the more earnestly he alwavs had been exempt from 
coQtemptuousness and malignity. We have conversed hereto- 
fore on his conduct toward Xenophon, and indeed toward 
other disciples of Socrates, whom the same age and the same 
studies, and whom the coimsels and memorv of the same 
master, should have endeared to him. Toward me indeed he 
19 less blameable. I had collected the documents on which I 
formed an exact account of the most flourishing states, and of 
the manners, laws, and customs, by which they were so, being 
of opinion that no knowledge is of such utility to a common- 
wealth. I had also, as you remember, drawn up certain rules 
for poetry, taking my examples from Homer principally, and 
from our great dramatists, rlato immediately forms a republic 
in the clouds, to overshadow all mine at once, and descends 
only to kick the poets through the streets. Homer, the chief 
object of my contemplation, is the chief object of his attack. 
I acknowledge that poets of the lower and middle order are in 
general bad members of society : but the energies which exalt 
one to the higher, enable him not only to adorn but to protect 
his country. Plato says, the gods are degraded by Homer : 
yet Homer has omitted those light and ludicrous tales of them, 
which rather suit the manners of Plato than his. He thought 
about the gods, I susjyect, just as you and I do, and cared as 
little how Homer treated them : yet, with the prison of Socrates 
before his eyes, and his own Dialogues under them, he had the 
cruelty to cast forth this eifusion against the mild Euripides. 
His souls and their occupancy of bodies are not to be spoken 
of with gravity, and, as I am inclined for the present to keep 
mine where it is, I will be silent on the subject. 


I must warn you, my friend and teacher, that your Macedo- 
nian pupil is likely to interrupt your arrangements in that 
business. I am informed, and by those who are always credible 
in such assertions, tlutt, without apologies, excuses, and pro- 
testations, Aristoteles will follow the shades of Clitus and 
Parmenio. There is nothing of which Alexander is not 
jealous; no, not even eating and drinking. If any gre^it 
work is to destroyed, he must do it with his own hands. After 


he had burned down the palace of CymSy the ^oiy of which 
he envied a strampet^ one Polemarchus thought of winning his 
favour by demolishing the tomb : he wept for spite and hanged 
him. Latterlj he has been so vain, mendacious, and irrational, 
as to order not onlj suits of armour of enormous size, but 
even mangers commensurate, to be buried in certain parts 
where his battles were fought, that when in after-ages ther 
happen to be dug up, it may appear that his men and horses 
were prodigious, n he had sent the report before him he 
would have been somewhat less inconsiderate^ for it might 
among weak barbarians have caused terror and submission. 
But by doing as he did, he would leave a very different 
impression from what he designed, if indeed men r^arded it 
at all ; for no glory could arise from conquering with such 
advantages of superior force. They who are jealous of power, 
are so from a consciousness of strength : they who are jealous 
of wisdom, are so from a consciousness of wanting it. Weak- 
ness has its fever . . . But you appear grave and thoughtful. 


The barbarians no more interest me than a shoal of fishes 
would do. 


I entertain the same opinion. 


Of their rulers equally ? 


Yes, certainly; for among them there can be no other 
distinction than in titles and in dress. A Persian and a Mace- 
donian, an Alexander and a Darius, if they oppress the liberties 
of Greece, are one. 


Now, Callisthenes ! if Socrates and Anvtos were in the 
same chamber, if the wicked had mixt poison for the virtuous, 
the active in e\'il for the active in good, and some Divinity had 
placed it in your power to present the cup to either, and, 
touching your head, should say, " This head also is devoted to 
the Eumenides if the choice be wrong,^^ what would you 
resolve ? 


To do that by conmiand of the god which I would likewise 
have done without it. 



Betring in mind that a myriad of conquerors is not worth 
the myriadth part of a wise and virtuous mau, return^ 
Callisthenes^ to Babylon^ and see that your duty be performed. 



Tour situation for a garden, Epicurus, is, I think, very 
badly chosen. 


Why do you think so, my Lcontion ? 


Pirst, because it is more than twenty stadia t from the city. 


Certainly the distance is inconvenient, my charming friend I 
it is rather too far off for us to be seen, and rather too near 
for us to be regretted. Here however I shall build no villa, 

* Cicero wbb an opponent of Epicurus, jet in hiB treatise On Friendship 
lie Mtys, " De qui Epicurus quidem ita dicit ; omnium rerum quaa ad heaU 
ri/vendrnm sapientia comparaverit, nihil esse majus amidtiA ; nihil uberius, 
nihil jucundius." This is oratorical and sententious : he goes on, praising 
the founder and the foundation. " Neque Terd hoc oratione soliim sod 
m^tto magii viid et morihus oomprobavit. Quod quluu magnum sit, fict» 
TViemm fiibula declarant, in quibus tarn multis tamque variis ab ultimA 
•DtiqaitBte rspetilis, tria yix amicorum paria reperiuntur, ut ad Oreetem 
p«nr«nia8 profectus a Theseo. At ver6 Epicurus imA in domo, et eA quidem 
anguatA, qvkm magnos quantAque amoris conspirations oonsentientee tenuit 
amiooram greges. Quod JU etiam nunc ab Epicwrtis.** Certain it is, that 
modention, forbearance, and what St Paul calls charity, never flourished 
in any sect of philoaophy or religion, so perfectly and so long as among 
iho diseiplea of Epicums. 

Cieefo adds in another work, " De sanctitate, de pietate adversus Deoe 
lihros scripait Epicurus : at quomodo in his loquitur ? ut Coruncanium 
•at ScKTolam Pontifioes ICaximos te audire dicas." 

Seneca, whose sect was more adverse, thus expresses his opinion : * Mea 
quidem ista sententia (et hoc notttris invitis popularibus dicam) sancta 
Epicurum et recta prndpere, et, si propius accesscris, tristia.** 

f Two miles and a halll 

220 EPICURUS, lbonhon, and teknissa. 

nor anything else, and the longest time we can be detained, is 
from the rising to the setting sun. Now, pray, your other 
reason why the spot is so ineligible. 


Because it commands no view of the town or of the harbour, 
unless we mount upon that knoll, where we could scarcely 
stand together, for the greater part is occupied by those three 
pinasters, old and horrible as the three Furies. Surely you 
will cut them down. 


Whatever Leontion commands. To me there is this advan- 
tage in a place at some distance from the city. Having by 
no means the full possession of my faculties where I hear 
unwelcome and intrusive voices, or unexpected and irregular 
sounds that excite me involuntarily to listen, I assemble and 
arrange my thoughts with freedom and with pleasure in the 
fresh air, under the open sky : and they are more lively and 
vigorous and exuberant when I catch them as I walk about, 
and commune with them in silence and seclusion. 


It always has appeared to me that conversation brings them 
forth more readily and plenteously ; and that the ideas of one 
person no sooner come out than another's follow them, whether 
from the same side or from the opposite. 


Tliey do : but these are not the thoughts we keep for seed : 
they come up weak by coming up close together. In the 
country the mind is soothed and satisfied : here is no restraint 
of motion or of posture. These things, little and indiflFerent 
as they may seem, are not so : for the best tempers have need 
of ease ancl liberty, to keep them in right order long enough 
for the purposes of composition : and many a froward axiom, 
many an inhumane thought, hath arisen from sitting incon- 
veniently, from hearing a few unpleasant sounds, from the 
confinement of a gloomy chamber, or from the want of 
synunetry in it. We are not aware of this, until we find an 
exemption from it in groves, on promontories, or along the 
sea-shore, or wherever else we meet Nature face to face, 

undisturbed and sohtarv. 



You would wish us then away ? 



I speak of solitude : you of desolation. 


flatterer ! is this philosophy ? 


Yes; if you are a thought the richer or a moment the 
happier for it. 


Write it down then in the next volume you intend to 


1 interpose and controvert it. That is not philosophy which 
serves only for one. 


Just criterion ! I will write down your sentence instead^ and 
leave mine at the discretion of Temissa. And now^ my 
beautiful Temissa, let me hear your opinion of the situation I 
have chosen. I perceive that you too have fixed your eyes on 
the pinasters. 


I will tell you in verses ; for I do think these are verses, or 
nearly : 

I hate those trees that neyer lose their foliage : 
They seem to have no sympathy with Nature : 
Winter and Summer are alike to them. 

The broad and billowy summits of yon monstrous trees, 
one would imagine, were made for the storms to rest upon 
when they arc tired of raving. And what bark ! It occurs 
to me, Epicurus, that I have mrely seen climbing plants attach 
themselves to these trees, as they do to the oak, the maple, tlie 
beech, and others. 


If your remark be true, perhaps the resinous are not 
embraced by them so frequently because they dishke the odour 
of the resin, or some other property of the juices ; for they 
too have their affections and antipathies, no less than their 
coantries and their climes. 


For shame ! what would you with me ? 



I would not interrupt jou while you were speaking, nor wfaik 
Leontion was replying; this is a^dnst my rules and practice; 
having now endc^^ kiss me, Temissa I 


Impudent man ! in the name of Pallas, why ahoold I kiss 


Because you expressed hatred. 


Do we kiss when we hate ? 


There is no better end of hating. The sentiment should 
not exist one moment ; and if the nater gives a kiss on being 
ordered to do it, even to a tree or a stone, that tree or stone 
becomes the monument of a fault extinct. 

I promise you I never will hate a tree again. 

I told vou so. 



Xevertheless I suspect, my Temissa, you will often be 
surprised into it. I was very near saying, "I hate these 
rude square stones ! " "Why did you leave them here, 
Epicurus ? 


It is true, they are the greater part square, and seem to have 
been cut out in ancient times for plinths and columns : they 
are also rude. Removing the smaller, that I might plant 
violets and cvclamens and convolvuluses and strawberries, and 
such other herbs as grow willingly in dry places, I left a few 
of these for seats, a few for tables and for couches. 


Delectable couches ! 


Laugh as you may, they will become so when thev are 
covered with moss and ivy, and those other two sweet plants, 
whose names I do not remember to have found in any ancient 
treatise, but which I fancy I have heard Theophrastus call 
" Leontion '* and " Temissa." 



The bold insidious false creature ? 


What is that volume ? maj I venture to ask, Leontion ? 
"Why do you blush ? 


I do not blush about it. 


You are offended then, my dear girl. 


No, nor offended. I will tell you presently what it contains. 
Account to me first for your choice of so strange a place to 
walk in : a broad ridge, the siunmit and one side barren, the 
other a wood of rose-laurels impossible to penetrate. The 
worst of all is, we can see nothing of the city or the Parthenon, 
unless from the very top. 


The place commands, in my opinion, a most perfect 


Of what, pray ? 


Of itself; seeming to indicate that we, Leontion, who 
philosophise, should do the same. 


Go on, go on ! say what you please : I will not hate anything 
yet. Why have you torn up by the root all these little 
inoontain ash-trees ? This is the season of their beauty : 
come, Temissa, let us make ourselves necklaces and annlets, 
such as may captivate old Sylvanus and Pan : you shall have 
your choice. But why have you torn them up ? 


On the contrary, they were brought hither this morning. 
Soemienes is spenc^ng large sums of money on an olive-ground, 
and has uprooted some hundreds of them, of all ages and 
sizes. I shall cover the rougher part of the hill with them, 
setting the clematis and vine and honey-suckle against them, 
to unite them. 


O what a pleasant thing it is to walk in the green light of 

221 EPicuius, iioynoy, jl53> 

the vine-leaves^ and to breathe the srcet odour of thdr inmUe 
flowers ! 


T}ie «^*ent of them is $o delicate that it requires a sigh to 
inhale it; and this, being accompamed and followed Iqr 
enjoyment, renders the fragrance so exqoiate. Temissay it is 
thi.s, mv sweet friend, that made vou refnembcr the green ligbt 
of the foliafre, and think of the invisible flowers as vou would 
of some blessing from heaven. 

I «e<; feathers fljing at certain distances jast above the 
middle of the promontory : what can they mean? 


V/Mx not you imagine them to be feathers from the wings of 
Zc!thes and Calais, who came hither out of Thrace to behold 
tlic favoritfi haunts of their mother Orithyeia? From the 
prccipia; that hangs over the sea a few paces from the pinasters, 
Hho is refKirted to have been carried off by Boreas; and thes* 
remains of the primeval forest liave always been held sacred on 
that belief. 


The story is an idle one> 


C) no, jjeontion ! the story is verj^ true. 




I haver heard not only odes, but sacred and most ancient 
hynnis npon it; and the voice of Boreas is often audible here, 
and th(j serc^ains of (Jrithyeia. 


Tlur feathers then really may belong to Calais and Zethes. 


1 don't helieA'e it: the winds would have carried them 


Tlu* (lods, to manifest their power, as they often do by 
miracles, eould as eai<ily tlx a feather eternally on the most 
tempestuous proniontory, as the mark of their feet upon the 



They could indeed : but we know the one to a certainty, 
and have no such authority for the other. I have seen these 
pinasters from the extremity of the Piraeus, and have heard 
mention of the altar raised to Boreas : where is it? 


As it stands in the center of the platform, we can not see it 
from hence : there is the only piece of level ground in the 


Temissa intends the altar to prove the truth of the 

Temissa is slow to admit that even the young can deceive, 
mnch less the old : the gay, much less the serious. 


It is as wise to moderate our belief as our desires. 


Some minds require much belief, some thrive on little. 
Bather an exuberance of it is feminine and beautiful. It acts 
differentlv on diiferent hearts : it troubles some, it consoles 
others : m the generous it is the nurse of tenderness and 
kindness, of heroism and self-devotion : in the ungenerous it 
fosters pride, impatience of contradiction and appeal, and, like 
some waters, wliat it finds a dry stick or hollow straw, it leaves 
a stone. 


We want it chiefly to make the way of death an easy one. 


There is no easy path leading out of life, and few are the 
easy ones that lie witiiin it. I would adorn and smoothen the 
declivity, and make my residence as commodious as its situa- 
tion and dimensions may allow : but principally I would cast 
underfoot the empty fear of death. 


O ! how can you ? 


By many arguments already laid down : then by thinking 
that some perhaps, in almost every age, have been timid and 
delicate as Temissa ; and yet have slept soundly, have felt no 

226 EPicimus, leontion^ ihd rsxsiaajk. 

parent's or friend's tear upon their faces^ no throb against 
their breasts : in short, have been in the cahnestof all possible 
conditions^ while those aronnd were in the most dqpImUeaod 

It would pain me to die^ if it were only at the idea that 
anyone I love would grieve too much for me. 


Let the loss of our friends be our only grief^ and tlie 
apprehension of displeasing them our only fear. 


No apostrophes ! no interjections ! Your argument was 
unsound 3 your means futile. 


Tell me then^ whether the horse of a rider on the road 
should not be spurred forward if he started at a shadow. 




I thought so : it would however be better to guide him 
quietly up to it^ and to show him that it was one. Death is 
less than a shadow : it represents nothing, even imperfectly. 


Then at the best what is it ? why care about it, think about 
it, or remind us that it must befall us ? Would you take the 
same trouble, when you see my hair entwined with ivy, to make 
me remember that, although the leaves are green and phable, 
the stem is fragile and rough, and that before I go to bed I 
shall have many knots and iutanglements to extricate ? Let 
me have them ; but let me not hear of them imtil the time 
is come. 


I would never think of death as an embarrassment, but as 
a blessing. 


How! a blessing? 


What, if it makes our enemies cease to hate us ? what» if 
it makes our frienda love us the more P 



Us? According to your doctrine^ we shall not exist 
at alL 

I spoke of that which is consolatory while we are here^ and 
of that which in plain reason ought to render us contented to 
stay no longer, i ou^ Leontion, would make others better : 
and better they certainly will be, when their hostilities languish 
in an empty field, and their rancour is tired with treading upon 
dust. The generous affections stir about us at the dr^iy 
hour of death, as the blossoms of the Median apple swell and 
diffuse their fragrance in the cold. 


I can not bear to think of passing the Styx, lest Charon 
should touch me : he is so old and wiStd, so cross and ugly. 


Temissa ! Temissa ! I would accompany you thither, and 
stand between. Would not you too, Leontion ? 


I don't know. 


O ! that we could go together I 



All three, I mean . . I said . . or was going to say it. How 
ill-natured you are, Leontion I to misinterpret me; I could 
almost cry. 


Do not, do not, Temissa ! Should that tear drop from your 
eyelash you would look less beautiful. 

Whenever I see a tear on a beautiful young face, twenty of 
mine run to meet it. If it is well to conquer a world, it is 
better to conquer two. 


That is what Alexander of Macedon wept because he could 
not accompUsh. 


Temissa ! we three can accomplish it ; or any one of os. 

M 2 


How ? pray ! 


We can conquer this world and the next : for you will hive 
another, and nothing should be refused you. 


The next by piety : but this, in what manner ? 


By indifference to all who are indifferent to us ; by taking 
joyfully the benefit that comes spontaneously; by wishing no 
more intensely for what is a hair's breadth beyond our readi 
than for a draught of water from the Ganges; and by feanng 
nothing in another life. 


This, O Epicurus ! is the grand impossibilify, 


Do you believe the gods to be as benevolent and good as 
you are ? or do you not ? 


Much kinder, much better in every way. 


AVould you kill or hurt the sparrow that you keep in your 
little dressing-room with a string around the leg, because he 
hath flo>Mi where you did not \\-ish him to fly ? 


No : it would be cruel : the string about the leg of so Utile 
and weak a creature is enough. 


You think so ; I think so ; God thinks so. This I may 
say coiifideutly : for whenever there is a sentiment in which 
strict justice and pure benevolence unite, it must be his. 


Epicurus ! when you speak thus . . . 


Well, Temissa ! what then ? 


When Epicurus teaches us such sentiments as this, I am 
grieved that he has not so great an authority with the Athenians 
as some others have. 


I suspect, my Teraissa, wlieu lie 

n grieve more, 
Uiat aathority. 

rill he d«? 

urn pnle P 1 am not about to answer that, lie will 
leave vou. No ; but the voice conicg deejwsl from 

ber, anu a great Dnmc halh its ruot iii tlic dead body. 

rited a company to a feast, you might as well plai« 
table live sheep and oxen, nnd vases of fish and 

quail)!, na you wouhl invite a comiwuy of frietidly 
the pliilosopher who is yet living.* One would 
lat tao iris of our intellectual eye ware lessened by 
of his presence, and that, like eastern kings, lie 

looked at near only when his limbs are stiff, by wax- 

losed curtains. 

whom we know little leaves us a ring or other 
dnembrance, and we express a sense of pleamrc and 
ie ; one of whom wc know notliing writes a book, 

of which mi^ht (if we would let tlieni) luivc done i 
[wkI and might liave given us more pleasure, and we f 
for it. 'I'hi' honk may do what the legacy can not ; 
I pleasurable and serviceable to others as well as 

wc would hinder this too. In fact, all other love ' 
dalied by self-love: beneficence, humanity, jastke, 
r, sink under it. While we insist that we arc looking I 

Wc commit a fnlsihciiid. It never wiw (he first , 

nnyoue, and with few the second. 
Ito replenishment your quieter fancies, my swectMt 
lesa ! and let the gods, both yontbful and aged, both 
1 boiateroua, administer to them hourly oD those { 
what can they ilo better ? 


DM Ceathen, TcTnissa, what god's may they be P 

Ivttcr of Epiruni)!, In which hu frinidtlilp irlA I 
nl. with t nuuarli lliat tli« obMiirit; In »hldi titf ] 
tpvU tnikwl Mto lottbem nt nalonlj'iinLBowii.liul 
Ib tin MtiUl of <ln»H», ma b; do anta to tw a 
• uf tlwir good fvnuQD. 



since you will not pick them op, nor restore them to 
nor to Zethes. 


I do not think they belong to any god whatever; and 
shall never be persuaded of it unless Epicurus say it is so. 


O unbelieving creature I do you rea^cMi against the im- 


It was yourself who doubted^ or appeared to doubt^ the 

flight of Otithyeia. By admitting too much we endanger our 

religion. Beside^ I think I discern some upright stidkes at 

equal distances, and am pretty sure the feathers are tied to 

them by long strings. 


Ton have guessed the truth. 


Of what use are they there ? 


If you have ever seen the foot of a statue broken off just 
below the ankle, you have then, Leontion and Termssa, seen 
the form of the ground about us. The lower extremities of it 
are divided into small ridges, as you will perceive if you look 
round ; and these are covered with com, olives, and vines. 
At the upper part, where cultivation ceases, and where those 
sheep and goats are grazing, begins my purchase. The ground 
rises gradually unto near the summit, where it grows somewhat 
steep, and terminates in a precipice. Across the middle I 
have traced a line, denoted by those feathers, from one dingle 
to the other ; the two terminations of my intended garden. 
The distance is nearly a thousand paces, and the path, perfectly 
on a level, will be two paces broad, so that I may walk oetween 
you ; but another could not join us conveniently. Prom this 
there will be several circuitous and spiral, leading by the easiest 
ascent to the summit ; and several more, to the road along the 
cultivation underneath : here will however be but one entrance. 
Among the projecting fragments and the massive stones yet 
standing of the boundary. wall, which old pomegrantes imper- 
fectly defend, and which my neighbour has guarded more 
effectively against invasion, there are hillocks of crombling 

mcuBirs^ LEONnoN^ and tbrnissa. 231 

mould, covered in some places with a variety of moss ; on 
othen are elevated tufts, or dim labyrinths, of ^lantine. 


Where will you place the statues? for undoubtedly you 
must have some* 


I will have some models for statues. Pygmalion prayed the 
gods to give Ufe to the image he adored : I vdll not pray them 
to give marble to mine. Never may I lay my wet cheek upon 
the foot under which is inscribed the name of Leontion or 


Do not make us melancholy : never let us think that the 
time can come when we shall lose our friends. Glory, 
literature, philosophy, have this advantage over friendship: 
remove one object from them, and others fill the void ; remove 
one from friendship, one only, and not the earth, nor the 
imivenality of worlds, no, nor the intellect that soars above 
and comprehends them, can replace it. 

Dear Leontion I always amiable, always graceful! how 
lovely do you now appear to me ! what beauteous action 
accompanied your words ! 


I used none whatever. 


lluit white arm was then, as it is now, over the shoulder of 
Tenussa ; and her breath imparted a fresh bloom to your cheek, 
a new music to your voice. No friendship is so cordial or so 
delicious as that of girl for girl ; no hatred so intense and 
immovable as that of woman for woman. In youth you love 
one above the others of your sex : in riper age you hate all, 
more or less, in proportion to similarity of accomplishmenU 
and pursuits ; which sometimes (I wish it were oftener) are 
bonas of onion to men. In us you more easily pardon faults 
than excdlences in each other. Your tempers are such, my 
beloved scholars, that even this truth does not ruffle them ; and 
such is your affection, that I look with confidence to its 
nnabaM ardour at twenty. 


O then I am to love Temissa almost fifteen months I 


And I am destined to survive the loss of it three months 
above four years ! 


Incomparable creatures ! may it be eternal I In loving je 
shall follow no example : ye shall step securely over the inm 
rule laid down for others by the Destinies^ and jtom for ever be 
Leontion^ and you Ternissa. 


Then indeed we should not want statues. 


But men, who are vainer creatures, would be good for 
nothing without them : they must be flattered^ even by the 


Very true. Neither the higher arts nor the civic virtues 
can flourish extensively without the statues of illustrious men. 
But gardens are not the places for them. Sparrows wooing 
on the general's truncheon (unless he be such a general as one 
of ours in the last war), and snails besUming the emblems of 
the poet, do not remind us worthily of their characters. 
Porticoes are their proper situations, and those the most 
frequented. Even there they may lose all honour and distinc- 
tion, whether from the thoughtlessness of magistrates or from 
the malignity of rivals. Our own city, the least exposed of 
any to the effects of either, presents us a disheartening 
example. When the Thebans in their jealousy condemned 
Pindar to the payment of a fine, for having praised the 
Athenians too highly, our citizens erected a statue of bronze 
to him. 


Jealousy of Athens made the Thebans fine him; and 
jealousy of Thebes made the Athenians thus record it. 


And jealousy of Pindar, I suspect, made some poet persuade 
the arcons to render the distinction a vile and worthless one, 
by placing his effigy near a king's, one Evagoras of Cyprus. 


Evagoras, I think I remember to have read in the inscrip- 
tion, was rewarded in this manner for his reception of Conon, 
defeated by the Lacedemonians. 



Gratitade was due to him^ and some such memorial to 
record it. External reverence should be paid unsparingly to 
the higher magistrates of every country who perform their 
offices exemplanly : yet they are not on this account to be 
placed in the same degree with men of primary genius. They 
never exalt the human race^ and rarely benefit it ; and their 
benefits are local and transitory, while those of a great writer 
are universal and eternal. 

If the gods did indeed bestow on us a portion of their fire, 
th^ seem to have lighted it in sport and left it : the harder 
tasK and the nobler is performed by that genius who raises it 
dear and glowing from its embers, and makes it applicable to 
the purposes that dignify or delight our nature. I have ever 
said, " lleverence the rulers.*' Let then his image stand ; but 
stand apart from Pindar's. Pallas and Jove I ddfend me from 
being carried down the stream of time among a shoal of 
royalets, and the rootless weeds they are hatched on. 


So much piety would deserve the exemption, even though 
jonr writings did not hold out the decree. 


Child, the compliment is ill turned : if you are ironical, as 
you must be on the piety of Epicurus, Atticism requires that 
yoa should continue to be so, at least to the end of the 


Irony is my abhorrence. Epicurus may appear less pious 
than some others ; but I am certain he is more ; otherwise the 
gods would never have given him . . • 


What? what? let us hear! 



Silly girl I Were there any hibiscus or broom growing 
near at hand, I would send him away and whip you. 


There is fern, which is better. 



I was not speaking to you : but now joa shall hx^ some^ 
thing to answer for yourself. Although yon admit no statnis 
in the country, you might at least methinks have diacor er ed t 
r^irement with a fountain in it : here I see not even a spring. 


fountain I can hardly say there is; but on the left there is 
a long crevice or chasm, which we have never yet visited, and 
which we can not discern until we reach it. lliis is fall of 
soft mould, very moist ; and many high reeds and canes are 
growing there ; and the rock itself too drips with humidity 
aloQg it, and is' covered with more tufted moss and mm 
vari^ated lichens. This crevice, with its windings and sinn- 
osities, is about four hundred paces long, and in many paita 
eleven, twelve, thirteen feet wide, but generally six or seven. 
I shall plant it wholly with lilies of the valley; leavingthe 
irises wUch occupy the sides as well as the clcits, and also 
those other flowers of paler purple, from the autumnal cups of 
which we collect the saffron ; and forming a narrow path of 
such turf as I can find there, or rather following it as it creeps 
among the bays and hazels and sweet-briar, wUch have fallen 
at diiferent times from the summit, and are now grown old, 
with an infinity of primroses at the roots. There are nowhere 
twenty steps without a projection and a turn, nor in anv ten 
together is the chasm of the same width or figure. Hence 
the ascent in its windings is easy and imperceptible quite to 
the termination, where the rocks are somewhat high and 
precipitous : at the entrance they lose themselves in privet and 
elder, and you must make your way between them through 
the canes. Do not you remember where I carried you both 
across the muddy hollow in the foot-path ? 


Leontion does. 


That place is always wet; not only in this month of 
Puanepsion,* which we are beginning to-day, but in mid- 
summer. The water that causes it, comes out a little way 
above it, but originates from the crevice, which I will cover 

* The Attic month of Puanepsion had its commenoement in the latter 
days of October : its name is derived from riat^a, the legumes whidi were 
offered in sacrifice to Apollo at that season. 

xncumus, lbontion^ and tebiossa. 235 

«t top with lose-laurel and monntaiD-ash^ with clematis and 
▼ine ; and I will intercept the little rill in its wandering, draw 
it firom its concealment, and place it like Bacchos under the 
pvotection of the Nymphs, who will smile upon it in its 
marble cradle, which at present I keep at home. 


Leontionl whj do you turn away your face? have the 
Nymphs smiled upon you in it ? 

I bathed in it once, if you must know, Temissa ! Why 
now, Temissa, why do you turn away yours? have the 
Nymphs frowned upon you for invading their secrets ? 


Epicurus, you are in the right to bring it away from 
Athens ; from under the eye of Pallas : she might be angry. 


You approve of its removal then, my lovely friend ? 



{dSide,) I wish it may break in pieces on the road. 

What did you say ? 

I wish it were now on the road • . that I might try 
whether it would hold me • . I mean with my clothes on. 

It would hold you, and one a span longer. I have another 
in the house ; but it is not decorated with Fauns and Satyrs 
and foliage, like thb. 


I remember putting my hand upon the frightful Satyr's 
head, to leap in : it seems made for the purpose. But the 
■culptor needed not to place the Naiad quite so near : he 
muit have been a very impudent man : it is impossible to look 
tx a moment at such a piece of workmanship. 


For shame ! Leontion I . • whv, what was it ? I do not 

236 xpicu&us, LEONnoy, and tbbnissa. 


I donH remember it. 


Nor I neither ; only the head. 


I shall place the Satyr toward the rock, that yon may never 
see him, Temissa. 


Very right; he can not turn round. 


The poor Kaiad had done it, in vain. 

All these laborers will soon finish the plantation, if ym 
superintend them, and are not appointed to some magistrature. 


Those who govern us are pleased at seeing a philosopher out 
of the city, and more stil at finding, in a season of scarci^, 
forty poor citizens, who might become seditious, made happy 
and quiet by such employment. 

T\i'o e\Tls, of almost equal weight, may befall the man of 
erudition : never to be listened to, and to be listened to 
always. Aware of these, I devote a laige portion of my time 
and labours to the cultivation of such minds as flourish best 
in cities, where my garden at the gate, although smaller than 
this, we find sufficiently capacious. There I secure my list- 
eners: here my thoughts and imaginations have their free 
natural current, and tarry or wander as the will invites : may 
it ever be among those dearest to me ! those whose hearts 
possess the rarest and divinest faculty, of retaining ai forget- 
ting at option what ought to be forgotten or retainal. 


The whole ground then will be covered with trees and 


There are some protuberances in various parts of the emi- 
nence, which you do not perceive til you are upon them or 
above them. They are almost level at the top, and overgrown 
with fine grass; for they catch the better soil, brought 
down in small quantities by the rains. These are to be left 
unplanted; so is the platform under the pinasters, whence 


there is a prospect of the city, the harbour, the ile of 
Salamis, and the territory of Megara. " What then/' cried 
Sosimenes, " you would hide from your view my youne olives, 
and the whole length of the new wall I have been building at 
my own expense between us ! and, when you might see at 
once the whole of Attica, you will hardly see more of it than 
I could buy." 


I do not perceive the new wall, for which Sosimenes, no 
doubt, thinks himself another Pericles. 


Those old junipers quite conceal it. 


Thev look warm and sheltering : but I like the rose-laurels 
much better ; and what a thicket of them here is ! 


Leaving all the larger, I shall remove many thousands of 
them ; enough to border the greater part of the walk, inter- 
mixed with roses. 


Do, pray, leave that taller plant yonder, of which I see 
there arc several springing in several places out of the rock : it 
appears to have produced on a single stem a long succession 
of yellow flowers ; some darkening and fading, others running 
ap and leaving them behind, others showing their little faces 
imperfectly through their light green veils. 


Childish girl ! she means the mullen ; and she talks about 
it as she would have talked about a doll, attributing to it 
feelings and aims and designs. I saw her stay behind to kiss 
it ; no doubt, for being so nearly of her own highth. 


No indeed, not for that ; but because I liad broken off one 
of its blossoms unheedingly, perhai)s the last it may bear, and 
because its leaves are so downy and pliant; and because 
nearer the earth some droop and are deCiiying, and remind me 
of a parent who must die before the tenderest of her children 
can clo without her. 


I will preserve the whole species ; but you must point out 

288 EPicuBus^ usasTLov, AUD TmimA. 

to me the particular one as we retom. Tbeie is an inftmtjr of 
other plants and flowers, or weeds as Sosimenes calls them, of 
which he has cleared his olive-yard, and whieh I shall adopL 
Twenty of his slaves came in vesterdav> laden with hyacintiu 
and narcissuses, anemones ana jonqaiiB. '* The coiaes of our 
vineyards,'' cri^ he, '' and good neither for man nor beast 
I have another estate infested with lilies of the vallqr: 
I should not wonder if you accepted these too/' 

" And with thanks,'' answered I. 

The whole of Iiis remark I could not collect : he tamed aside, 
and (I believe) prayed. I only heard *' Pallas" • . . " father" 
..." sound mind" . . . "inoffensive man" . . . "good neigh- 
bour." As we walked together I perceived him looking grave, 
and I could not resist my inclination to smile as I turned my 
eyes toward him. He observed it, at first with unconcern, 
but by degrees some doubts arose within him, and he said, 
" Epicurus, you have been throwing awav no less than half a 
talent on this sorry piece of mountain, and I fear you are about 
to waste as much m labour : for nothing was ever so terrible 
as the price we are obliged to pay the workman, since the 
conquest of Persia, and the increase of luxury in our dU, 
Under three obols none will do his day's work. But what, m 
the name of all the deities, coidd induce you to plant those 
roots, which other people dig up and throw away ?' 

" I have been doing," said I, " the same thing my whole life 
through, Sosimenes ! " 

" How ! " cried he : " I never knew that." 

" Those very doctrines," added I, " which others hate and 
extirpate, I inculcate and cherish. They bring no riches, and 
therefor are thought to bring no advant^ : to me they appear 
the more advantageous for that reason. They give us imme- 
diately what we solicit through the means of wealth. TVe toil 
for the wealth first ; and then it remains to be proved whether 
we can purchase with it what we look for. Now, to carry our 
money to the market, and not to find in the market our 
money's worth, is great vexation : yet much greater has already 
preceded, in running up and down for it among so many 
competitors, and through so many thieves." 

After a while he rejoined, "You really then have not over- 
reached me ? " 

" In what? my friend ! " said I. 

" These roots," he answered, " may perhaps be good and 


sideable for some purpose. Shall you send them into Persia? 
or whither?'' 

'' Sofiimenes ! I shall make love-potions of the flowers/' 


Epicurus ! should it ever be known in Athens that they 
are good for this, you will not have, with all vour fences of 
prunes and pomegranates, and precipices with briar upon 
them, a single root left under ground after the month of 


It is not everyone that knows the preparation. 


Everybody will try it. 


And you too, Temissa ? 

Will you teach me ? 


This, and an^hing else I know. We must walk together 
wben tiiey are m flower. 


And can you teach me then ? 


1 teach by degrees. 


By very slow ones, Epicurus I I have no patience with you : 
tell us directly. 


It is very material what kind of recipient you brine with 
yon. Enchantresses use a brazen one: silver and gold are 
o&ployed in other arts. 


I will bring any. 


My mother has a fine golden one : she will lend it me : she 
iDows me everything. 


Leontion and Temissa ! those eyes of yours brighten at 
inquiry, as if they carried a light within them for a guidance. 

* Hm thirtietli of ElapheboUon wu th« Uoth of ApriL 



No flattery I 


No flattery ! come^ teach us. 


Will you hear me through in silence ? 


We promise. 


Sweet girls ! the calm pleasures^ such as I hope you will 
ever find in your walks among these gardens^ ^nll improve 
your beauty^ animate your discourse^ and correct the little that 
may hereafter rise up for correction in your dispositions. The 
smiUng ideas left in our bosoms from our infancy, that many 
plants are the favorites of the gods, and that others were even 
the objects of their love, having once been invested with the 
human form, beautiful and lively and happy as yourselves, give 
them an interest beyond the vision ; yes, and a station, let me 
say it, on the vestibule of our affections. Resign your ingenu- 
ous hearts to simple pleasures ; and there is none in man where 
men are Attic that mtU not foUow and outstrip their move- 


Epicurus ! 


What said Temissa ? 


Some of those anemones, I do think, must be stil in 
blossom. Temissa's golden cup is at home; but she has 
brought with her a little vase for the filter . . . and lias filled 
it to the brim ... Do not liide your head behind my 
shoulder, Temissa ! no, nor in my lap. 


Yes, there let it lie, the lovelier for that tendril of sunny 
bro>»Ti hair upon it. How it falls and rises ! Which is the 
hair ? which the shadow ? 


Let the hair rest. 


1 must not perhaps clasp the shadow ! 


Ton pltilosophcrs are fond of such unsubstantial thing*. 
O I yvn liBve taken my volume. This is ik-cdt. 

Yuu livr fo little in pulilic, ami culrrtaiu sucli a cont<nupt 
^•'r njiiuiun, lu Ui be butli iudiUt^uC oiiil igiionuit nhut it is 
- -t it people blttint! jruu for. 

I kiviw wlmt it is I should bUme mvsdf for, if 1 Dtt<?ndp(] 
lii-'iii. ProTo liiem to bo wiser anil more dlsintprcjrtnl in 
- '\ I I Inn than 1 am, and I will tbcn )jo down to liiem and 
■1 ;■ 'hi.-ni. WLcn I have well considered a tiling, 1 di^Iivec 
:■ L-i"Il>-;i4 of what thosv tliiuk whu neither take the time 
[1 i-"-j the flumltv of considering unjftliing well, and 
\i '.'■•■ alwaj) lived (ax remote from the scope of our 

lu Ihe volume ^oa suatched away from me ao alily, I have 
tlcfcnded ■ posiUon of yours which many philosoplicra turn 
inlu ridicule; namely, thai puliu-uess is amon^ the virtues. I 
villi yon yuursdf luid ^pgkcn more nt liu-gc upuu tlic subject. 

It is onn npon wliicli n lady is lifcelv to display mon 
bgcQiiity and discimmcnt. If philoaouhcra have ridieuJcd 
my Fmtimcnt, the reason ia, it ta anumg thoic virtues whiclt in 
gBOcral iJiey tind most diltieull to nssumc or counterfeit. 


I Sniely life nina on the smoother for this equability and 
jglBh; and the gratification it sifords ta more extensive than 
■alfbrdnl even by the highest virtae. Courage, on nearly oil 
mntms, iiiUicU u» much of evil as it imparts of good. Il 
J be csertnl iu dercucc of our couutry, in defeiin- of Uiose 
h lure lu, in defence of the harmless uud the hi-Ipleu : but 
wuDst whom it is thus uxcrted may iiossess an eqnal 
KiL II ther succccdj tbcji manifestly tlie ill it produoea 
■ than Lac bcncGl : if thi^- suoeumb, it ia ucariy « 
_^ For, nuuiy of tlieir adversaries ore lint kilK'd and 

ninimi-d, mid many of tlieir own kindred are left to bmeut the 
coiurfjufjincs uf the nggressiuD. 

Too have spoken first of courage, ns that virtue which 
r Hx [iriiicipBlly. 


Not me ; I am always afraid of it. I love those best vio 
can tell me the most things I never knew before, and wbo 
have patience with me, and look kindly while they teach me^ 
and almost as if they were waiting for fresh questions. Nov 
let me hear directly what you were about to say to Leontion. 


I was proceeding to remark that temperance comes next; 
and temperance has then its highest merit when it is the 
snpport of civiUty and politeness. So that I think I am right 
and equitable in attributing to politeness a distinguished rank, 
not among the ornaments of hfe, but among the virtues. And 
you, Leontion and Temissa, will have leaned the more pro- 
pensely toward this opinion, if you considered, as I am sure 
you did, that the peace and concord of families, friends, and 
cities, are preserved by it : in other terms, the harmony of the 


Leontion spoke of courage, you of temperance : the ned 
great virtue, in the division made by the philosophers, is 


Temperance includes it : for temperance is imperfect if it is 
only an abstinence from too much food, too much wine, too 
much conviviality, or other luxury. It indicates every kind of 
forbearance. Justice is forbearance from what belongs to 
another. Giving to this one rightly what that one would hold 
wrongfully, is justice in magistrature, not in the abstract, and 
is only a part of its office. The perfectly temperate man is 
also the perfectly just man : but the perfectly just man (as 
philosophers now define him) may not be the perfectly tem- 
perate one : I include the less in the greater. 


We hear of judges, and upright ones too, being immoderate 
eaters and drinkers. 


The Lacedemonians are temperate in food and courageous in 
battle : but men like these, if tney existed in sufficient numbers, 
would devastate the universe. We alone, we Athenians, with 
less military skill perhaps, and certainly less rigid abstinence 



'M:n vuliiptuuuKness niid luxury, have .wt before it the only 
lud cwinple of social i^veriuDenl aud of polished life. 
.in Ik" ihe seed is scatlcred: from us tlow the streams thnt 
.^niTkte it : atid ours nrc- the hands, LeotitioD, that collect 
It, clcitiM it, deposit it, and cunvvj and distribute it sound and 
wi'ightr tlirougli every race aiid age, Exhausted as we are by 
nnr, we can do tiotliing better than lie down and doze while 
Uie vealher is fine overhead, and dream (if we can] that we 
ue afflncDt and free. 

O swietTt sica>aif ! how bland art (hou and refreshing ! Breathe 

'ijvta Leoutiou t brtuithe upon Tcniissa ! bring them health and 

Tinta and serenity, many spring and many summers, and 

■ !,ai the vine-lenves have reddened and mslle under their 


ITiMc, my beloved girls, are the children of Eternity : (hey 
ivcd around 'llicscus and the beantcous Amnion, tlicy gave to 
I .[Laa the liloum of Venus, and to Venus the animation of 
r^la*. U it not better (o enjoy by the hour their «oft salu- 
hrinn* inlluence, tliim to cntcli by fits the rancid breath of 
dmuftogHe'; than tu swell aud move under it witliout or 
againH our will ; than to acquire the semblance of dcH|iience 
l^ the bitterness of paasioii, the tone of pliiloeophy by diaap- 
paintmcfit, or the credit of prudence by distrust ? Can fortune, 
can indiulij, can desert itself, bestow on us anything we have 
not hcrci* 

Awl when shall those thrru meet? Tlic gods have never 
atul«l them, knowing tliut men would put llicm a*uiuler at 
that fint appearance. 

I am fjlail to leave the city as often as possible^ fiill as it ii 
mf^ lugfa and ulorious reminiscences, and am inclined much 
^^■^er to indiJge in quieter scenes, wliither the Grveea and 
^I^UBDdship lead me. 1 would not contend even with men able 
^Ub eoDtead with me. You, Leontion, 1 see, think dilTerenlly, 
sad have composed at last your lung-medituted work agoinsi 
tUc phiUnophy of Theophnutuj. 

J aoH? ho luu been praiwd uhove his merita. 

)iy LeoQtiau I yon bave inadveiicnily giren me the i 

244 iFicuBus, LEomroN, and tctlhtwa, 

and origin of all controversial writings. They flow not firam % 
love of truth or a regard for science, but from golyj and ill-wilL 
Setting aside the evil of malignity, always hurtfiil to oursdvea^ 
not always to others, there is weakness in the argument joq 
have adduced. When a writer is praised above his merits in 
his own times, he is certain of being estimated below them in 
the times succeeding. Paradox is dear to most people: it 
bears the appearance of originality, but is usually the talent 
of the superficial, the perverse, and the obstinate. 

Nothing is more gratifying than the attention you are 
bestowing on me, which you always apportion to the serious- 
ness of my observations. But, Leontion! Leontion! yoa 
defend me too earnestly. The roses on your cheeks should 
derive their bloom from a cooler and sweeter and more salu- 
brious fountain. In what mythology (can you tell me, 
Temissa ?) is Friendship the mother of Anger P 


I can only tell you that Love lights Anger's torch ven 



I dislike Theophrastus for his affected contempt of your 


Unreasonably, for the contempt of them; reasonably, if 
affected. Good men may differ widely from me, and wise 
ones misunderstand me ; for, their wisdom having raised up 
to them schools of their own, they have not found leisure to 
converse with me; and from others they have received a 
partial and inexact report. My opinion is, that certain things 
are indifferent, and unworthy of pursuit or attention, as 
lying beyond our research and almost our conjecture ; which 
things the generality of pliilosophers (for the generality are 
speculative) deem of the first importance. Questions relating 
to them I answer evasively, or altogether decline. Again, 
there are modes of living which are suitable to some and 
unsuitable to others, Wliat I mvself follow and embrace, 
what I recommend to the studious, to the irritable, to the 
weak in health, would ill agree with the commonality of 
citizens. Yet my adversaries cry out, " Such is the opinion 
and practice of Epicurus.'' For instance, I have never taken 
a wife, and never will take one : but he from among the mass 


who skonld avow his imitation of my example^ would act as 
wisely and more religiously in saying that he chose celibacy 
becaoae Pallas had done the same. 


If lUlas had many such votaries she would soon have few 
citixens to supply them. 


And extremely bad ones if all followed me in retiring &om 
the offices of magistracy and of war. Having seen that the 
BKNit sensible men are the most unhappy, I could not but 
examine the causes of it : and finding that the same sensi- 
bility to which they are indebted for the activity of their 
inteUect, is also the restless mover of their jealousy and 
ambition, I would lead them aside from whatever operates 
upon these, and throw under their feet the terrors their ima- 
gination has created. My philosophy is not for the populace 
nor for the proud : the ferocious will never attain it : the 
gentle will embrace it, but will not call it mine. I do not 
desire that they should : let them rest their heads u})on that 
part of the piUow which they find the softest, and enjoy their 
own dreams unbroken. 


The old are all against you : for the name of pleasure is an 
affront to them : they know no other kind of it tlian that 
which has flowered and seeded, and of which the withered 
stems have indeed a rueful look. What we call dry they cull 
sound : nothing must retain any juice in it : their pleasure is 
in chewing what is hanl, not in tasting what is savour}'. 

Unhappily the aged are retentive of long-acquired maxims, 
and insensible to new impressions, whether from fancy or from 
truth : in fact, their eyes blend the two together, n ell might 
the poet tell us. 

FWwvr tfi« gifts that gnarled Age presMiU 

To ekgMitly-hMided Infiuicy, 

Than elcgantly-hauded lufaocy 

PreaenU to gnarled Age. From both thej drop ; 

The middle oounie of life receiTes thorn all. 

Save the light few that laughing Youth runt off with, 

UnTtloed as a miatreaa or a flower. 


It is reported by the experienced that our last loves and 
our first are of equal interest to us. 


Surely they are. What is the difference ? Can you really 
mean to say, O Leontion, that there are any intermediate? 
Why do you look aside ? And you too refuse to answer me 
so easy and plain a question P 

LEoimoN {to mcuBim). 
Although you teach us the necessity of laying a strong 
hand on the strong affections, you never pull one feather from 
the wing of Love. 


I am not so irreligious. 


I think he could only twitch it just enough to make the 
gentle god turn round, and smile on him. 


You know little about the matter, but may live to know all. 
Whatever we may talk of torments, as some do, there must 
surely be more pleasure in desiring and not possessing, than 
in possessing and not desiring. 


Perhaps so : but consult the intelligent. Certainly there is 
a middle state between love and friendship, more delightful 
than either, but more difficult to remain in. 


To be preferred to all others is the supremacy of bliss. Do 
not you think so, Temissa ? 


It is indeed what the wise and the powerful and the beau- 
tiful chiefly aim at : Leontion has attamed it. 


Delightful, no doubt, is such supremacy: but far more 
delightful is the certainty that there never was anyone quite 
near enough to be given up for us. To be preferred is h^xUy 
a compensation for having been long compared. The breatii 
of another's sigh bedims and hangs pertinaciously about the 
image we adore. 



TThen Friendship has taken the place of Love, she ought 
to make his absence as little a cause of regret as possible, and 
it is gracious in her to imitate his demeanour and his words. 


I can repeat them more easily than imitate them. 


Both of jou, until this moment, were looking grave ; but 
Leontion has resumed her smiles again on hearing what 
Epicurus can do. I wish you would repeat to me, O Epicurus, 
any words so benign a Qod hath vouchsafed to teach you ; for 
it would be a convincing proof of your piety, and I could 
fliflence the noisiest tongue in Athens with it. 


Simpleton I we were speaking allegorically. 


Never say that : I do believe the God himself hath con- 
Tersed with Epicurus. Tell me now, Epicurus, tell me your- 
self, has not he ? 



Iq his own form ? 


Very nearly : it was in Teniissa's. 

Impious man I I am ashamed of you. 


'Sever did shame bum brighter. 
Mind Theophrastus, not me. 

Since, in obedience to your institutions, O Epicurus, I must 
not say I am angry, I am offended at least with Theophrastus, 
for having so misrepresented your opinions, on the necessity of 
keepinff the mind composed and tranquil, and remote from 
every wject and every sentiment by which a painful sympathy 
may be excited* In order to display his elegance of language. 

t48 KPICCKU8, LBOKnOH, A2fl> TStlTliaA. 

he runs wherever he can lay a oensiire on you, whether be 
belieres in its equity or not. 


This is the case with all eloquent men and all disputants. 
Truth neither warms nor elevates them^ neither obtains fsx 
them profit nor applause. 

I have heard wise remarks very often and very wannlj 


Not for the truth in them^ but for the grace, or because 
they touched the spring of some preconception or some 
passion. Man is a hater of truths a lover of fiction. 


How then happens it that children, when you have rdated 
to them any story which has greatly interested them, asL 
immediately and impatiently, w it true ? 


Children are not men nor women: they are almost as 
different creatures, in many respects, as if they never were to 
be the one or the other : they are as unlike as buds are unlike 
flowers, and almost as blossoms are unlike fruits. Greatly are 
they better than they are about to be, unless Philosophy raises 
her hand above them when the noon is coming on, and shelters 
them at one season from the heats that would scorch and 
wither, and at another from the storms that would shatter and 
subvert them. There are nations, it is reported, which aim 
their arrows and javelins at the sun and moon, on occasions of 
ecHpse, or any other offence : but I never have heard that the 
sun and moon abated their course through the heavens for it, 
or looked more angrily when they issued forth again to shed 
light on their antagonists. They went onward all the while in 
their own serenity and clearness, tlirough unobstructed paths, 
without diminution and without delay : it was only the httle 
world below that was in darkness. Philosophy lets her light 
descend and enter wherever there is a passage for it : she 
takes advantage of the smallest crevice, but the rays arc 
rebutted by the smallest obstruction. Polemics can never be 
philosophers or philotheists : they serve men ill, and their gods 
no better : they mar what is sohd in earthly bliss by animo- 


disseu-iiuria, rtnd iiitercent tlie span of azure at u 
rj' and the Mirrowfiil woiJil look ap. 
phmslus is u writer of nituiy acquirements aud some 
less, usimtl; judicioua, oftcu somewhat witty, alwajs 
: bis thoughts vte never confused, his scutcucca are 
iromprchuiisible. If Anstut^lcs thought more highlj' 
tlmu his dup, surely you ought not to wnsurc Thi'O- 
I witli st'verilj on the Bupposition of his rating me 
line ; uuli'vs you argue that a slight error in a short 

leas pardonable than in a longer. Had Aristotcles 
iiifi;, uini had he given the some opinion of inc, your 
ip and pGrh»p» my self-love might have been wounded 

on one oeeasion he spoke too favorably, he nc 
tuifavurahlv but witli Jnsrit^e. Tliis is among t 
)ns of orderly and eleviited minds ; and here atot 
rier that scparati-s tllcm from tho common and t 

la a man to bo angry because an infant is frctfulfl 
losouher to unpack uiid tlirow away hiii philosoph] 

an idiot has tned to overturn it un the roodj and b' 

it with jibes and ribaldry ? 

phnuttiis would persuade us that, according to rod 
WW not only should decline the succour of the wrctctiei 
nd the eyni[>al)iies that pocta and historians w 
in Qs. I'robably for the »itke of introducing t 
les, written by n friend of Ins, he ws that, followin 
ilunee of Kpieiinis, we idioidd altogether !>hiin 
and not onlv when PromtrtAeuJi and (J-JfUjim 
rfc* are introduced, bul evni where gentTous 
M-ntinii-nta arc predominant, if ihey partake of till 
i which iMrlongs to ptir. I know not what Thraciid 
en his daughttu' from her mvishvr : siieh are amoii| 
i* they exchange 

IimmtU, tliat dwfll in TOtUso racd». Inert 
Vfaa Hm (mftoe -t a atnain or [luol, 
Tb«n nub labi Um air «d ummLj rmi. 
An bot Mt iliflbranl in tlitir wring liiv* 
A< w w . , O I *hU blliar uo Uiii arlli, 
HoMinc bli chilrl'i c«<>l dunk vithiD liu pklmi 
JUiil kiadug hu (air front. wvuM wl*li Mm lolli I 
labtiUa of wuiti and JwliiuiriM, 
M Uxt, of HBbiUoo, of dMm^ 


250 EPicuBus, ixosnojsf, Asm tbbkissa. 

And, cmelest of all the passionB, lust 

Who that beholds me, persecuted, 8Coni«d, 

A wanderer, e'er could think what fiiends were miney 

How numerouB, how deroted 1 with what ^ee 

Smiled my old house, with what acdaim my eooits 

Rang from without whene'er my war-horse neighed. 

Daughter. Thy fortieth birthday is not shouted yet 
By the young peasantry, with rural gifts 
Ajid nightly fires along the pointed hilln^ 
Yet do thy temples glitter with grey hair 
Scattered not thinly : ah what sudden diange ! 
Only thy voice and heart ronain the same : 
No, that Toioe tremblesi, and that heart (I feel) 
While it would comfort and console me^ breaks. 


I would never close my bosom against the feelings of 
humanity : but I would calmly and well consider by what 
conduct of life they may enter it with the least impoitanity 
and violence. A consciousness that we have promoted the 
happiness of others, to the uttermost of our power, is certain 
not only to meet them at the threshold, but to bring them 
along with us, and to render them accurate and faithful 
prompters, when we bend perplexedly over the problem of 
evil figured by the tragedians. If indeed there were more of 
pain than of pleasure in the exhibitions of the dramatist, no 
man in his senses would attend them twice. AU the imitative 
arts have delight for the principal object : the first of these is 
poetry : the highest of poetry is tragic. 


The epic has been called so. 

Improperly ; for the epic has much more in it of what is 
prosaic. Its magnitude is no argument. An Egyptian pyramid 
contains more materials than an Ionic temple, but requires less 
contrivance, and exhibits less beauty of design. My simily is 
yet a defective one ; for, a tragedy must be carried on with an 
unbroken interest ; and, undecorated by loose foliage or fan- 
tastic branches, it must rise, like the pahn-tree, with a lofty 
unity. On these matters I am unable to ai^e at large, or 
perhaps correctly : on those however which I have studied and 
treated, my terms are so explicit and clear, that Theophrastus 


can rirvfr liave misnnilirrstood thcra. Let me recall to yrrnr 
ftltr-ritiuii but two uxioiris. 

Alntiiitiic* from low jilensiires is the only means of meriting 
ur of iilitainjng ihe higher. 

KiudncM in ourselvee is the honey that blunts the siting of 
nnktnilnrM in anotlier. 


ExpUin to me then, Epicurus, why we suffer so much 
from ittgmlituUc. 

\Vl- fancy we sutTer from ingratitude, while in reality we 
itfrr fnun tielf-luve. Passion weeps while she says, " I did 

t tl«u.Tve tliis from him:" IWson, while she says it, 
-iikxiIIk'iu her brow at the clear fountain of the heart. Permit 
me abo, hkc Tlioopbrastaa, to borrow a few words &om a poet. 

Borrow na many such as anyone will entrust to yon : and 
Buy Ilrrmra pnaper your commerce ! Leontion may go to the 
thaler then i for she loves it. 

Girls ! be the hosom fnrmls of Antigone anil hmenf ; and 
yo«i dull enter ihs woful of llic ^Imintiidta without tiliuildehjig, 
am) le«ie ii without the truce of a tear. Never did you appear 
»u graceful to me, Tcrnissa; no, not even after this walk do 
yoa ; as when 1 saw you blow a fly from the forehead of 
Pkileritfn iu ihcpropylca, Tlio wing, with wliicli Sophocles 
ubA Itu* ftattuuT represent him, to tuive awuy the summer 
ioMiTts in Ids ngouy, iiad weaned his flaccid arm, hanging down 
bokle hun. 

Do y<m imagine then I thought him a living man ? 


ITie Beotiment was both more deiicnte and more august from 
leing iniiixtinct. You would have done it, even if lie hid 
\xma n living man : cveu if he aiuld have clasped you in \\\» 
anns, imjilnring the IMties to reacmblc you in gentluneiu, you 
would have dune it. 

He looked so abandoned by all. and «o heroic, yet so feoWe 
awl w hclplos; I did not think nf turning round tu sec if 
-■««; or cbc pwhaps . . • 




If YOU could have thought of looking loimd, yon would no 
longer have been Temissa. The gods would have transfoxmed 

you for it into some tree. 


And Epicurus had been walking under it this day perhaps. 


With Leontion^ the partner of his sentiments. But the 
walk would have been earlier or later than the present hour: 
since the middle of the day, like the middle of certain firuits, is 
good for nothing. 


For dinner surely. 


Dinner is a less gratification to me than to many : I dine 





To avoid the noise, the heat, and the intermixture both of 
odours and of occupations. I can not bear the indecency of 
speaking with a mouth in which there is food. I careen my 
body (since it is always in want of repair) in as unobstructed a 
space as I can, and I lie down and sleep awhile when the work 
is over. 


Epicurus ! although it would be very interesting, no doubt, 
to hear more of what you do after dinner . . . {aside to iim) 
now don't smile : I shall never forgive you if you say a single 
word . . . yet I would rather hear a little about the theater, 
and whether you think at last that women should frequent it ; 
for you have often said the contrary. 


I think they should visit it rarely ; not because it excites 
their affections, but because it deadens them. To me nothing 
is so odious as to be at once among the rabble and among the 
heroes, and, while I am receiving into my heart the most 
exquisite of human sensations, to feel upon my shoulder the 
hand of some inattentive and insensible young officer. 


O very bad indeed ! horrible I 



Too quite fire at the idea. 
Not I : I dou't care aboat it. 


Not aboat what is very bad indeed? quite horrible ? 


I seldom go thither. 


The theater is delightful when we erect it in our own house 
or arbour, and when there is but one spectator. 


You must lose the illusion in great part, if you only read 
the tragedy, which I fancy to be your meaning. 

I lose the less of it. Do not imagine that the illusion is, 
or can be, or oudit to be, complete. If it were possible^ no 
PhaLiris or PeriUus could devise a crueller torture. Here are 
two imitations : first, the poet*s of the sufferer ; secondly, the 
actor's of both: poetry is superinduced. No man in pain 
ever uttered the better part of the language used by Sophocles. 
We admit it, and willingly, and are at least as much illuded by 
it as by anything else we hear or see upon the stage. Poets 
and statuaries and painters give us an adorned imitation of the 
object, so skilfully treated that we receive it for a correct one. 
Tlus is the only illusion they aim at : this is the })erfection of 
their arts. 


Do you derive no pleasure from the representation of a 
consummate actor ? 


Higli pleasure ; but liable to be overturned in an instant ; 
pleasure at the mercy of anyone who sits beside me. Kanly 
does it happen that an Athenian utters a syllable in the midst 
of it : but our city is open to the inhabitants of all the woHd, 
and all the world that is yet humanised a woman might walk 
across in sixty hours. There are even in Greece a few remaining 
rtil so barbarous, that I have heard them wliisper in the midst 
of the finest scenes of our greatest poets. 


Aoom*fcd Chaonians I 



I esteem all the wise ; but I entertain no wish to imitate aB 
of them in everything. What was conYenient and befitting 
in one or other of them, might be inconvenient and unbefittii^ 
in me. Great names ought to bear us up and carry as throii^ 
but never to run away with us. Peculiarity and solitarinea 
give an idea to weak minds of something grand, autlioritatifi^ 
and god-like. To be wise indeed and happy and self-possessed, 
we must often be alone : we must mix as uttle as we can witb 
what is called society, and abstain rather more than seemi 
desirable even from the better few. 

You have commanded us at all times to ask you anything 
we do not imderstand : why then use the phrase '^ what is 
called society P^' as if there could be a doubt whether we are 
in society when we converse with many. 


We may meet and converse with thousands : you and 
Leontion and myself could associate with few. Society, in the 
philosophical sense of the word, is almost the contrary of what 
it is in the common acceptation. 


Now go on with your discourse. 


When we have once acquired that intelligence of which we 
have been in pursuit, we may relax our minds, and lay the 
produce of our chase at the feet of those we love. 


Philosophers seem to imagine that they can be visible and 
invisible at will ; that they can be admired for the display of 
their tenets, and unobserved in the workings of their spleen. 
None of those whom I remember, or whose writings I have 
perused, was quite exempt from it. Among the least malicious 
is Theophrastus : could he find no other for so little malice but 


The origin of his dislike to me, was my opinion that per- 
spicuity is the prime excellence of composition. He and 
Aristoteles and Plato talk diffusely of attending to harmony, 
and clap rhetorical rules before our mouths in order to produce 


Natural scqaenccfl and right subordination of thought*^ 
id that jasl proportion of nuuibcrs iii the antitencca whiirh 
(lowB a strong conci-jttion, are tlie cutistiturats of true har- 
on*. Ydii lire wtislidl with it »nd dwell upon it; wbiHi 
I "oulii vftinljr ho]ie to ilo wh(^n you aw forci^d to turn biick 
< I to wtzt! nil iden or la comprehend a period. Let us 
jiiH that opposition, and even hard words, are (at laist in 
« brj^inninp) no certain proofs of hatred; although, by 
qninDg dcTcocv, they soon pruduri; ht^t and animosity in 
n who knth cnipigcd in so iinwi<e n wiu-farr. On the other 
ind, pnuM'-.i are not always the unfaibng signs of liberalily or 
iitfticc. Many are extolled out of enuiiiy to olbcrs, and 
iijia would have been decried lind those others not existed. 
lunj^ ibr rauftes of my luippiness, this is one: I never have 
■en rtimulau-^l to hostility oy any in the cTowd that has 
niltMi mi-. If in my youlli I bad bt<en hurried into this 
1, I siiould liavi^ regretted it as lost time, lust plcusurr, 

t may expose what i» violent or false in 
r in uiyoue who injures u» or our friends. 


f esliibiting in ounielves the contrary. Sueh venf^ranea _ 

L-iiinuU' and complete. I found iu mv early days, aniong the 

!.rslcd pliilosophers of Greece, a love of liominatiou, a 

l-naity to imposture, a jcalou»iy of renown, and a eold 

KiiiIrirDcr to fltnipic truth. Xoni- of tlic!c ijualiticd k-.-ul lo 

■ppiocM; tiiine of lliem stand within the precincts of Virtue. 

■akcd iDTM^lf, " What is the niOHt natural and the moxt 

BtrersBl of our desires ;" 1 found it was, to be happy. Won- 

■fol 1 tfaoaght it, that the gratification of a desire wbich is 

r oncE the most universal and the most natural, should lie the 

iMotiKst attained. 1 then conjectured the means ; and 1 found 

t tltcy TBiy, an vary (he iiiind.'> and cajHicitiu.-t of men; tliat, 

' 1 ef, tlie i)rinci{>al one lay in the avoidance of those vciy 

.;■' which had hitherto been taken up as the instruments of 

i content; such as miliUijy commands, [lolitici' 


offices, clients, hazardous ventures in cammeroe, and eztensirB 

property in land, 


And vet offices, both political and military, most be nnder* 
taken ; and clients will throng about those who exercise then. 
Commerce too will dilate with Prosperity, and Frugality w31 
square her farm by lopping off the angles of the next. 


True, Leontion ! nor is there a probability that my opinions 
will pervade the heart of Avarice or Ambition: they will 
influence only the unoccupied. Philosophy hath led scaredy a 
single man away from commands or magistracies, until he hath 
first tried them. Weariness is the repose of the politician, and 
apathy Iiis wisdom. He fancies that nations are contemplating 
the great man in his retirement, while what b^an in ignorance 
of himself is ending in forgetfulness on the part of others. 
This truth at last appears to him : he detests the ingratitude 
of mankind : he declares his resolution to carry the earth no 
longer on his shoulders : he is taken at liis word : and the 
shock of it breaks liis heart. 


Epicurus, I have been listening to you with even more 
pleasure than usual, for you often talk of love, and such other 
things as vou can know nothing about : but now vou have 
gone out of your way to defend an enemy, and to lead aside 
Leontion from her severity toward Theophrastus. 


Believe me, my lovely friends, he is no ordinary man who 
hath said one wise thing gracefuUy in the whole of his 
existence : now several such are recorded of him whom 
Leontion hath singled out from my assailants. His style 
is excellent. 


Tlie excellence of it hath been exaggerated by Aristotdes, 
to lower our opinion of Plato's. 


It may be : I can not prove it, and never heard it. 


So blinded indeed is this great master of rhetoric . . . 



Pardon the rudeness of my interruption, dear Lcontion. 
Do not designate so great a man by a title so contemptible. 
Toa arc nearly as humiliating to liis genius as those who 
call him the Stagyrite : and those are ignorant of the wrong 
they do Iiim : many of them are his disciples and admirers, 
ana call him by that name in quoting his authority. Philo- 
sophy, until he came among us, was like the habitations of 
the Troglod}tes; vast indeed and wonderful, but without 
eonstruction, without arrangement : he first gave it order and 
system. I do not rank him with Democritus, who has been 
to philosophers what Homer has been to poets, and who is 
equally great in imagination and in reflection : but no other 
has left behind him so many just remarks on such a variety of 

Within one olympiad three men have departed from the 
world, who carried farther than any other three that ever 
dwelt upon it, reason, elociuence, and martial glory ; Aristoteles, 
Dcmostnenes, and Alexander. Now tell me wliich of these 
qualities do you admire the most ? 




And rightly. Among the three characters, the vulgar and 
ignorant will prefer Alexander ; the less vulgar and ignorant 
will prefer Demosthenes ; and they who are removed to the 
gr«it<*st distance from ignorance and vulgarity, Aristoteles. 
let, although he has written on some occasions with as much 
parity and precision as we find in the Oralions of Pericles, 
many things are expressed obscurely ; which is by much the 
greatest fault in composition. 


Surely you do not say that an obscurity is worse than a 

defect in grammar. 


I do say it : for we may discover a truth through such a 
defect, which we can not through an obscurity. It is better to 
find the object of our researches in ill condition tliaii not 
to find it at all. We may purify the idea in our own bath, 
and adorn it with our own habiliments, if we can but find it, 
though among the slaves or clowns : whems, if it is locked 
up from OS in a dark chamber at the top of the house, we liave 


only to walk down-stairs again, disappointed, tired, and out of 

Bat yon were saying that something had Uinded the 


Hid zeal and partiality. Not only did he prefer Theophnstsi 
to evervone who taught at Athens ; not only did he change Ui 
original name, for one of so high an import as to signify Hul 
he wonld elevate his language to the langoage of the godi; 
bat he fancied and insisted that the very sound of UkeqpinuiMi 
is sweet,* of Tj/rtamw harsh and ind^ant. 


Your ear, Leontion, is the better arbitress of musical sounds, 
in which (I speak of words) hardly any two agree. But a 
box on the ear does not improve the organ ; and I would 
advise you to leave inviolate and untouched all those peculi- 
arities which rest on friendship. The jealous, if we suffered 
them in the least to move us, would deserve our commiseration 
rather than our resentment : but the best thing we can do 
with them is to make them the comedians of our privacy. 
Some have recently started up among us, who, when they have 
published to the world their systems of philosophv, or their 
axioms, or their paradoxes, and find nevertheless that others 
are preferred to them, persuade their friends and scholars that 
enormous and horrible injustice hath been done toward them. 
By degrees they cool however, and become more reasonable : 
they resign the honour of invention, which always may be 
contested or ascertained, and invest themselves with what 
they style much greater, that of learning. What constitutes 
this glory, on which they plume themselves so joyously and 
gaudily ? Nothing else than the reading of those volumes 
which we have taken the trouble to write. A multitude of 
authors, the greater part of them inferior in abilities to you 
who hear me, are the slow constructors of reputations wfiich 
they would persuade us are the solidest and the highest. We 
teach them all they know : and they are as proud as if they 
had taught us. There are not indeed many of these parasitical 
plants at present, sucking us, and resting their leafy slendemess 

roT4\fis ^tS^pwrrop' hfUL ftkv ^^iryttp tV ^^ ^por4pov MfAonn 
hfui M rhf rris tppdtrtms ivrov ^Aor iitunifuw^6fifwos, Slrabo ^" 


ujioii US : but wliem-vej books bwome more numerous, a new 
s])«4-H« wiU uiae fWim tlimi, to wliicli philosopliers uid 
lustoniius aud jtoeto must give w«y, for, iiilerccpliutf nil iiboTCi 
i: will appnxiinate much nearer to the muiitiers iind intellects 
r (be ]»ci>plf . At last wliat is most Attic iu Athena will be 
< iiivshmI and disctusod in their booth ; and he who now 
I inciwlh n Mund aud strung judgmont of his own, will 
indiArpnilv borrow theirs, wid bwome so Lomiptfd with it, 
w nrr aftrrward to he gratitii-d to his heart's cuiifeiit by the 
iBpulimt liconiani of their oracular decinioiis. Thi-se pt-ople 
are tlut natural encmiea of ^ater: they oui not »-ll their 
plallcn of offal while n richer feast is open to the piiblic, and 
while hunps of profimor light announce the invitation. I would 
Mt Mwur the decnr of philosophj and literature-, it waa 
telwdra by the ^ood eiumple of tiur »uc&ston. The Kven 
wise men, as they are called, hved amicably, and, where it wax 
puidble, in iutfrcoursc. Our seventy wiser (for we may reckon 
at least that number of those who proclaim theui.wlres sti) 
stand ni ibc distnuce of n porcupine's shot, and, like tliat 
•uimal, scatter their shafts lu every direction, witli more 
profusioii llian fon-e, and with more anger tliau aim. 

Uitiirr, til tliem: baiikit of serjiolet; to these strawbcrrie*, 
wha»c dyiDg Wves breathe a most refreshing fragrancu; to 
this ir;, from which Bacchuu may have erowiied himself; let 
OS rttirc at the voice of Discord, Whom should we contend 
with ? the It-sn ? it were inglorious : tlie greater ? it were 
vain. Do "c look for Truth ? she is not the inhabitant of 
otiea nor itelighls in clninoiir : she steals upon the calm aud 
■wdi t al i ve as l)iuiia u[>oit Kudyniion, iudulgeut in her chastity, 
g a modest, and r»juiiiug a faithful love. 

I^miua dghs afUx Truth I 

Troth appeared in daylight among mortids, slie would 

rvsembie Teraisaa, 'Hiose white uud ludd cheeks, that 

which appears more youthful (for unless we are near 

WB Uiiuk her yet a child), and that calm open forehead . . . 

lUidoiu ^1 1 ahe ooucenls it ! 



Ingenious girl ! the resemblance was^ until now, imperfect. 
We must remove the veil ourselves ; for Tru&, whatever the 
poets may tell us, never comes without one, diaphanous or 

If those who differ on speculative points, would walk 
together now and then in the country, they might find many 
objects that must unite them. The same bodily feeling is 
productive in some degree of the same mental one. Enjoyment 
nom sun and air, from exercise and odours, brings hearts 
together that schools and council-chambers and popular assem- 
blies have stood between for vears. 

I ho|)e Theophrastus may live, to walk with us among these 
bushes when they are shadier, and to perceive that all questions^ 
but those about the way to happiness, are illiberal or mechanical 
or infantine or idle. 


Are geometry and astronomy idle ? 


Such idleness as theirs a wise man may indulge in, when he 
has found what he was seeking : and, as they abstract the 
mind from what would prey upon it, there are many to whom 
I would recommend them earlier, as their principal and most 
serious studies. 

We V ill return to Theoplirastus. He has one great merit 
in style ; he is select and sparing in the use of metaphors : 
that man sees badly who sees everytliing double. He wants 
novelty and vigour in his remarks both on men and things : 
neither his subject nor his mind is elevated : here however let 
me obser^'e, my fair disciples, that he and some others, of 
whom we speak in common conversation with little deference 
or reserve, may perhaps attract the notice and attention of the 
remotest nations in the remotest times. Suppose him to have 
his defects («iU that you or anyone ever has supposed in him) 
yet how much greater is his intellect than the intellect of any 
among those who govern the world ! If these appeared in 
the streets of Athens, you would run to look at them, and 
ask your friends whether they had seen them pass. If you 
can not show us much reverence to Theophrastus, the defect is 
vours. He may not be what his friends have fancied him : 
but how great must he be to have obtained the partiality of 
such friends I how few are greater ! how many millions less ! 


E slender tree, with acarcdv any heart or pith in it, ought 
Wt U) have some pLi^ of boachs and brani-hi-s : he, poor 
L a inert. The leaves ju»t twiiiklc, anil nothing mon-. 

9 wtitn ootrectlf and observantly. Even bad writers are 
ti unjustly when thcv are bhuncd muclu In compariaoa 
Inuoy good and sensible men, tlicy have ctHnced do slight 
K of iDtelligenct; ; y«t we go ffvqueully to tiiosc good and 
bio men, tuid ■.'nga^ tlicrn to join ua in our coiiteiiipl urid 
ale, uf une who not only is wiser than they are, but who 
Bade ail effort to entertain or to instruct us, nbich they 

s is inconsiderate and uDgral«fuL 

ruly and humiini'ly have you !]>oken. Is it not remarkable 
we an; tilt' rotidt-st uf acknowledging; the least favorable 
Lhit Ifjist jilijuiunihle of our partialilies P Wlicthcr in 
d or love, men are disposed to bring thcJr conversation 
uu the object, yet sfirinlc at touching the foirer. In 
3 thdr sensibility is leas dcbcatc, and the inference cornea 
': in love they readily give an arm to a ooiiUdaut, almost 

e upper step of their trtnsury. 

tlow unvortliy of trust do you represent your fellow men 1 
1 be^n by censuring «m. Iu my Treatise I have only 
i your tenets against Theoplirastus. 

a certain yon have <lone it with spirit and eloquence, dc&r 
ion ; and there arc but two word^ in it I would wish you 

icfa are tbey ? 

Kptmstus and Kpicurus. If you love me, you ndl do 
^ that may make vou uneasy wlicn you grow oldtM* ; 
_^ thai may allow mv advcrsarj- to sny, " Lt^mtimi mioo 
I htr Kpic:uni»." My maiim is, m-vw to defend my 
r pamloxca : if you uudcrtaku it, the Athenians will 

£62 EPicuBUs^ LEOimaNy Atm -TMOcnwii. 

insist that I impelled jou ^ecreAj, or that mj philosophy and 
my friendship were inefEectual on jocl 

They shall never say that. 

I would ent^reat you to dismiss altogcitfaer things quite 
imworthy of your notioe, if your observstions could £bU on 
any Bubjeot without embellishing it. ¥oa do not want iheK 
thorns to light your fire with. 


Pardon the weak arm that would hare defended what wme 
can reach. 


I am not unmoved by the kindness of your intentions. 
Most people^ and philosophers too among the rest^ when their 
own conduct or opinions are questioned^ are admirably prompt 
and dexterous in the science of defence j but when another's 
are assailed^ they parry with as ill a grace and faltering a 
hand as if they never had taken a lesson in it at home. 
Seldom will they see what they profess to look for; and, 
finding it, they pick up with it a thorn under the nail. 
They canter over the solid turf, and complain that there is no 
corn upon it : they canter over the com, and curse the ridges 
and furrows. All schools of philosophy, and almost all 
authors, are rather to be frequented for exercise than for 
freight: but this exercise ought to acquire us health and 
strength, spirits and good-humour. There is none erf them 
that does not supply some truth useful to every man^ and 
some untruth equaUy so to the few that are able to wrestk 
with it. If there were no falsehood in the world, there would 
be no doubt; if there were no doubt, there would be no 
inquiry; if no inquiry, no wisdom, no knowledge, no genius; 
and Fancy herself would lie muffled up in her robe, inactive, 
pale, and bloated. I wish we could demonstrate the existence 
of utility in some other evils as easily as in this. 


My remarks on the conduct and on the style of Theo- 
phrastus are not confined to him solely, I have taken at last 
a general view of our literature, and traced as far as I am 
able its deviation and decline. In ancient works we some- 
times see the mark of the chisel ; in modem we might almost 


flDpposc tliat no clii^el was employed at all, and that eTerrthmg 
was (Join? by grinding uiid rubbing. There is an ordinariness, 
ui indi>linctii<-8s, u gi^ncralisation, not even to be found in a 
flock of ahcrjx As most reduce wliat is eand into duat, the 
few iluit avoid it ran to a coutmrj extreme, and would force 
utt lo b«ticve that what it origiim must be unpolished and 

niOB have been in all ages, and in alt there wilt be, sharp 

heads, made purposely and peculiarly for creeping 

tlie crevicea of oui nature. While we coutranplate the 

of the universe, and mcnsurate the fHnoss and 

itino of one part to aiiotli<-r, tlie anudl philosoplm 
upon hair or creeps witliiii a wrinkle, mid cries out 

Mj from Ilia clcvaliou that we are blind and aup«frficiaL 

Uc Jisrovcrs a wart, be pries into a pore, and he calls it 

luwiwU-dgit of man. Poetry and criticism, and all the fine 

«rU, have generated auch liviug things, which not only will be 

cOi^UEtcnt with them, but wiU (Ifcar) survive lliem. Hence 

hiidory takes ollcniatcly (he form of reproval and of jHiiK^ric ; 

_md science in its pulverised state, in its shapeless and 

ikricH atoms, assumes the name of ntctaphyaics. We find 

I longer the rich Hucculenre of Herodotus, no longer the 

[ filament of Thucjdidea, but thoughts fit only for the 

and lauguagti for the rustic and the TdliWr. 'Iliese 

gs cjui never reach posterity, nor sene UlUir nuUinrB 

s: for who wonld recinve na ducuiiiciits the perversions 

E Tcnalitj and party i* Aioxuiidcr we know was iuteinperat^ 

1 Philip both inli'mperate and pcrfidioiia : we require not 

lume of dissertatiim on the thread of liislori, to dcmoD> 

> that one or other left a tailor's bill uu[iiLid, and the 

Tnmondity of doing so ; nor a suppK-nient to osterToin on the 

bMt authorities which of tin- two it wsia. History should 

1 how iiiilion.i ruse and fell, what nurtured th«im 

I th, what sustained thcin in their umturilr ; not 

ran swiftest through the crowd tn)m tlif right 

d to the IdH, wliich assassin was too strong for manacles, ur 

h fdoD too opulent fur cnidfixiou. 

t n better, 1 own it, that such writer* shouUl amuse our 
a tluu excite oar spleen. 


What is spleen? 


Do not ask her ; she can not tell yon. The spleen^ Termm^ 
is to the heart what Aiimanes is to Qromazes, 

I am little the wiser jet. Does he ever use such haid 
words with yon ? 


He means the evil Genins and the good G«nins^ in the 
theogony of the Persians ; and would perhaps tell you, as he 
hath told me^ that the heart in itself is free from evil^ but 
very capable of receiving and too tenacious of holding it. 


In our moral system^ the spleen hangs about the heart and 
renders it sad and sorrowful^ unless we continually keep it in 
exercise by kind offices^ or in its proper place by serious inves- 
tigation and soUtaiy questionings. Otherwise it is apt to 
adhere and to accumulate^ until it deadens the principles of 
sound action^ and obscures the sight. 


It must make us very ugly when we grow old. 


In youth it makes us ugUer^ as not appertaiming to it : a 
Uttle more or less ugliness in decrepitude is hardly worth 
considering, there being quite enough of it from other 
quarters : I would stop it here however. 


what a thing is age ! 


Death \iithout death's quiet. But we will converse upon it 
when we know it better. 


My beloved ! we will converse upon it at the present hour, 
while the harshness of its features is indiscernible^ not only 
to you, but even to me, who am much nearer to it. Disa- 
greeable things, like disagreeable men, are never to be spoken 
of when they are present. Do we think, as we may do in 
such a morning as this, that the air awakens the leaves around 
us only to fiade and pmsh.^ Do we, what is certain. thinV 


that erery note of music we ever heard^ every voice that ever 
breathed into our bosoms, and phtyed upon its instrument the 
heart, only wafted us on a little nearer to the tomb P Let the 
idea not sadden but compose us. Let us yield to it, just as 
aeason yields to season, hour to hour, and with a bright 
ierenity, such as Evening is invested with by the departmg 

What ! are the dews falling, Temissa? Let them not yet, 
my bvely one ! 

You soothe me, but to a£Qict me after; you teach me, but 

to gneve. 

At what just now p 


You are many years in advance of us, and may leave us 

both behind, 


Let not the fault be yours. 


How can it P 


The heart, O Leontion, reflects a fuller and a fairer image 
of us than the eye can. 


True, true, true I 


Yes ; the heart recomposes the dust within the sepulcher, 
and evokes it ; the eye too, even when it has lost its bright- 
ness, loses not the power of reproducing the object it delighted 
in. It sees amid tne shades of night. Eke the gods. 


Sobs, too ! Ah, these can only be suppressed by force. 


By such. I She will sob all day before she is corrected. 

Loofle me. Leontion makes me blush. 




It was yoa then, fidse Epicurus ! Why are you not dis- 

26B mmnBxm, XBomxoK, amb 

creeter ? I wonder at yoiu If I coold find saj waj hone 
alone, I wonld go diiectlj. 


Take breath fir^. 

O how spiteful ! Gro awaj, tormenting gkl, jaa shall tnt 

kiss me. 

Why? did>k/ 

No indeed; as jon saw. What a question! Kiss me? 
for shame; he only held me in his arms a little. Do sot 
make him worse than he is. 


I wonder he ventured. These little barks are voy 
dangerous. Did you find it an easy matter to keep on your 
feet, £picurus ? 


We may venture, in such parties of pleasure, on ¥raves 
which the sun shines on ; we may venture on afiections which, 
if not quite tranquil, are genial to the souL Age alone 
interposes its chain of icy mountains, and the star above their 
summit soon drops behind. Heroes and demigods have 
acknowledged it. Becite to me, Temissa, in proof of this, 
the scene of Peleua and Thetis. 


You do not believe in goddesses ; and I do not believe in 

Whosoever fears neither, can repeat it. 


Draw, each of you, one of these blades of grass I am 
holding, and the drawer of the shortest shall repeat it. 


O Epicurus ! have you been quite fair ? 


Why doubt me ? 


Mine, I see, is the shortest. I drew out firom your closed 
hand the blade which stood above the other. 


Such grasses, like such men^ may deceive m^. 

"Must I begin ? Yoa both nod. Leontion, you are poet* 
idl: I can only fed poetry. I can not reaa it tolerably; 
vnd I am sure to forget it if I trust to memory. Beside^ there 
38 something in the melody of this in particular which I sadly 

I will relieye you from half your labour, by rquresentiog 
the character of Peleui. 

liCt me down* 


The part will never permit it. 

I continue mute then. Be quiet. I can not speak a 
syllable unless I am on my feet again. 


She win be mute a long while, like the Pythoness, and 
at last. 


Mischievous creature! as if you could possibly tell what is 
passing in my mind. But will not you, Epicurus, let me fall, 
since it must (I see) be repeated so P Shall I begin ? for 
I am anxious to have it over. 


Why don't you ? we are as anxious as you are. 


** O Pelcus ! O thou whom the Gods conferred on me for 
all my portion of happiness . . and it was (I thought) too 

gpreat . . 

BnouBUS (as pilxub). 

'' Goddess ! to me, to thy Peleus, O how far more than 
Goddess! why then this sudden silence? why these tears? 
The last we shed were when the Fates divided us, saying the 
Eacrth was not thine, and the brother of Zeus, he the ruler of 
the waters, had called thee. Those that fall between the 
beloved at parting, are bitter, and ought to be : woe to liim 
who wishes they were not I but those tliat flow again at the 


returning light of the blessed feet, should be lefireshing and 
divine as mom. 


'' Support me^ support me in thy arms^ once more, onoe 
only. Lower not thy shoulder from my cheeky to gaze at 
those features that (in times past) so pleased thee. The sky 
is serene ; the heavens frown not on us : do they then prepare 
for us fresh sorrow ? Prepare for us I ah me ! the word of 
Zeus is spoken : our Achilles is discovered : he is borne away 
in the black hollow ships of Aulis^ and would have flown 
faster than they sail, to TVoy. 

'^Surely there are those among the Gods, or among the 
Goddesses, who might have forewarned me ; and they did notl 
Were there no omens, no auguries, no dreams, to shake thee 
from thy security? no priest to prophesy? And what 
pastures are more beautiful than Larissa's ? what victims more 
stately? Could the soothsayers turn aside their eyes from 


" Approach with me and touch the altar, O my beloved 1 
Doth not thy finger now impress the soft embers of incense? 
how often hath it burned, for him, for thee ! And the lowings 
of the herds are audible for their leaders, from the sources of 
Apidanus and Enipeus to the sea-beach. They may yet 


" Alas ! alas ! Priests can foretell but not avert the 
ftiture ; and all they can give us are vain promises and abiding 


" Despond not, my long-lost Thetis ! Hath not a God led 
thee back to me ? why not hope then he will restore our son? 
Which of them all hath such a boy offended ? 

ternissa (as thetis). 
"Uncertainties . . worse than uncertainties . . overthrow 
and overwhelm me. 


" There is a comfort in the midst of every uncertainty, 
saving those which perplex the gods and confound the godlike, 
Lovers. Be comforted ! not by my kisses, but by my words, 
Achilles may live til our old age. Owtb! Had I forgotten thy 


dnonity ? forgotten it in thy beauty ? Other mortals think 
their tKeloved partake of it then mostly when they are gazing 
on their charms ; but thy tenderness is more than godlike ; 
and never have I known, never have I wished to know, whether 
anght in our inferior nature may resemble it. 


" A mortal so immutable ! the Powers above are less. 


*' Tune without grief would not liave greatly changed me. 


** Tliere is a loveliness which youth may be without, and 
which the gods want. To the voice of compassion not a shell 
in aU the ocean is attuned ; and no tear ever dropped upon 
Olympus. Thou lookest as fondly as ever, and more pensively. 
Have time and grief done this ? and they alone ? my Peleus ! 
Tell me again, have no freshly fond anxieties P . • • 

EPICURUS (as peleus). 

" Smile thus ! O smile anew and forget thy sorrows. 
AgRS shall fly over my tomb, while thou art flourishing in 
imperishable youth, the desire of gods, the light of the depths 
of Ocean, the inspirer and sustainer of ever-flowing song. 


" I receive thy words, I deposit them in my bosom, and 
bless them. Goas may desire me : I have loved Peleus. Our 
onion had many obstacles ; the envy of mortals, the jealousy 
of immortals, hostility and persecution from around, from 
below, and from above. When we were happy they parted us : 
and again they unite us in eternal grief. 

EPICURUS (as peleus). 

'* The wish of a Divinity is powerfuller.than the elements, 
and swifter than the light. Hence thou (what to me is 
impossible) mayest see the sweet Achilles every day, every 


" How few ! alas how few ! I see him in the dust, in 
agony> in death : I see his blood on the flints, liis yellow hair 
flappmg in its current, his hand unable to remove it from his 
eyes. I hear his voice ; and it calls not u\H)n me ! Af others 
are soon forgotten ! It is weakness to love the weak ! I could 


not save him ! He would have left the cawfnm of Oomi, mi 
the groves and meadows of ElTstmn, thoudi reaoundiiig witk 
the songs of love and heroism, for a field ol faafctta. 

xFicuBOB (mm nDm). 
" He may yet live many years. Troy hath been taken tmoe 


'' He must perish; and at Troy; and now. 


''The now of the gods is more than life's duration : othcf 
gods and other worlds ixre formed within it. If indeed he 
must perish at Troy, his ashes will lie softly on hers. Thus 
fall our beauteous son ! thus rest Achilles I 


'' Twice nine years have scarcely yet passed over his head, 
since ' O the youth of jEmathia ! O toe swift, the goldoip 
haired Peleus I ' were the only words sounded in the halls of 
Tethys. How many shells were broken for their hoarseness I 
how many reproofs were heard by the Tritons for interrupting 
the slumbers ... of those who never slept 1 But they feigned 
sound sleep : and joy and kiudness left the hearts of sisters. 
We loved too well for others to love us. 

" Why do I remember the day ? why do I remind thee of 
it ? ... my Achilles dies ! it was the day that gave me my 
Achilles ! Dearer he was to me than the light of heaven, before 
he ever saw it : and how much dearer now ! when, bursting 
forth on earth like its first dayspring, all the loveliness of 
Nature stands back, and grows pale .and &int before his. He 
is what thou wert when I first beheld thee. How can I bear 
again so great a deprivation P 


" O, thou art fallen ! thou art fallen through my embrace, 
when I thought on him more than on thee. Look up again; 
look, and foi^ve me. No : thy forgiveness I deserve not . . . 
but did I deserve thy love ? Thy solitude, thy abasement, thy 
parental tears, and thy fall to the earth, are from me ! Why 
doth aught of youth linger with me ? why not come age and 
death ? The monster of Calydon made (as thou knowest) his 
first and most violent rush against this arm ; no longer fit for 
war, no longer a defence to the people. And is the day too 
come when it no longer can sustain my Thetis ? 


" Pmlcnil it not to the skies ! invoke notj name not, any 
DntT t I fear them nli, Naj, lift me not thus above thy 
hnuf, O PvIcukI KfiroacUiDg the gods with such an uwful 
'-■k ; triUi a look of bcanty which they will not pity, with a 
' uk of defiance which they may not brook, 

■ncuixn |4S rtLxct). 
" D(>tb not inj iund enclasp that slender foot, at which the 
wavci of Or«iin erase to be tumultuous, and the children of 
.t>»lu» to iliftturb llieir peace? O, if in the celestial cuoliieea 
nf ihy chiwk, now rentiog on my head, there be not the breath 
and gift of immortality; O, if Zeus hath any tliundcr-bolt in 
RMTVG for mc J let this, my belovtd Thetis, bo the hour I " 

Ton h>vo repented it admirably ; and you well deserve to be 
' as jnu are, im llut only tiiuik of violets in tliis solitary 
iDdwd ynu mnut wont repoae. Why <lu you continue 
io look sad ? It ia all over. Ail my silly comfort ! That nay 
be Uiemsoii. 

rerv angry with him for the way (if you saw it) 
iiaac me »ljp down : and I ehnuld liavc been so 

I ahail be v< 

ii wlijcli he m , 

Mtbc time, if it would uot have hurt the reprcscatatiuo. 

Tn^ iiuleed, you may expect it, sir [ 

11 ahnys say, " at a: 

Tdk reaxiDably ; and return to your discourse on age I 
wiih jfDD lud a lillie more of its pnidcnce and propriety. 


O I dwae m qnito cnougli. 

TTiCTC »c agree. And now for obedience to ^onr wishes. 
Prleoa, you oliMtne, makes no complaint that age is advancing 
on him : ileath itself is not unwelcome : for he had been 
happier than he could ncr hope to be again. They who have 
' ' p. mnetched wiah for ouath : tlicy who have long been 

272 EPicxmtJS^ LEoirnoN^ and TEBincssA. 

fortunate, may with equal reason: but it is wiser in ead 
condition to await it thsui to desire it. 


I love to hear stories of heroic men, in whose bosoms there 
is left a place for tenderness. 

Leontion said that even bad writers may amuse our idle 
hours : alas ! even good ones do not much amuse mine, unless 
they record an action of love or generosity. As for the 
graver, why can not they come among us and teach us, just as 
you do? 


Would you wish it ? 


No, no ; I do not want them : only I was imagining how 
pleasant it is to converse as we are doing, and how sonj I 
should be to pore over a book instead of it. Books always 
make me sigh, and think about other things. Wliy do yon 
laugh, Leontion? 


She was mistaken in saying bad authors may amuse our 
idleness. Leontion knows not then how sweet and sacred 
idleness is. 


To render it sweet and sacred, the heart must have a Kttle 
garden of its own, with its umbrage and fountains and peren- 
nial flowers ; a careless company ! Sleep is called sacred as well 
as sweet by Homer : and idleness is but a step from it. The 
idleness of the wise and \irtuous should be both, it being the 
repose and refreshment necessary for past exertions ana for 
future: it punishes the bad man, it rewards the good: the 
Deities enjoy it, and Epicurus praises it. I was indeed wrong 
in my remark : for we should never seek amusement in the 
foibles of another, never in coarse language, never in low 
thoughts. When the mind loses its feeling for elegance, it 
grows corrupt and groveling, and seeks in the crowd what 
ought to be found at home. 


Aspasia believed so, and bequeathed to Leontion, with eveiy 
other gift that Nature had bestowed upon her, the power of 
delivering her oracles from di\iner lips. 



Fie ! Epicnrus ! It is well you hide my face for me with 
TOOT hand. Now take it away : we can not walk in this 


No word conld ever fall from you without its weight ; no 
breath from you ought to lose itself in the common air. 


For shame ! WTiat wonld you have ? 


He knows not what he would liave nor what he would say. 
I must sit down again. I declare I scarcely understand a 
ftinglc syllable. Well, he is very good, to teaze you no longer. 
Epicurus has an excellent heart ; he would give pain to no one ; 
least of all to you. 


I have pained him by this fooUsh book, and he would only 
assure me that he does not for a moment bear me malice. Take 
the volume : take it, Epicurus ! tear it in pieces. 


No, Loontion ! I shall often look with pleasure on this 
trophy of brave humanity : let me kiss the hand that raises it ! 


I am tired of sitting : I am quite stiff : when shall we walk 
homeward ? 


Take my arm, Temissa ! 


O ! I had forgotten that I proposed to myself a trip as far 
op as the pinasters, to look at tne precipice of Orithyeia. Come 
along! come along! how alert does the sea-air make us ! I 
aeem to feel growing at my feet and shoulders the wings of 
Zethes or Calais. 


Leontion walks the nimblest to day. 


To display her activity and strength, she runs before us. 
Sweet Leontion, how good she is ! but she should have stayed 
for us : it would be in vain to try to overtake her. 

Noj Epicurus ! Mind ! take care ! you are crushing these 

274 EPicuBus^ LEoyram, and tbbsossa. 

little oleanders . . and now the strawberry plants . . tbe 
whole heap . . Not I^ indeed. What woolct my mother 
saj^ if she Knew it ? And Leontion ? she will certainly look 


The fairest of the Eudaimones never look back : such ire 
the Hours and Love^ Opportunity and Leontion. 


How could you dare to treat me in this manner ? I did not 
say again I hated anything. 


Forgive me ! 


Violent creature ! 


If tenderness is violence. Forgive me; and say jou 
love me. 


All at once ? could you endure such boldness ? 


Pronounce it ! whisper it ! 


Go, go. Would it be proper ? 


Is that sweet voice asking its heart or me ? let the worthier 
give the answer. 


O Epicurus ! you are very, very dear to me . . and arc 
the last in the world that would ever tell you were called so. 

BHADAHiarrus and zenobia. 275 



Mv beloved ! my beloved ! I can endiire the motion of the 
horse no longer ; his weariness nutkes his pace so tiresome to 
mc. Surelj we have ridden far^ very far from home ; and how 
shall we ever pass the wide and rocky stream^ among the 
whirlpools of the rapid and the deep Araxes ? From the first 
sight of it, O my husband I you have been silent : you have 
looked at me at one time intensely, at another wiloly : have 
you mistaken the road ? or the ford ? or the ferry ? 


Tired, tired ! did I say ? ay, thou must be. Here thou 
shalt rest : tliis before us is the place for it. Alight ; drop 
into my arms ; art thou within them ? 


Always in fear for me, my tender thoughtful Bhadamistus ! 


Bhadamistus then once more embraces his Zenobia ! 


And presses her to his bosom as with the first embrace. 


Wliat is the first to the last ! 


Nay, this is not the last. 


Not quite, (0 agony !) not quite; once more. 


So : with a kiss : which you forget to take. 

BHADAMZBTU8 {otide). 

And shall this shake my purpose ? it may my limbs, my 
heart, my brain ; but what my soul so deeply determined, it 
shall strengthen : as winds do trees in forests. 

T 2 



Come^ come ! cheer up. How good yoa are to be persuaded 
by me : back again at one word ! Hark ! where are those 
drums and bugles ? on which side are these echoes ? 


Alight^ dear^ dear Zenobia ! And does Bhadamistos then 
press thee to his bosom ? Can it be ? 


Can it cease to be? jou would have said, my fihadamistus! 
Hark! again those trumpets? on which bank of the water 
are they ? Now they seem to come from the mountains, and 
now along the river. Men's voices too! threats and yelk! 
You, my Bhadamistus, could escape. 


Wherefor ? with whom ? and whither in all Asia ? 


Fly ! there are armed men climbing up the cliffs. 


It was only the sound of the waves in the hollows of them, 
and the masses of pebbles that rolled down from under you as 
you knelt to listen. 


Turn round ; look behind ! is it dust yonder, or smoke ? 
and is it the sun, or what is it, shining so crimson? not 
shining any longer now, but deep and dull purple, embodying 
into gloom. 


It is the sun, about to set at mid-day; we shall soon see no 
more of him. 


Indeed ! what an ill omen ! but how can you tell that? 
Do you think it ? I do not. Alas ! alas ! the dust and the 
sounds are nearer. 


Prepare then, my Zenobia ! 


I was always prepared for it. 



^Vhat reason^ O unconfiding girl! from the day of our 
nnioi^ have I ever given you^ to accuse^ or to suspect me? 


None, none : your love, even in these sad moments, raises 
me above the reach of fortune. How can it pain me so ? Do 
I repine ? Worse may it pain me ; but let that love never 
pass away I 


Was it then the loss of power and kingdom for which 
Zenobia was prepared ? 


The kingdom was lost when Bhadamistus lost the alTectiou 
of his subiects. Why did they not love you ? how could they 
not ? Tell me so strange a thing.* 


Fables, fables! about the death of Mithridates and his 
children : declamations, outcries : as if it were as easy to 
bring men to life again as . . I know not what . . to call 
after them. 


But about the children P 


In all governments there are secrets. 


Between us? 


No longer : time presses : not a moment is left us, not a 
refuge, not a hope ! 


Then why draw the sword ? 


Wanted I courage ? did I not fight as becomes a king ? 


True, most true. 


Is my resolution lost to me ? did I but dream I had it ? 

* From the Mcluuon of the Asiatic women, Zenobia may be suppoeed 
to bftTe been ignofant of the crimea Rhadamiatua had committed. 



Nobody is very near yet ; nor can they cross the dell where 
we did. Those are fled who could have shown the pathwar. 
Think not of defending me. Listen ! look I what thousands 
are coming. The protecting blade above my head can onlj 
provoke the enemy. And do you stil keep it there ? You 
CTasp my arm too hard. Can you look unkindly ? Can it 
be ? O tliink again and spare me, Rhadamistus ! From the 
vengeance of man, from the judgments of heaven, the unborn 
may preserve my husband. 


TVe must die! Thev advance: thev see us: thev rash 
forward ! 


Me, me would you strike ? Rather let me leap from the 


Hold ! Whither would tliy desperation ? Art thou again 
witliin my grasp ? 


O my beloved ! never let me call you cruel ! let me love 
you in the last hour of seeing you as in the first. I must, 1 
must . . and be it my thought in death that you love me so ! 
I would have cast away my life to save you from remorse: it 
may do that and more, preserved by you. Listen ! listen ! 
among tliose who pursue us there are many fathers ; childless 
by his own hand, none. Do not kill our baby . . the best of 
our hopes when we had many . . the baby not yet ours! 
Who shall then plead for you, my unhappy husband ? 


My honour ; and before me, sole arbiter and sole audience 
of our cause. Bethink thee, Zenobia, of tlie indignities . . not 
bearing on my fortunes . . but imminent over thy beauty ! 
What said I ? did I bid thee think of them ? Rather die than 
imagine, or tlian question me, what they are ! Let me endure 
two deaths before my own, cruder than wounds or than age 
or than servitude could inflict on me, rather than make me 
name them. 


Strike ! Lose not a moment so precious ! Why hesitate 
now, my generous brave defender ? 



Zenobia ! dost thou bid it P 


Courage is no longer a crime in jou. Hear the shouts^ 
the threats, the imprecations ! Hear them^ my beloved I let 
me no more ! 


Embrace me not^ Zenobia ! loose me^ loose me ! 


I can not : thmst me away ! Divorce . . but with death . . 
the disobedient wife, no longer your Zenobia. {He strikes,) 
Oh ! oh ! one innocent head . . in how few days . . should 
have reposed . . no, not upon this blood. Swim across ! is 
there a descent . . an easy one, a safe one, anywhere ? I might 
have found it for you ! iU-spcnt time ! heedless woman ! 


An arrow hath pierced me : more are showering round us. 
Go, my life's flower ! the blighted branch drops after. Away ! 
forth into the stream! strength is yet left me for it. (lie 
tkwws her into Ike river.) She sinks not ! O last calamity ! 
She sinks ! she sinks I Now both are well, and fearless ! One 
look more ! grant one more look ! On what ? where was it ? 
which whirl ? which ripple ? thev are gone too. How calm is 
the haven of the most troubled life ! I enter it ! Bebels ! 
tnitors ! slaves ! subjects ! why gape ye ? why halt ye ? On, 
on, dastards ! Oh tliat ye dared to follow ! {lie plunges 
armed into tke Araxes.) 




I am delighted^ my cousin Lucian, to observe how popular 
are become your Dialogues of the Ikad. Nothing can be so 
gratifying and satisfactory to a rightly disposed mind^ as the 
subversion of imposture by the force of ridicule. It hath 
scattered the crowd of heathen gods as if a thunderbolt had 
fallen in the midst of them. Now, I am confident you never 
would have assailed the false religion, unless you wsre prepared 
for the reception of the true. For it hath always be^ an 
indication of rashness and precipitancy, to throw down an 
edifice before you have collected n[mterials for reconstruction. 


Of all metaphors and remarks, I believe this of yours, my 
good cousin Timotheus, is the most trite, and pardon me if I 
add, the most untrue. Surely we ought to remove an error 
the instant we detect it, although it may be out of our com- 
petence to state and establish what is right. A lie should be 
exposed as soon as bom : we are not to wait until a healthier 
child is begotten. \Vhatever is evil in any way should be 
abolished. The husbandman never hesitates to eradicate weeds, 
or to bum them up, because he may not happen at the time 
to carry a sack on his shoulder with wheat or barley in it. 
Even if no wheat or barley is to be sown in future, the 
weeding and burning are in themselves beneficial, and some- 
thing better will spring up. 


That is not so certain. 


Doubt it as you may, at least you will allow that the tem- 
porary absence of evil is an advantage. 


I think, O Lucian, you would reason much better if you 
would come over to our belief. 



I was unaware that belief is an encourager and guide to 


Depend upon it^ there can be no stability of truths no 
devation of genius^ without an unwavering faith in our holy 
mysteries. Babes and sucklings who are olest with it, stand 
higher^ intellectually as well as morally^ than stiiT unbelievers 
and proud sceptics. 


I do not wonder that so many are firm holders of this 
novel doctrine. It is pleasant to grow wise and virtuous at 
so small an expenditure of thought or time. This saying of 
vours is exactly wliat I heard spoken with angry gravity not 
long ago. 


Angry ! no wonder ! for it is impossible to keep our patience 
when truths so incontrovertible are assailed. What was your 


My answer was. If you talk in this manner, my honest 
friend, you will excite a spirit of ridicule in the gravest and 
most saturnine men, who never Iiad let a lau^h out of their 
breasts before. Lie to me, and welcome ; but beware lest your 
own heart take you to task for it, reminding you that both 
anger and falsdiood are reprehended by all religions, yoiu^ 


Lucian ! Lucian ! you have always been called profane. 


For what ? for having turned into ridicule the gods wliom 
you have turned out of house and home, and are reducing 
to dust? 


Well ; but you are equally ready to turn into ridicule the 
true and holy. 


In other words, to turn myself into a fool. He who brings 
ridicule to bear against Truth, finds in his hand a blade 
without a hilt. The most sparlding and pointed fiamc of wit 
flickers and expires against the incombustible walls of her 



Fine talking ! Do you know^ yoa have leallj been calleJ 
an atheist ? 


Yes, yes ; I knofw it well. But, in fact, I believi 
there are almost as few atheists in the world as there are 


How ! as few ? Most of Europe, most of Asia, most of 
Africa, is Christian. 

Show me five men hi each who obey the commands of 
Christ, and I will show you five hundred in this very city who 
observe the dictates of Pythagoras. Every Pythagorean obeys 
his defunct pliilosopher ; and almost every Christian disobeys 
his living God. \\Tiere is there one who practises the most 
important and the easiest of his commands, to abstain from 
strife? Men easily and perpetually find something new to quarrel 
about; but the objects of affection are limited in number, 
and grow up scantily and slowly. Even a small house is 
often too spacious for them, and there is a vacant scat at the 
table. Religious men themselves, when the Deity has bestowed 
on them everytliing they prayed for, discover, as a i)eculiar 
gift of Providence, some fault in the actions or opinions of a 
neighbour, and run it down, cr}*ing and shouting after it, with 
more alacrity and more clamour than boys would a leveret or 
a squirrel in the play-ground. Are our years and our 
intellects, and the word of God itself, given us for this, 
Tiniothcus ? 


A certain latitude, a liberal construction. . . 


Av, av ! These " liberal constructions " let loose all the 
worst passions into those "certain latitudes.'* The priests 
themselves, who ought to be the poorest, are the richest ; who 
ought to be the most obedient, are the most refractory and 
rebellious. All trouble and all piety are vicarious. They 
send missionaries, at the cost of others, into foren lands, to 
teach observances which they supersede at home. I have 
ridiculiMl the puppets of all features, all colours, all sizes, by 
which an impudent and audacious set of impostors have 
been gaining an easy livelihood these two thousand years. 



Gently ! gently ! Ours liave not been at it yet two 

hundred. We abolish all idolatry. We know that Jupiter 

was not the father of gods and men : we know that Mars was 

not the Lord of Ilasts : we know who is : we are quite at 

upon tliat question. 


Are you so fanatical^ my good Timotheus^ as to imagine 
that the Creator of the world cares a fig by what appellation 
you adore him ? whether you call him on one occasion Jupiter, 
on another Apollo ? I will not add Mars or Lord of Hosts ; 
for, wanting as I may be in piety, I am not, and never was, so 
impious as to call the Maker the Destroyer ; to call him Lord 
of Hosts who, according to your holiest of books, declared so 
lately and so plainly that he permits no hosts at aU ; much 
less will he take the command of one against another. Would 
any man in his senses go down into the cellar, and seize first 
an amphora from the right, and then an amphora from the 
left, for the pleasure of breaking them in pieces, and of letting 
out the wine he had taken the trouble to put in ? We are 
not contented with attributing to the gods our own infirmities ; 
we make them e\'en more wayward, even more passionate, even 
more exigi'nt and more malignant : and then some of us tr}' 
to coax and cajole them, and others run away from them 


No wonder : but only in regard to yours : and even those 
are types. 

Tlierc are honest men who occupy their lives in discovering 
tjpes for all things. 


Truly and rationally thou speakest now. Honest men and 
wise men above their fellows are they, and the greatest of all 
discoverers. Tliere are many types above thy reach, 
Lucian ! 


And one which my mind, and perhaps yours also, can com- 
prehend. There is in Italy, I hear, on the border of a quiet 
and beautiful lake,* a temple dedicated to Diana ; the priests 

* Th« lake of NemL 


of which temple have murdered each his predeoesscs for 
imrecorded ages. 


What of that ? They were idokters. 


They made the type, however : take it home with too, and 
hang it up in your temple. 


Why ! you seem to have forgotten on a sudden that I am a 
Christian : you are talking of the heathens. 


True! true! I am near upon eighty years of age, and 
to my poor eyesight one thing looks very lie another. 


You are too indifferent. 


No indeed. I love those best who quarrel least, and 
who bring into public use the most civility and good- 


Our holy religion inculcates this duty especially. 


Such being the case, a pleasant story will not be thrown 
away upon you. Xenophanes, my townsman of Samosata, was 
resolved to ouy a new horse : he had tried him, and liked him 
well enough. I asked him why he wished to dispose of his 
old one, knowing how sure-footed he was, how easy in his 
paces, and how quiet in his pasture. " Very true, O Lucian," 
said he ; " the horse is a clever horse ; noble eye, beautiM 
figure, stately step; rather too fond of neighing and of 
shuffling a little in the vicinity of a mare ; but tractable and 
good-tempered." ''I would not have parted with him then," 
said I. " The fact is," replied he, " my grandfather, whom 1 
am about to visit, likes no horses but what are Satumized. 
To-morrow I begin my journey : come and see me set out." 
I went at the hour appointed. The new purchase looked quiet 
and demure ; but he also pricked up liis ears, and gave sundij 
other tokens of cquinity, when the more interesting .part in 
his fellow-creatures came near liim. As the morning osts 
began to operate, he grew more and more unruly, miwmgg&k 


at one friend of Xcnophane?^ and sidled a^nst anotlier^ and 
gave a kick at a third. " All in play ! all in play ! " said 
Xenophanes ; " his nature is more of a lamb's tlian a horse's." 
However, these mute salutations being over, away went 
Xenophanes. In the evening, when my lamp had just been 
replenished for the commencement of my studies, my friend 
came in striding as if he stil were across the saddle. '^ I am 
apprehensive, O Xenophanes," said I, " your new acquisition 
has disappointed you." " Not in the least," answered he. 
*' I do assure you, O Lucian, he is the very horse I was 
looking out for." On my requesting him to be seated, he no 
more thought of doing so than if it had been in the presence 
of the Persian king. I then handed my lamp to him, telling 
him (as was true) it contained all the oil I had in the house, 
and protesting I should be happier to finish my Dialogue in 
the morning. He took the lamp into my bed-room, and 
appeared to be much refreshed on his return. Nevertheless, 
h^ treated his cliair with great delicacy and circumspection, 
and evidentl? was afraid of breaking it by too sudden a 
descent. I did not revert to the horse : but he went on of 
his own accord. " I declare to you, O Lucian, it is impossible 
for me to be mistaken in a palfrey. My new one is the only 
one in Samosata that could carry me at one stretch to my 
grandfather's.'' "But has he?'' said I, timidly. "No; 
he has not yet," answered my friend. "To-morrow then, I 
am afraid, we really must lose you." " No," said he ; " the 
horse does trot luird : but he is the better for that : I shall 
soon get used to him." In fine, my worthy friend deferred 
his visit to his grandfather : his rides were neither loug nor 
frequent : he was ashamed to part with liis purchase, boasted 
of him evenwhere, and, humane as he is by nature, could 
almost have broken on the cross the quiet contented owner of 
old Bucephalus. 


Am I to understand by this, O cousin Lucian, that I ought 
to be contented with the impurities of paganism ? 


Unless you are very unreasonable. A moderate man finds 


We ahnmhutft the Deities who patronise them, and we hurl 
1 ^monsters. 



Sweet cousin ! be tenderer to my feelings. In sorii i 
tempest as this, my spark of piety may be blown out. HqU 
your hand cautiously before it, until I can find my mj. 
Believe me, no Deities (out of their own houses) patraiiK 
immorality ; none patronise unruly passions, least of all tk 
fierce and ferocious. In my opinion, yon are wrong in throw* 
ing down the images of those among them who look on yn 
benignly: the others I give up to vour discretion. But I 
think it impossible to stand habitually in the presence of a 
sweet and o})en countenance, graven or depicted, without in 
some degree partaking of the character it expresses, Never 
tell any man that he can derive no good, in his devotions, 
from tins or from that : abolish neither hope nor gratitude. 


God is offended at vain efforts to represent him. 


No such thing, my dear Timotheus. If you knew him at 
all, you would not talk of him so irreverently. He is pleased, 
I am conrinced, at every eflbrt to resemble him, at every wish 
to remind both ourselves and others of his benefits. Yon 
can not think so often of him without an effigy. 


What likeness is there in the perisliable to the unperishable ? 


I see no reason why there may not be a similitude. All 
that tlie senses can comprehend may be represented by any 
material ; clay or fig-tree, bronze or ivory, porphyry or gold. 
Indeed I have a faint remembrance that, according to your 
sacred volumes, man was made by Grod after his own image. 
If so, man^s intellectual powers are worthily exercised in 
attempting to collect all that is beautiful, serene, and dignified, 
and to bring him back to earth again by showing him the 
noblest of his gifts, the work most like his own. Surdy he 
can not hate or abandon those who thus cherish his memory, 
and thus implore his regard. Perishable and imperfect is 
every tiling human : but in these very qualities I find the best 
reason for striving to attain what is least so. Would not an? 
father be gratified by seeing his cliild attempt to delinette his 
features ? And would not the gratification be utimt h 


than diminished by Iiis incapacity? How long shall the 
narrow mind of man stand between goodness and omiii- 
potence? Perhaps the efiBgy of your ancestor Isknos is 
unlike him : whether it is or no, you can not tell : but you 
keep it in your hall, and would be angry if anybody broke it 
to pieces or defaced it. Be quite sure there are many who 
think as mucli of their gods as you think of your ancestor 
Isknos, and who see in their images as good a likeness. Let 
men have their own way, especially their way to the temples. 
It 18 easier to drive them out of one road than into another. 
Our judicious and good-humoured Trajan has found it neces- 
sary on many occasions to chastise the law-breakers of your sect, 
indifferent as he is wliat gods are worshipt, so long as their 
followers are orderly and decorous. The fiercest of the 
Dacians never knocked off Jupiter's beard, or broke an arm 
off Venus : and the emperor will hardly tolerate in those who 
liavc received a liberal education what he would punisli in 
barbarians. Do not wear out his patience : try rather to 
imitate his equity, his equanimity, ana forbearance. 


I have been listening to you with much attention, O Lucian, 
for I seldom have heard you speak with such gravity. And 
yet, O cousin Lucian ! I really do find in you a sad deficiency 
of tliat wisdom which alone is of any value. You talk of 
Trajan I wliat is Trajan ? 


A beneficent citizen, an impartial judge, a sagacious ruler ; 
the comrade of every brave soldier, the friend and associate of 
every man eminent in genius, throughout his empire, the 
empire of the world. AU arts, all sciences, all philosophies, 
all reUgions, are protected by him. Wherefor his name will 
flourish, when the proudest of these have perished in the land 
of Egypt Philosophies and religions will strive, stniggle, 
and suffocate one another. Priesthoods, I know not how 
many, are quarreling and scufiling in the street at this 
instant, all calling on Trajan to come and knock an antagonist 
on the head ; and the most peaceful of them, as it wishes to 
be ihoaght, proclaiming him an infidel for turning a deaf ear 
to its imprecations. Mankind was never so happy as imder 
Ida gnidanoe: and he has nothing now to do 6ut to put 
iha battles of the gods. If they must fight it out, he 
m our neutrality. 



He has no authority and no influence over us in matten of 
faith. A wise and upright man^ whose serious thoughts lad 
him forward to reUgion^ will never be turned aside from it br 
any worldly consideration or any human force. 


True : but mankind is composed not entirely of the uprigiit 
and the wise. I suspect that we may find some, here and 
there, who are rather too fond of novelties in the furniture of 
temples : and I have observed that new sects are apt to waip, 
crack, and spht, under the heat they generate. Our homeiT 
old religion has run into fewer quarrels, ever since the Centann 
and Lapiths (wliose controversy was on a subject quite com- 
prehensible), than yours has engendered in twenty years. 


TVe shall obviate that inconvenience by electing a supreme 
Pontif to decide all diflTerences. It has been seriously thought 
about long ago; and latterly we have been making out "an 
ideal series down to the present Bay, in order that our 
successors in the ministry may have stepping-stones up to the 
fountain-head. At first the disseminators of our doctrines 
were equal in their commission : we do not approve of this 
any longer, for reasons of our own. 


You may shut, one after another, all our other temples, 
but, I plainly see, you will never shut the temple of Janus. 
The Roman empire will never lose its pugnacious character 
while your sect exists. The only danger is, lest the fever rage 
internally and consume the vitals. If you sincerely wish your 
religion to be long-Uved, maintain in it the spirit of its consti- 
tution, and keep it patient, humble, abstemious, domestic, and 
zealous only in the ser\'ices of humanity. \\Tienever the 
higher of your priesthood shall attain the riches they are 
aiming at, the people will envj their possessions and revolt 
from their impostures. Do not let them seize upon the 
palace, and shove their God again into the manger. 


Lucian ! Lucian ! I call this impiety. 


So do I, and shudder at its consequences. Caverns which 


: firet Iiwk iuvitiiig, the roof at tlie iiperture green with 
R-haniptig ferns and clinging mosses, tlit-ti clitUTing with 
tivi! (^Jiia anil witli wat4.'r as Aparkling and pellucid, ftrshen- 
J the air all around ; ihcso caverns grow darker and closer, 
gtil ^m find jountclf among animal? that shan tbc dailight, 
""^nug to Oie walls, hissing along tliu bottom, tiapping, 
^Khing, gaping, glaring, making }'»ii shrink nt ihr sounds, 
1. ai^cii at tho smeUd, and afraid (o advance or rctrmt. 

Fib what can this refer P Our caverns open on verdure, and 
■eins of gold. 


ETdns of gold, my good Timotheus, such as your excara- 
■s have opened and are opening, in the spirit of avarice 
i ambition, will be washed (or as you would ait\ purified) in 
ma of blood. Arrogance, intolerance, re^^istance to 
intjr, and conli-mpt of law, distinguish your aspiring 
■ from the oilier subjects of the empire. 

I hath often a calm and composed countenance : 
^ my cousin Lucian t it usually hath also the advantage of 
tatiooa nnil n niciisured step. It halh pleaseil God to blind 
I, like all the other iidver*iirJi'» of our f/iith ; but he has 
a Toil no iitaff to lean upon. You object aguiu!>l iis the 
s 6x)in which we are peculiarly exempt. 

r Ttwa a IB all a story, a fable, a fabncation, about one of 
iriicr leaders cutting olf with his sword a servant's cor? 
t tbe wcUKitioM is true, the olTcnce is heavy. For not only 
■ ttie vonnded man innocent of any provocation, but he is 
nied as being in the service of the High Priest at 
cm. Moreover, from the direction and videncc of the 
', it is evident tliat his life was aimed at. According to 
l^w, yon know, my dear cousin, nil the party might have bocn 
ndenmnl to dealh, a* aecessorii^ to im attempt at murder. 
I im unwilling to tliiuk so unfavonnihly of your sect ; nor 
i.ile«! do 1 see the possibilitv that, iu such an outrage, the 
principal could lie parduoed. Vor any man but a soldier to 
ffo about armed is against the Itoman law, whieh, on that 
J"— ^, ■■ 00 many others, is borrowed from Uia AlUenian i and 


it is incredible that in any civilised coontiy so baibmNB i 
practice can be tolerated. Travelers do indeed relate that, ii 
certain parts of India there are princes at whose courts eva 
civilians are armed. But traveler hath occasionally the aw 
signification as liar, and India as faUe. However, if Ae 
practice really does exist in that remote and rarely viaitcii 
country^ it must be in some region of it very far beyond tk 
Indus or the Ganges : for the nations situated between thooe 
rivers are^ and were in the reign of Alexander, and some 
thousand years before his birth^ as civilised as the Europeans: 
nay^ incomparably more courteous^ more industrious, and moie 
pacific ; the three grand criterions. 

But answer my question: is there any foundation for so 
mischievous a report ? 


There was indeed, so to say, an ear, or something of the 
kind, abscinded; probably by mistake. But High Priests' 
servants are prepense to follow the swaggering gait of their 
masters^ and to carry things with a high hand, in such wise as 
to excite the choler of the most quiet. If you knew the 
character of the eminently holy man who punished the atro- 
cious insolence of that bloody-minded wretch, you would be 
sparing of your animadversions. We take him for our modd. 


I see you do. 


We proclaim him Prince of the Apostles. 


I am the last in the world to question his princely qualifica- 
tions : but, if I might advise you, it should be to follow in 
preference him whom you acknowledge to be an unerring 
guide ; who delivered to you his ordinances with his own hand, 
equitable, plain, explicit, compendious, and complete; who 
committed no violence, who countenanced no injustice, whose 
compassion was without weakness, whose love was without 
frailty, whose life was led in humility, in purity, in beneficence, 
and, at the end, laid down in obedience to his father's will. 


Ah, Lucian ! what strangely imperfect notions ! all thai is 



Enough to follow. 


Not enough to compcll others. I did indeed hope^ 
O Lucian ! that you would again come forward with the 
inesistible arrows of your wit^ and unite with us against our 
Bdversaries. By what you have just spoken^ I doubt no 
longer that you approve of the doctrines inculcated by the 
Uessed founder of our religion. 


To the best of my understanding. 


So ardent is my desire for the salvation of your precious 
soul, O my cousin ! that I would devote many hours of every 
day to disputation with you^ on the principal points of our 
Christian controversy. 


Many thanks^ my kind Timotheus I But I think the 
blessed founder of your religion very strictly forbade that there 
should be any points of controversy. Not only has he pro- 
hibited them on the doctrines he dehvered, but on ever} thing 
dsc. Some of the most obstinate might never have doubted 
of his divinibr, if the conduct of his foUowers had not repelled 
them from tne belief of it. How can they imagine you 
sincere when they see you disobedient ? It is in vain for you 
to protest that you worship the God of Peace, when you are 
found daily in the courts and market-places with clenched fists 
and bloody noses. I acknowledge the full value of your 
offer ; but really I am as anxious for the salvation of your 
precious time^ as you appear to be for the salvation of my 
precious soul; particularly since I am come to the conclusion 
that souls can not be lost, and that time can. 


yfe mean by 9altation exemption from eternal torments. 


Among all my old gods and their children, morose as some 

of the senior are, and mischievous as are some of the junior, 

I have never represented the worst of them as capable of 

inflicting such atrocity. Passionate and capricious and unjust 

axe sevorai of them ; but a skin stript off the shoulder, and 



a liver tost to a vulture^ are among the worst of tlidr 


This is scoffing. 


Nobody but an honest man has a right to scoff at 



And yet people of a very different cast are usually those 
who scoff the most. 


We are apt to push forward at that which we are without : 
the low-bom at titles and distinctions^ the silly at wit, the at the semblance of probity. But I was about to remark, 
that an honest man may fairly scoff at all philosophies and 
religions which are proud^ ambitious^ intemperate, and contra- 
dictory. Tlie thing most adverse to the spirit and essence of 
them all, is falsehood. It is the business of the philosophical 
to seek truth : it is the office of the religious to worship her; 
under what name, is unimportant. The fedsehood that the 
tongue commits is slight in comparison with what is conceived 
by the heart, and executed by the whole man, throughout life. 
If, professing love and charity to the human race at large, I 
quarrel day after day with my next neighbour ; if, professing 
that the rich can never see God, I spend in the luxuries of my 
household a talent montlily ; if, professing to place so much 
confidence in his word, that, in regard to worldly weal, I need 
take no care for to-morrow, I accumulate stores e\'en beyond 
what would be necessary, though I quite distrusted both his 
providence and his veracity; if, professing that "he who 
giveth to the poor lendeth to the Lord," I question the Lord's 
security, and haggle with him about the amount of the loan ; 
if, professing that I am their steward, I keep ninety-nine parts 
in the hundbred as the emolument of my stewardship ; how, 
when God hates liars and punishes defrauders, shall I, and 
other such thieves and hypocrites, fare hereafter ? 


Let us hope there are few of them. 


We can not hope against what is : we may however hope 
that in future these will be fewer ; but never while the over- 
seers of a priesthood look for offices out of it, taking the 


lead in politics, in debate, and strife. Such men bring to 
ruin all n»ligion, but their own first, and raise unbelievers not 
only in divine providence, but in human faith. 


If they leave the altar for the market-place, the sanctuary 
for the senate-house, and agitate party questions instead of 
Christian verities, everlasting punislmicuts await them. 




Certainly : at the very least. I rank it next to heresy in 
the catalogue of sins ; and the church supports my opinion. 


I have no measure for ascertaining the distance between the 
opinions and practices of men : I omy know that they stand 
widely apart in all countries on the most important occasions : 
but this newly-hatched word hereiy, alighting on my ear, 
makes mc rub it. A beneficent God descends on earth in the 
homan form, to redeem us from the shivcrv of sin, from the 
penalty of our passions : can you imagine he will punish an 
emv in opinion, or even an obstinacv in unbelief, with ever* 
lasting torments ? Supposing it highly criminal to refuse to 
weigh a string of arguments, or to cross-question a herd of 
witnesses, on a subject which no experience hath warranted and 
no sagacity can comprehend ; supposing it highly criminal to 
be contented with the religion which our parents taught us, 
which they bequeathed to us as the most precious of possessions, 
and which it would liave broken tlieir hearts if they had 
foreseen we should cast aside ; yet are eternal ))ains the just 
retribution of wliat at worst is but indiiference and supine- 



Our religion has clearly this advantage over yours : it teaches 
us to regulate our passions. 


Rather say it Ulh us. I believe all religions do the same \ 
some indeed more emphatically and primarifv than others ; but 
ikai indeed would be incontestably of divine origin, and 
acknowledged at once by the most sceptical, which should 
thoroughly teach it. Kow, my friend Timotheus, I think you 
are about seventy-five years of age. 



Nigh upon it. 


SeTenty-five years^ accordincc to mj calcnlatioii^ are eqnivakst 
to seventy-five gods and goddesses in r^ulatiiig our passkms 
for us, if we spesLk of the amatory, which are aiways thoo^ 
in every stage of life the least to be pardoned. 


Execrable ! 


I am afraid the sourest hang longest on the tree, ilinmenniis 

In early youth we often sigh 
Because our pulses beat so high ; 
All this we conquer, and at last 
We sigh that we are grown so chaste. 




No animal sighs oftener or louder. But, my dear cousin, 
the quiet swine is less troublesome and less odious than the 
grumbUng and growling and fierce hyaena, which will not let 
the dead rest in their graves. We may be merry with the 
follies and even the vices of men, without doing or wishing 
them harm : punishment should come from the magistrate, 
not from us. If we are to give pain to anyone because he 
thinks differently from us, we ought to begin bv inflicting a 
few smart stripes on ourselves ; for both upon light and upon 
grave occasions, if we have thought much and often, our 
opinions must have varied. AVe are always fond of seizing 
and managing what appertains to others. In the savage state 
all belongs to all. Our neighbours the Arabs, who stand 
between barbarism and civilisation, waylay travelers, and 
plunder their equipage and their gold. The wilier marauders 
in Alexandria start up from under the shadow of temples, 
force us to change our habiliments for theirs, and strangle 
us with fingers dipt in holy water if we say they sit 


This is not the right view of tilings. 

* Query, toAere > 



That is never the right view which lets in too much light. 
About two centuries have elapsed since your religion was 
founded. Show me the pride it has humbled ; show me the 
cruelty it has mitigated ; show me the lust it has extinguished 
cir repressed. I have now been living ten years in Alexandria ; 
and you never will accuse me^ I tliiuk, of any undue partiality 
for the system in which I was educated: yet, from all my 
observation, I find no priest or elder, in your community, wise, 
tranquil, firm, and s^ate, as Epicurus, and Cameadcs, and 
Zeno, and Epictetus ; or indeed in the same degree as 
some who were often called forth into political and military 
life ; Epaminondas, for instance, and Phocion. 


I pity them from my soul: they were ignorant of the 
truth : they are lost, my cousin I take my word for it, they are 
lost men. 


Unhappily, they are. I wish we had them back again ; or 
that, since we have lost them, we could at least find among us 
the virtues they left for our example. 


Alas, my poor cousin ! you too are blind : you do not 
understand the plainest words, nor comprehend those verities 
which are the most evident and palpable. Virtues I if the 
poor wretches had any, they were false ones. 


Scarcely ever has there been a politician, in any free state, 
without much falsehood and duplicity. I have named the 
most illustrious exceptions. Slender and irregular lines of a 
darker colour run alon^ the bright blade that decides the fate 
of nations, and may indeed be necessary to the perfection of 
its temper. The great warrior hath usually his darker Unes of 
character, necessary (it may be) to constitute his gn^tness. 
No two men possess ths same quantity of the same virtues, 
if they liave many or much. We want some which do not 
Car outstep us, and which we may follow with the hope of 
reaching ; we want others to elevate, and others to defend us. 
The order of things would be less beautiful without this variety. 
Without the ebb and flow of our passions, but guided and 
moderated by a beneficent light above, the ocean of life would 


stagnate ; and zeal, devotion, eloquence, would become deid 
carcases, collapsing and wasting on unprofitable sands. Hie 
vices of some men cause the virtues ot others, as corroptiaii 
is the parent of fertility. 


O my cousin ! this doctrine is diabolicaL 


What is it ? 


Diabolical : a strong expression in daily use among us. 
We turn it a little from its origin. 


Timotheus, I love to sit by the side of a clear water, 
although there is nothing in it but naked stones. Do not 
take the trouble to muddy the stream of language for my 
benefit : I am not about to fish in it. 


Well ; we will speak about things wliich come nearer to 
your apprehension. I only wish you were somewhat less 
indifferent in your choice between the true and the false. 


We take it for granted tliat what is not true must be 


Surely we do. 


This is erroneous. 


Are you grown captious ? Pray explain. 


What is not true, 1 need not say, must be untrue : but 
that alone is false which is intended to deceive. A witness 
may be mistaken, yet you would not call him a false witness 
unless he asserted what he knew to be false. 


Quibbles upon words ! 


On words, on quibbles, if you please to call distinctions so, 
rests the axis of the intellectual world. A winged word hath 


; tnemiicnltljr in a iiiillioii licurla, and enveuometl every 

[ throughout tli«ir liard pulsation : on a winged worn 

t. LuD|; tlic (lestinv of nations : on a vinged tvurd bath 

' I wisdom been willini; to cast the immortal sold, and to 

t dependent fur all it« future bappiru-ss. It is bccauso 

1 ia unsmireptible of i-KpLinittioii, or bfcausc Umy who 

1 it wfrf iinptttient of imv, that enormous evils Iiave 

I, not only a^inst our common sense, but against our 

n bumanitr. Hence the most pernicious of absurditiea, 

wling in ?oliy and mischief the worship of threescore 

Ay, thai nn impbcit faith in wliat outrages our 

ich H« know is Rod's gift and bestowed on us for 

incc, that tliis weak, blind, stupid faith is surer of iiia 

au the constant practice of every hunion virtue. They 

) hands one prodigious lio, such as tliis, hath been 

I, may reckon on ibcir influence in the dissemination 

smaller, and nmy tiini them easily tu tbeir own 

Be wire they will do it sooner or later. The fly 

n the Burfacv fur a while, but up tiprings the tlsh at but 

ui so unjust as you are? The nbnminiible old 

lltooda arc avaricious and luxurious : ours is nilling ta 

r fall by maintaining its ordinances of fellowship and 

J, Point out to nie a priest of our religion whom yoa 

]f by any lemplation or entreaty, so far mislead, tliut he 

~5»rtve for his own consumption one loaf, one plat« of 

while another poor CbriKlinn himgers. In the mean- 

'.<■ ihi- pni-xtA of ]a\» arc proud uml oi^dlliy, and admit 

■ of tlie indigent to tlieir tables. And now, to tell you 

wboU* truth, my cousin Lucian, I come to tou this morning 

~ poec Ibat wc should lay our heads together and contrive 

J £aloguc on these said prii^ts of Ims. Wliat say you ? 

pviMt nid piicat« of Isia have already been with ine, several 
L on a siinilar business in regard to yours. 

dons wretches 1 What fjyness I what jicrfidy ! 

^ liinTf hati: altaiipted l<> per>unde me that rour 
rowed from tbijrs, altering u name a tittle, and 


laying the scene of action in a comer, in the midst of oboeontf 

and ruins. 


The wicked dogs ! the hellish liars ! We have nothing in 
common with such vile impostors. Are ihej not ashamed d 
taking such unfair means of lowering us in the estimaticm of 
our fellow-citizens? And so^ they artfully came to yon, 
craving any spare jibe to throw against us ! They lie open to 
these weapons: we do not: we stand above the maUgnitj, 
above the strength, of man. You would do justly in turning 
their own devices against them : it would be amusing to see 
how they would look. If you refuse me, I am resolved to 
write a Dialogue of the Dead, myself, and to introduce these 
hypocrites in it. 


Consider well first, my good Timotheus, whether you can 
do any such thing with propriety ; I mean to say judiciously 
in regJEffd to composition. 


I always thought you generous and open-hearted, and quite 
inaccessible to jealousy. 


Let nobody ever profess himself so much as that: for, 
although he may be insensible of the disease, it lurks within 
liim, and only waits its season to break out. But really, my 
cousin, at present I feel no s}'mptoms : and, to prove that I 
am ingenuous and sincere with you, these are my reasons for 
dissuasion. We believers in the Homeric family of gods and 
goddesses, believe also in the locality of Tartarus and Elysium. 
We entertain no doubt whatever, that the passions of men 
and demigods and gods, are nearly the same above-ground 
and below ; and that Achilles would dispatch his spear 
tlirough the body of any shade who would lead Briseis too far 
among the myrtles, or attempt to throw the halter over the 
ears of any chariot-horse belonging to liim in the meads of 
asphodel. We admit no doubt of these verities, delivered 
down to us from the ages when Theseus and Hercules had 
descended into Hades itself. Instead of a few stadions in a 
cavern, with a bank and a bower at the end of it, under a very 
small portion of our diminutive Hellas, you Christians possess 
the whole cavity of the earth for punishment, and the whole 
convex of the sky for felicity. 



Our passioiui are burnt out amid the fires of purificatioD, 
and our intellecta are elevated to the enjoyment of perfect 


How sillj then and incongruous would it be^ not to say 
how impious, to represent your people as no better and no 
wiser tKan they were before, and discoursing on subjects which 
no longer can or ought to concern them. Christians must 
think your Dialogue of the Bead no less irreligious tlian their 
opponents think mine, and infinitely more absurd. If indeed 
jon are resolved on this form of composition, there is no topic 
which ma^ not, with equal facility, be discussed on earth ; and 
yon may mtersperse as much ridicule as you please, without 
any fear of censure for inconsistency or irreverence. Hitherto 
mch writers have confined their \iew mostly to speculative 
points, sophistic reasonings, and sarcastic interpellations. 


Ha ! you are always fond of throwing a little pebble at the 
lofty Plato, whom we, on the contrar)', are ready to receive (in 
a manner) as one of ourselves. 


To throw pebbles is a very uncertain way of showing where 
lie defects. Whenever I have mentioned him seriously, I 
have brought forward, not accusations, but passages from his 
writings, such as no pliilosopher or scholar, or moralist, can 


doctrines are too abstruse and too sublime for you. 


Solon, Anaxagoras, and Epicurus, are more sublime, if truth 
is foblimity. 


Truth is indeed; for God is truth. 


We are upon earth to learn what can be learnt upon earth, 
and not to speculate on what never can be. This you, O 
limotheus, may caU philosophy : to me it appears the idlest 
of curiosity; for every other kind may teach us something, 
and may lead to more beyond. Let men learn what benefits 


men ; above all things^ to contract their wishes^ to cafan tlior 
passions, and, more especially, to dispell their fears. Nor 
these are to be dispelled, not by collecting deads, bnt bj 

Siercing and scattering them. In the dark we may imagine 
epths and highths immeasurable, which, if a torch be camod 
right before us, we find it easy to leap across. Much of what 
we call sublime is only the residue of infancy, and the wciat 
of it. 

The philosophers I quoted are too capacious for schools and 
systems. Without noise, without ostentation, without mystcir, 
not quarrelsome, not captious, not frivolous, their lives weie 
commentaries on their doctrines. Never evaporating into 
mist, never stagnating into mire, their limpia and broad 
morality runs parallel with the lofty sunmiits of their genius. 


Grenius ! was ever genius like Plato's ? 


The most admired of his Dialogues, his Banquet, is beset 
with such puerilities, deformed with such pedantry, and 
disgraced ^^ith such impuritv, that none but the thickest 
beards, and chiefly of the philosophers and the satyrs, should 
bend over it. On a former occasion he has given us a 
specimen of history, than which nothing in our language is 
worse : here he gives us one of poetry, in honour of Love, 
for which the god has taken ample vengeance on him, by 
perverting his taste and feelings. The grossest of all the 
absurdities in tliis dialogue is, attributing to Aristophanes, so 
much of a scoffer and so little of a \nsionary, the silly notion 
of male and female having been originally complete in one 
person, and walking circuitously. He may be joking : who 
knows ? 


Forbear ! forbear ! do not call this notion a silly one : he 
took it from our Holy Scriptures, but i>erverted it somewhat. 
Woman was made from man's rib, and did not require to be 
cut asunder all the way down : this is no proof of bad 
reasoning, but merely of misinterpretation. 


If you would rather have bad reasoning, I will adduce a 
little of it. Farther on, he wishes to extoU the wisdom of 
Agathon by attributing to him such a sentence as this. 


" It is evident that Love is the most beautiful of the gods, 
deeause he is the youngest of them/' 

Now even on earth, the youngest is not always the most 
beautiful; how infinitely less cogent tlien is the argument 
ivhen we come to speak of the Immortals, with whom age can 
have no concern ! There was a time wlien Vulcan was the 
joongest of tlie gods : was he also, at that time, and for that 
reason, the most beautiful ? Your philosopher tells us, more- 
over, that "Love is of all deities the most liquid; else he 
never could fold Iiimself about everything, and flow into and 
out of men's souls/' 

The three last sentences of Agathon's rhapsody are very 
harmonious, and exhibit the iSnest specimen of Plato's style ; 
but we, accustomed as we are to hear him lauded for his 
poetical diction, should hold that poem a very indifl'crcnt one 
which left on the mind so sui)erticial an impression. The 
garden of Academus is flowery without fragrance, and dazzling 
without warmth: I am reacly to dream away an hour in it 
after dinner, but I tliink it unsalutary for a night's repose. 
So satisfied was Plato with his Banquet, that he says of himself, 
in the person of Socrates, " How can I or anyone but find it 
difficult to speak after a discourse so eloquent? It would 
have been wonderful if the brilliancy of the sentences at the 
end of it, and the choice of expression throughout, had not 
astonished aU the auditors. I, who can never say anything 
nearlv so beautiful, would if possible have made my escape, 
and liave fairlv run off for shame." He had indeed much 
better run off before he made so wretched a pun on the name 
of Gorgias. "I dreaded," says he, "lest Agiithon, mraAuring 
mjf di^ourae ly the head of the €U>quent Gortfias, should turn 
me to atone for inability of utterance." 

Was there ever joke more frigid ? Wliat painful twisting 
of unelastic stuff! If Socrates was the wisest man in tin* 
world, it would require another oracle to persuade us, after 
this, that he was the wittiest. lUit surely a small share of 
common sense would have made him abstain from luizarding 
such failures. He falls on his face in very flat and very dry 
ground ; and, when he gets up again, his quibbles are well- 
nigh as tedious as his witticisms. However, he has the 
presence of mind to throw them on the shoulders of Diotima, 
whom he calls a ^irophetess, and who, \qm years before the 
Plague broke out m Athens, obtained from the gods (he tells 

302 LirciAN AND Tncormnra. 

us) that delay. Ah I the gods were doubly mischierous : tlief 
sent her first. Eead her words, my cousin^ as delivered hj 
Socrates ; and if they have another Plagae in atore for jib, yon 
may avert it by such an act of expiation. 


The world will have ended before ten yean aie over. 




It has been pronounced. 


How the threads of belief and unbelief run woven close 
together in the whole web of human life I Gome, come; take 
courage ; you will have time for your Dialogue. Enlarge the 
circle; enrich it with a variety of matter, enliven it with a 
multitude of characters, occupy the intellect of the thoughtfol, 
the imagination of the lively; spread the board with solid 
viands, deUcate rarities, and sparkling wines; and throw, 
along the whole extent of it, geniality and festal crowns. 


"VTliat writer of dialogues hath ever done this, or undertaken, 
or conceived, or hoped it ? 


None whatever; yet surely you yourself may, when even 
your babes and suckUngs are endowed with abilities incom- 
parably greater than our niggardly old gods have bestowed on 
the very best of us. 


I \insh, my dear Lucian, you would let our babes and 
sucklings lie quiet, and say no more about them : as for your 
gods, I leave them at your mercy. Do not impose on me the 
performance of a task in wliich Plato himself, if he had 
attempted it^ would have failed. 


No man ever detected folse reasoning with more quickness ; 
but unluckily he called in AVit at the exposure ; and Wit, I 
am sorry to say, held the lowest place in his houseliold. He 
sadly mistook the qualities of his mind in attempting the 
facetious : or rather, he fancied he possessed one quality more 


than belon^d to him. But, if he himself had not been a 
worse quibbler than any whose writings arc come down to us, 
we mignt have been gratified by the exposure of wonderful 
acuteness wretchedly applied. It is no small service to the 
community to turn into ridicule the grave impostors, who are 
contending which of them shall guide and govern us, whether 
in politics or religion. There are always a few who will take 
the trpuble to walk down among the sea-weeds and slippery 
stones, for the sake of showing their credulous fellow-citizens 
that skins filled with sand, and set upright at the forecastle, 
are neither meu nor merchandise. 


I can bring to mind, O Lucian, no writer possessing so 
great a variety of wit as you. 


No man ever possessed any variety of this gift ; and the 
bolder is not allowed to exchange the quality for another. 
Banter (and such is Plato's) never grows large, never sheds 
its bristles, and never do they soften into the humorous or the 


I agree with yon that banter is the worst species of wit. 
Wc have indeed no correct idea what persons those really were 
whom Plato drags by the ears, to undergo slow torture under 
Socrates. One sophist, I must allow, is precisely like another : 
no discrimination of cliaracter, none of manner, none of 


He wanted the fancy and fertility of Aristophanes. 


Otherwise, his mind was more elevated and more poetical. 


Pardon me if I venture to express my dissent in both 
particulars. Knowledge of the human heart, and discrimina- 
tion of character, are requisites of the poet. Few ever have 
possessed them in an equal degree with Aristoplianes : Plato 
has given no indication of either. 


Bat consider his imagination. 



On what does it rest ? He is nowhere so imaginatiye is in 
his Polity. Nor is there any state in the world that is^ or 
would be^ governed by it. One day you may find him at Ins 
counter in the midst of old-fashioned toys, which crack and 
crumble under his fingers while he exhibits and recommoids 
them : another day, while he is sitting on a goat^s bladder^ I 
may discover his bald head surmounting an enormous mass of 
loose chaff and uncleanly feathers, which he would persuade 
you is the pleasantest and healthiest of beds, and that dreams 
descend on it from the gods. 


Open your mouth and shut your eyes and see what Zeus shall aeod ym,* 

says Aristophanes in his favourite metre. In this helpless 
condition of closed optics and hanging jaw, we find the 
followers of Plato. It is by shutting their eyes that they sec, 
and by opening their mouths that they apprehend. like 
certain broad-muzzled dogs, all stand equally stiff and staunch, 
although few scent the game, and their lips wag and water 
at whatever distance from the net. We must leave them with 
their hands hanging down before them, confident that they are 
wiser than we are, were it only for this attitude of hunuUty. 
It is amusing to see them in it before the tall well-robed 
Athenian, while he mis-speUs the charms and plays clumsily 
the tricks he acquired from the conjurors here in Egypt. I 
wish you better success with the same materials. But in my 
opinion all philosophers should speak clearly. The highe^ 
things are the purest and brightest; and the best writers 
are those who render them the most intelligible to the world 
below. In the arts and sciences, and particularly in music 
and metaphysics, this is difficult : but the subjects not being 
such as lie within the range of the community, I lay little 
stress upon them, and wish authors to deal with them as they 
best may, only beseeching that they recompense us, by bring- 
ing within our comprehension the other things with which 
they are intrusted for us. * The followers of Plato fly off 
indignantly from any such proposal. If I ask them the 
meaning of some obscure passage, they answer that I am 
unprepared and imfitted for it, and that his mind is so &r 
above mine, I can not grasp it. I look up into the faces of 
these worthy men, who mingle so much commiseration with so 


I calmness^ and wonder at seeing them look no less vacant 
my own. 


m have acknowledged his eloquence, while you derided 
hilosophy and repudiated his morab. 


plainly, there was never so much eloquence with so little 
lation. When he has heated his oven, he forgets to put 
bread into it; instead of which, he throws m another 
Ue of faggots. His words and sentences are often too 
\ for the place they occupy. If a water-melon is not to 
laced in an oyster-shell, neither is a grain of millet in a 
en salver. At high festivals a full band may enter; 
nary conversation goes on better without it. 


here is something so spiritual about him, that many of us 
sttians are firmly of opinion he must have been partially 
^htened from above. 


hope and believe we all are. His entire works are in our 
iry : do me the favour to point out to me a few of those 
ages where in poetry he approaches the spirit of 
tophancs, or where in morals he comes up to Epictetus. 


t is useless to attempt it if you carry your prejudices with 
Beside, my dear cousin, I would not offend you, but 
[y your mind has no point about it which could be brought 
ontact or affinity with Plato's. 


n the universality of his genius there must surely be some 
n coincident with another in mine. You acknowledge, as 
Tbodv must do, that his wit is the heaviest and lowest : 
f, is the specimen he has given us of history at all better P 


would rather look to the loftiness of his mind, and the 
ius that sustains him. 


lo would I. Magnificent words, and the pomp and pro- 
non of stately sentences, may accompany genius, but are 



not always nor frequently called out by it. The voice ooj^ 
not to be perpetually nor much elevated in the ethic ud 
didactic, nor to roll sonorously, as if it issued from a mask in 
the theater. The horses in the plain under Troy are not 
always kicking and neighing ; nor is the dust always raised 
in whirlwinds on the banks of Simois and Scamander; nor 
are the rampires always in a blaze. Hector has lowered his 
helmet to the infant of Andromache, and Achilles to the 
embraces of Briseis. I do not blame the prose-writer who 
opens his bosom occasionally to a breath of poetry ; neither 
on the contrary can I praise the gait of that pedestrian who 
lifts up his legs as high on a bare heath as in a corn-field. Be 
authority as old and obstinate as it may, never let it persuade 
you that a man is the stronger for being unable to keep himsdf 
on the groimd, or the waiker for breathing quietly and softly 
on ordinary occasions. Tell me over and over that you fini 
every great quahty in Plato : let me oidy once ask you in 
return, whether he ever is ardent and energetic, whether he 
^rins the affections, whether he agitates the heart. Finding 
him deficient in every one of these faculties, I think his 
disciples have extolled him too highly. Where power is 
absent, we may find the robes of genius, but we miss the 
throne. lie would acquit a slave who killed another in self- 
defence, but if he killed any free man even in self-defence, he 
was not only to be punished with death, but to imdergo the 
cruel death of a parricide. This effeminate philosopher was 
more severe than the manly Demosthenes, who quotes a law 
against the striking of a slave ; and Diogenes, when one ran 
away from him, remarked that it would be horrible if Diogenes 
could not do without a slave, when a slave could do without 


Surely the allegories of Plato are e\idcnces of his genius. 


A great poet in the hours of his idleness may indulge in 
allegor}' : but the highest poetical character will never rest on 
so unsubstantial a foundation. The poet must take man from 
God's hands, must look into every fibre of his heart and brain, 
must be able to take the magnificent work to pieces, and to 
reconstruct it. AVhen this labour is completed, let him throw 
himself composedly on the earth, and care Uttle how many of 
its ephemeral insects creep over him. In regard to these 


allegories of Plato, about which I have heard so much, pray 
irivA and where are they? You hesitate, my fair cousiu 
Tunotheus 1 Employ one morning in transcribing them, and 
another in noting all the passages which are of practical utility 
in the commerce of social life, or purify our affections at home, 
or excite and elevate our enthusiasm in the prosperity and 
gloiy of our country. Useful books, moral books, instructive 
books, are easily composed : and surely so great a writer 
should present them to us without blot or blemish : I find 
among his many volumes no copy of a similar composition. 
My enthusiasm is not easily raised indeed ; yet such a whirl- 
wind of a poet must carry it away with him ; nevertheless, 
here I stand, calm and collected, not a hair of my beard in 
commotion. Declamation iiill find its echo in vacant places : 
it beats ineffectuallv on the well-furnished mind. Give me 

!>roof; bring the work; show the passages; convince, con- 
bundj overwhelm me. 


I may do that another time with Plato. And yet, what 
effect can I hope to produce on an unhappy man who doubts 
even tliat the world is on the point of extinction ? 

Are there many of your association who believe that this 
catastrophe is so near at Iiand ? 


We all believe it ; or rather, we all arc certain of it, 


How so ? Have you observed any fracture in the disk of 
the sun ? Arc any of the stars loosened in their orbits ? lias 
the beautiful light of Venus ceased to pant in the heavens, or 
has the belt of Orion lost its gems ! 


O for shame ! 


Bather should I be ashamed of indifference on so important 
an occasion. 


We know the £act by surer signs. 


These, if you could vouch for them, would be sure enough 



for me. The least of them would make me sweat as ^tahaij 
as if I stood up to the neck in the hot prepantion of a 
mummy. Surely no wise or benevolent philosopher could etir 
have uttered what he knew or believed might be distorted into 
any such interpretation. For if men are persuaded that ihej 
and their works are so soon about to periish, what {vovident 
care are they likely to take in the education and welfare of 
their families ? What sciences will they improve, what learn- 
ing will they cultivate, what monuments of past ages wiD 
they be studious to preserve^ who are certain that there cm 
be no future ones ? Poetry will be censured as rank profime- 
ness^ eloquence will be converted into howls and execrations, 
statuary will exhibit only Midases and Ldons, and all the 
colours of painting will be mixed together to produce one 
grand conflagration : flamwaniia mania mundi. 


Do not quote an atheist ; especially in latin. I hate the 
language : the Komans are beginning to differ from us already. 


Ah I you will soon split into smaller fractions. But pardon 
me my unusual fault of quoting. Before I let fall a quotation 
I must be taken by surprise. I seldom do it in conversation, 
seldomer in composition ; for it mars the beauty and unity of 
style, especially when it invades it from a foren tongue. A 
quoter is either ostentatious of his acquirements or doubtful 
of his cause. And moreover, he never walks gracefully who 
leans upon the shoulder of another, however gracefully that 
other may walk. Herodotus, Plato, Aristoteles, Demosthenes, 
are no quoters. Thucydides, twice or thrice, inserts a few 
sentences of Pericles : but Thucydides is an emanation of 
Pericles, somewhat less clear indeed, being lower, although at 
no great distance from that purest and most pellucid source. 
The best of the Eomans, I agree with vou, are remote from 
such originals, if not in power of mini, or in acuteness of 
remark, or in sobriety of judgment, yet in the graces of 
composition. While I admired, with a species of awe such as 
not Homer himself ever impressed me with, the majesty and 
sanctimony of Livy, I have oeen informed by learned Bomans 
that in the structure of his sentences he is often inharmonious, 
and sometimes uncouth. I can imagine such uncouthness in 
the goddess of battles, confident of power and victory, when 


part of her hair is waving round the helmet^ loosened by the 
rapidity of her descent or the vibration of her spear. Com- 
position mav be too adorned even for beauty. In painting it 
18 often requisite to cover a bright colour with one less bright; 
and in language to relieve the car from the tension of high 
notes, even at the cost of a discord. There are urns of which 
the borders are too prominent and too decorated for use, and 
which appear to be brought out chiefly for state, at grand 
carousals. The author who imitates the artificers of these, 
shall never have my custom. 

' I think you judge rightly : but I do not understand 
languages ; I only understand religion. 

He must be a most accomplished, a most extraordinary 
man, who comprehends them both together. We do not 
even talk clearly when we are walking in the dark. 


Thou art not merely walking in the dark, but fast asleep. 


And thou, my cousin, wouldst kindly awaken me with a 
red-hot poker. I have but a few paces to go along the 
corridor of life : pr)ihee let me turn into my bed again and 
lie quiet. Never was any man less an enemy to religion than 
I am, whatever mav be said to the contrary : and you shall 
judge of me by the soundness of my advice. If your leaders 
are in earnest, as many think, do persuade them to abst;iin 
from quarrelsomeness and contention, and not to drclare it 
necessary that there should perpetually be a n^ligious as well 
as a political war between east and west. No honest and 
oonsiderate man will believe in their doctrines, wlio, incul- 
cating peace and good- will, continue all the time to assail their 
fellow-citizens with the utmost rancour at every divcTirency 
of opinion, and, forbidding the indulgence of the kindlier 
affections, exercise at full stretch the fiercer. This is certain : 
if they obey any commander, they will never sound a charge 
when his order is to sound a retreat : if they acknowledge any 
magistrate, they will never tear down the tablet of his eilicts. 


We have what is all-suflicient. 

810 LirCIAN Ain> TUfOTHEUa. 

I see you have. 


You have ridiculed all religion and all philosophj. 


I have found but little of eitha. I have cracked many t 
nut, and have come only to dust or maggots. 


To say nothing of the saints, are all philosophers fools or 
impostors ? And, because you can not rise to the ethereal 
highths of Plato, nor comprehend the real magnitude of a 
man so much above you, must he be a dwarf? 


The best sight is not that which sees best in the dark or 
the twiUght; for no objects are then visible in their true 
colours and just proportions ; but it is that which presents to 
us things as they are, and indicates what is within our reach 
and what is beyond it. Never were any three writers, of high 
celebrity, so little understood in the main character, as Plaio, 
Diogenes, and Epicurus. Plato is a perfect master of l<^f 
and rhetoric ; and whenever he errs in either, as I have proved 
to you he does occasionally, he errs tlirough perverseness, not 
through unwariness. His language often settles into clear 
and most beautiful prose, often takes an imperfect and 
incoherent shape of poetry, and often, cloud against cloud, 
bursts with a vehement detonation in the air. Diogenes was 
hated both by the vulgar and the philosophers. By the 
philosophers, because he exposed their ignorance, ridiculed 
their jealousies, and rebuked their pride: by the vulgar, 
because they never can endure a man apparently of their own 
class who avoids their society and partakes in none of their 
humours, prejudices, and animosities. AVliat right lias he to 
be greater or better than they are? he who wears older 
clothes, who eats staler fish, and possesses no vote to imprison 
or banish anybody. I am now asliamed that I mingled in the 
rabble, and that I could not resist the childish mischief of 
smoking liim in his tub. He was the wisest man of his time, 
not excepting Aristoteles ; for he knew that he was greater 
than Philip or Alexander. Aristoteles did not know that he 
himself was, or, knowing it, did not act up to his knowledge; 
and here is a deficiency of wisdom. 



Whether joa did or did not strike the cask^ Diogenes would 
have closed his eyes equally. He would never have come 
forth and seen the truth, had it shone upon the world in that 
day. But, intractable as was this recluse, Epicurus I fear is 
quite as lamentable. Wliat horrible doctrines I 


Enjoy, said he, the pleasant walks where you are : repose, 
and eat gratefully the fruit that faUs into your bosom : do not 
wearv vour feet with an excursion, at the end whereof vou will 
find no resting-place : reject not the odour of roses for the 
fumes of pitch and sulphur. Wliat horrible doctrines I 


Speak seriously. He was much too bad for ridicule. 


I will then speak as you desire me, seriously. His smile 
was so unafTectcd and so graceful, that I should have thought 
it very injudicious to set my laugh against it. No philosopher 
ever Lved with such uniform purity, such abstinence from 
censoriousness, from controversy, from jealousy, and from 


Ah poor mortal I I pity him, as far as may be ; he is in 
hell : it would be wicked to wish him out : we are not to 
murmur against the all-wise dispensations. 


I am sure he would not ; and it is therefor I hope he is 
more comfortable than you believe. 


Never have I defiled my fingers, and never will I defile 
them, by turning over his writings. But in regard to Plato, I 
can have no objection to take your advice. 


He will reward your assiduity : but he will assist you very 
little if you consult liim principally (and olo(|uence for this 
should principally be consulted) to strengthen your humanity. 
Grandiloquent and sonorous, his lungs seem to play the better 
for the absence of the heart. His imagination is the most 
conspicuous, buoyed up by swelling billows over unsounded 
deptns. There are his mild thunders, there are his glowing 


clouds, his traversing coruscations, and his shooting stm. 
More of true wisdom, more of trustworthy manliness^ more of 
promptitude and power to keep you steddy and straigfatforviid 
on the perilous road of life, may he found in the little manval 
of Epictetus, which I could write in the palm of my lefUhand, 
than there is in all the rolling and redundant volumes of tlui 
mighty rhetorician, which you may begin to transcribe on the 
summit of the great Pyramid, carry down over the Sphyux at 
the bottom, and continue on the sands half-way to Memphis. 
And indeed the materials are appropriate ; one part being far 
above our sight, and the other on what, by the most befitting 
epithet. Homer calls the luhcam-bearinff. 


There are many who will stand against you on this ground. 


With what perfect ease and fluency do some of the dullest 
men in existence toss over and discuss the most elaborate of 
all works I How manv mmads of such creatures would be 
insufficient to furnish intellect enough for any single paragraph 
in them ! Yet ' we think this,' ' tee advise that,' are expres- 
sions now become so customary, that it would be difficult to 
turn them into ridicule. We must pull the creatures out 
while they are in the very act, and show who and what they 
are. One of these fellows said to Caius Fuscus in my hearing, 
that there was a time when it was permitted him to doubt 
occasionally on particular points of criticism, but that the time 
was now over. 


And what did you think of such arrogance ? What did 
you reply to such impertinence ? 


Let me answer one question at a time. First : I thought 
him a legitimate fool, of the purest breed. Secondly: I 
promised him I would always be contented with the judgment 
ne had rejected, leaving him and his friends in the enjoyment 
of the rest. 


And what said he ? 


I forget. He seemed pleased at my acknowledgment of Ins 


discrioiiiiatioii, at my deference and delicacy. lie wished, 
however, I had studied Plato, Xenophon, and Cicero, more 
attentively; without which preparatory discipline, no two 
persons could be introduced advantageously into a dialogue. 
I agreed with him on this position, remarking that we our- 
selves were at that very time giving our sentence on the fact. 
He suggested a slight mistake on my side, and expressed a 
wish that he were conversing with a writer able to sustain the 
oj^xxnie part. With his experience and skill in rhetoric, his 
long habitude of composition, his knowledge of life, of morals, 
and of character, he should be less verbose than Cicero, less 
gorgeous tlian Plato, and less trimly attired than Xenophon. 


If lie spoke in that manner, he might indeed be ridiculed 
for conccitedne^s and presumption, but his language is not 
altogether a fooFs. 


I deliver his sentiments, not his words : for who would 
read, or who would listen to me, if such fell from me as from 
him ? Poetr}' has its probabilities, so has prose : wlicn people 
err out against the reprc*sentation of a dullard, Couid he have 
noim all that? 'Certainly no,' is the reply: neither did 
Priam implore, in hiumonious verse, the pity of Achilles. AVe 
say only what might be said, when great postulates are 


We will pretermit these absurd and silly men : but, cousin 
Lucian ! cou:«in Lucian ! the name of Plato will be durable as 
tliat of Sesostris. 


So will the pebbles and bricks whicli gangs of slaves erected 
into a pyramid. 1 do not hold Sesostris in much higher estima- 
tion than those quieter lumps of matter. They, () Timothous, 
who survive the wreck of ages, are by no means, as a body, 
the worthiest of our admiration. It is in these wrecks, as in 
those at sea, the best things are not always saved. Htn-coops 
and empty barrels bob upon the surface, under a serene and 
smiling sky, when the graven or depicted images of the gt)ds 
are scattered on invisible rocks, and when those who most 
resembled them in knowledge and beneficence are devoured by 
cold monsters below. 



You now talk reasonably^ seriously, almost religiously. Bo 
you ever pray ? 


I do. It was no longer than five years ago that I was 
deprived by death of my dog Melanop. He had unifonnlv 
led an innocent life ; for I never woula let him walk out with 
me, lest he should bring home in his mouth the remnant of 
some god or other, and at last get bitten or stung by one. I 
reminded Anubis of this : and moreover I told him, what he 
ought to be aware of, that Melanops did honour to his 


I can not ever call it piety to pray for dumb and dead 


Timotheus ! Timotheus ! have you no heart ? have you do 
dog ? do you always pray only for yourself ? 


TVe do not believe that dogs can live again. 


More shame for you ! If they enjoy and suffer, if tbey 
hope and fear, if calamities and \iTongs befall them such as 
agitate their hearts and excite their apprehensions ; if they 
possess the option of being grateful or malicious, and choose 
the worthier : if they exercise the same sound judgment on 
manv other occasions, some for their own benefit and some for 
tlie benefit of their masters ; they have as good a chance of a 
future life, and a better chance of a happy one, than half the 
priests of all the religions in the world. AYherever there b 
the choice of doing well or ill, and that choice (often against 
a first impulse) decides for well, there must not only be a soul 
of the same nature as man's, although of less compass and 
comprehension, but, being of the same nature, the same 
immortality must appertain to it ; for spirit, like body, maj 
change, but can not be annihiljited. 

It was among the prejudices of former times that pigs are 
uncleanly animals, and fond of wallowing in the mire for 
mire's sake. Philosophy has now discovered, that when they 
roll in mud and ordure, it is only from an excessive love of 
cleanliness, and a vehement desire to rid th^nselves of scabs 


and rennin. Unforhmatelj doubts keep pace with discoveries. 
Thej are like warts, of which the blood that springs from a 
great one extirpated, makes twenty little ones. 


The Hydra would be a more noble simily. 


I was indeed about to illustrate my position by the old 

adra, so ready at hand and so tractable ; but I will never 
c hold of a hydra, when a wart will serv^e my turn. 


Continue then. 


Even children are now taught, in despite of JFjSoj), that 
animals never spoke. The uttermost that can be advanced 
with any show of confidence is, that if they spoke at all, they 
spoke in unknown tongues. Supposing the fact^ is this a 
reason why they should not be rcsiKJcted? Quite the con- 
trary. If the tongues were unknown, it tends to demonstrate 
our ignorance, not iAeIrs, If we could not understand them, 
wliile they possessed the gift, here is no proof that they did 
not speak to the purpose, but only that it was not to our 
purpose : which may likewise be said with equal certainty of 
the wisest men that ever existed. How little have we learned 
from them, for the conduct of life or the avoidance of calamity ! 
Unknown tongues indeed! yes, so are all tongues to the 
vulgar and the neghgent. 


It comforts me to hear vou talk in this manner, without a 
glance at our gifts and privileges. 


I am less incredulous than you suppose, my cousin! 
Indeed I have been giving you what ought to be a suiticient 
proof of it. 


Ton liave spoken at last with becoming gravity, I must 


Let me then submit to your judgment some fragments of 
history which have lately fallen into my hands. Tliere is 
among them a ^fmn, of which the metre is so incondite, and 


the phraseology so ancient, that the gmmnarians have attn- 
buted it to Linus. But the Hymn will interest yoa leas, ami 
is less to our purpose, than the tradition ; by which it iqppcan 
that certain priests of high antiquity were of the orate 


No better, any of them. 


Now you have polished the palms of your hands, I will 
commence my narrative from the manuscript. 


Pray do. 


There existed in the city of Nephosis a fraternity of priesta^ 
reverenced by the appellation of GasUres. It is reported that 
they were not always of their present form, but were birds^ 
aquatic and migratory, a species of cormorant. The poet 
Linus, who lived nearer the transformation (if there indeed 
was any), sings thus, in his Hymn to iieus. 

" Thy power is manifest, O Zeus ! in the Gasteres. TTfld 
birds were they, strong of talon, clanging of wing, and 
clamourous of gullet. Wild birds, O Zeus ! wild birds ; now 
cropping the tender grass by the river of Adonis, and breaking 
the nascent reed at the root, and depasturing the sweet 
nymphaia ; now again picking up serpents and other creeping 
tilings on each hand of old JEgj^ptos, whose head is hidden in 
the clouds. 

" O that Mnemosyne would command the staidest of her 
three daughters to stand and sing before me ! to sing clearly 
and strongly. How before thy throne, Satnmian ! sharp 
voices arose, even the voices of Here and of thy childien. 
How they cried out that innumerable mortal men, varions- 
tongued, kid-roasters in tent and tabernacle, devising in their 
many-turning hearts and thoughtful minds how to fabricate 
well-rounded spits of beech-tree, how such men, having been 
changed into brute animals, it behoved thee to trim the 
balance, and in thy wisdom to change sundry brute animals 
into men; in order tliat they might pour out flame-coloied 
wine unto thee, and sprinkle the white flower of the sea upon 
the tliighs of many bulls, to pleasure thee. Then didst thon, 
O storm-driver ! overshadow far lands with thy dark eyebrows, 


looking down on them^ to accomplish thy will. And then 
didst thou behold the Gastercs^ hi, tsM, prominent-crested, 
purple-legged^ dsedal-plumed, white and blacky changeable in 
colour 36 Irii. And lo ! thou didst will it, and they were 


No doubt whatever can be entertained of this II)'mn*s 
mutiquity. But wliat farther says the historian P 


I will read on, to gratify you. 

'' It is recorded that this ancient order of a most lordly 
priesthood went through many changes of customs and cere- 
mouies, which indeed they were always ready to accommodate 
to the maintenance of their authority and the enjoyment of 
their riches. It is recorded that, in the beginning, they kept 
various tame animals, and some wild ones, within the precincts 
of the temple : nevertheless, after a time, they ai)plied to their 
own uses everything they could lay their hands on, whatever 
might have been the vow of those who came forward with the 
offering. And when it was expected of them to make sacrifices, 
thev not only would make none, but declared it an act of 
impiety to expect it. Some of the people, who feared the 
Immortals, were dismayed and indignant at this backwardness ; 
and the discontent at last grew universal. AVhereupon, the 
two chief priests held a long conference together, and agreed 
that sometliing must be done to pacify the multitude. But 
it was not until the greater of them, acknowledging his 
despondency, called on the gods to answer fur him that his 
grief was only because he never could abide bad precedents : 
and the other, on Ids side, protested that he was over-ruled by 
his superior, and moreover had a serious objection (founded on 
principle) to be knocked on the head. Meanwhile the 
elder was looking down on the folds of his robe, in de(*p 
melancholy'. After long consideration, he sprang upon his 
feet^ pushmg his chair behind him, and said, ' Well ; it is 
grown old, and was always too long for me : I am resolved to 
cot off a finger's breadth.' 

" ' Having, in vour wisdom and piety, well contemplated 
the bad precedent, said the other, with much con>teniiition in 
his countenance at seeing so elastic a spring in a heel by no 
means bearing any resemblance to a stag's . • ' I have, 1 have,' 

,1 C< IJJ1^4»U.I.A1» 

'But/ expostulated the other, 'will that satis^ the gods?' 
lio talked about them ? ' placidly said the semor. ' It is 


replied the other, interrupting him ; ' say no mote; I am sick 
at heart ; you must do the same/ 

" ' A cursed dog has torn a hole in mine/ answered Ae 
other, 'and, if I cot anywhere about it, I only make hid 
worse. In regard to its length, I wish it were as long again.' 
' Brother ! brother ! never be worldly-minded/ said tbeseoiar. 
' Follow my example : snip off it, not a finger's breadth, half t 
finger's breadth/ 


very unbecoming to have them always in our months : sarrir 
there are apj>ointed times for them. Let us be contented witl 
lading the snippiugs on the altar, and thus showing thepe<^ 
our piety and condescension. They, and the gods also, will 
be just as well satisfied, as if we offered up a buttock of bec( 
with a bushel of salt, and the same quantity of wheaten floor 
on it/ 

" ' Well, if that will do . . and you know best,' replied the 
other, ' so be it/ Saying wliich words, he carefully and con- 
sideratelv snipi>ed off as much in proportion (for he was 
shorter \)y an inch) as the elder had done, yet leaving on hi* 
shoulders (juite enough of materiiJs to make handsome cloab 
for seven or eifirht stout-built crencrals. Awav they both went, 
arm-in-arm, and then holding up their skirts a great deal 
higher than was necessary, told the gods what they two had 
been doing for them and their glory. About the court of the 
temple the sacred swine were lying in indolent composure: 
seeing which, the brotherly twain began to commune widi 
themselves afresh: and the senior said repentantly, 'What 
fools we have been ! The populace will hmgh outright at the 
curtailment of our vestures, but would gladly have seen these 
animals eat daily a quarter less of the lentils/ Tlie words 
were spoken so earnestly and emphatically that they were 
overheard by the quadrupeds. Suddenly there was a rising 
of all the j)rincipal ones in the sacred inclosure : and many 
that were in the streets took up, each according to his 
temperament and condition, the gravest or shrillest tone of 
reprobation. The thinner and therefor the more desperate of 
the creatures, pushing their snouts under the curtailed 
habiliments of the priests, assailed them with ridicule and 
reproach. For it had phrased the gods to work a miracle 
in their behoof, and they became as loquacious as those who 


aed them, and who were appointed to speak in the high 
I. ^ Let the worst come to the worsts we at least liave 
ils to our hams/ said they. 'For how long? ' whined 
$ piteoosly: others incessantly ejaculated tremendous 
cations: others, more serious and sedate, groaned in- 
y ; and, although under their hearts there lay a huge 
of indigestible sourness ready to rise up against the cliief 
s, they ventured no farther than expostulation. 'We 
lose our voices/ said they, ' if we lose our complement of 
5 ; and then, most reverend lords, what will ye do for 
>ters?' FinaUy, one of grand dimensions, who seemed 
;t half-human, imposed silence on every debater. He 
retched out apart n^m his brethren, covering with his 
the greater portion of a noble dungliill, and all its verdure 
I and imported. He crashed a few measures of peascods 
ol his tusks ; then turned his pleasurable longitudinal 
far toward the outer extremities of their sockets ; and 
1 fixedly and sarcastically at the high priests, showing 

tooth in each iaw. Other men might have feared them ; 
igh priests envied them, seeing what order they were in, 
f hat exploits they were capable of. A great painter, who 
shed many olympiads ago, has, in his volume entitled the 
n, deiined the line of beauty ! It was here in its per- 
»n: it followed with winning obsequiousness every 
ber, but delighted more especially to swim along that 
1 and pliant curvature on which Nature had ranged the 
anents of mastication. Pawing with his cloven hoof, he 
enly changed his countenance frT>m the contemplative to 
wrathful. At one effort he rose up to his whole length, 
Ith, and highth : and they who had never seen him in 
»t, nor separate from the common sviine of the inclosure, 

which he was in the habit of husking what was thrown 
m, could form no idea what a prodigious beast he was. 
ble were the expressions of choler and comminations 
b burst forth from his fulminating tusks. Erimanthus 
d have hidden his puny offspring before them; and 
ules would have paused at the encounter. Thrice he 
1 aloud to the high priests : thrice he swore in their own 
d language that they were a couple of thieves and 
stors : thrice he imprecated the worst maledictions on his 
head if they had not violated the holiest of their vows, 
rere not ready even to sell their gods. A tremor ran 


throughout the whole body of the united swine ; so awM wb 
the adjuration ! Even the Gasteres themselves in some sort 
shuddered^ not perhaps altogether, at the solemn tone of ib 
impiety ; for they had much experience in these matters. Bdt 
among them was a Gaster who was calmer than the sweaic^ 
and more pnident and conciliating than those he swore aguuL 
Hearing this objurgation, he went blandly up to the sacnd 
porker, and, lifting the flap of his right ear between forefings 
and thumb with all delicacy and gentleness, thus whispeicd 
into it : ' You do not in your heart believe that any of ns se 
such fools as to sell our gods, at least while we have socfa a 
resen^e to fall back upon/ 

'''Are we to be devoured?' cried the noble porker, 
twitching his ear indignantly from imder the hand of the 
monitor. ' Hush ! ' said he, laying it again most soothing^ 
rather farther from the tusks : ' hush ! sweet friend I Devoured? 
O certainly not : that is to say, not all: or, if all^ not all it 
once. Indeed the holy men my brethren may perhaps be 
contented \i'ith taking a little blood from each of you, entirdy 
for the advantage of your health and activity, and merely to 
compose a few slender black-puddings for the inferior monsten 
of the temple, who latterly are grown very exacting, and either 
are, or pretend to be, hungry after they have eaten a whole 
handful of acorns, swallowing I am ashamed to say what i 
quantity of water to wash them down. We do not grudge 
them it, as they well know : but they appear to have foi^tten 
how recently no inconsiderable portion of this bounty has been 
conferred. If we, as th^ object to us, eat more, they ought 
to be aware that it is by no means for our gratification, since 
we have abjured it before the gods, but to maintain the dignitr 
of the priesthood, and to exhibit the beauty and utihty (rf 

" The noble porker had beaten time with his muscular tail 
at many of these periods ; but again his heart panted visibly, 
and he could bear no more. 

" ' All this for our good ! for our activity ! for our health ! 
Let us alone : we have health enough : we want no activitv. 
Let us alone, I say again, or by the Immortals ! . / ' Peace, 
mv son ! Your breath is valuable : evidently vou have but 
little to spare : and what mortal knows how soon the gods 
may di^mand the last of it ? ' 

At the beginning of this exhortation, the worthy high 



iriest Iiad somewhat repressed the eboUient choler of his 
efncCory and pertinacious disciple^ by applying his flat soft 
nlm to the signet-formed extremity of the snout. 

•* ' We are ready to hear complaints at all times/ added he, 
and to redress any grievance at our own. But beyond a 
loubt, if you continue to raise your abominable outcries, some 
if the people arc likely to hit upon two discoveries : first, that 
four lentils would be sufficient to make daily for every poor 
Eunily a good wholesome porridge ; and secondly^ that your 
flesh, properly cured, might hang up nicely against the forth- 
Doming bean-season/ Pondering these mighty words, the 
Doble porker kept his eyes fixed upon him for some instants, 
then leaned forward dejectedly, then tucked one foot under 
him, then another, cautious to descend with dignity. At last 
he grunted (it must for ever be ambiguous whether \iith 
despondency or with resignation), pushed his wedgy snout far 
within the straw subjacent, and sank into that repose wliich is 
granted to the just/' 


Cousin ! there are glimmerings of truth and wisdom in 
sundry parts of this discourse, not unlike little broken shells 
entangled in dark masses of sea-weed. But I would rather 
Toa had continued to adduce fresh arguments to demonstrate 
the beneficence of the Deity, proving (if you could) that our 
horses and dogs, faithful servants and companions to us, and 
often treated cruelly, may recognise us hereafter, and we them. 
We have no authority for any such belief. 


We have authority for thinking and doing whatever is 
humane. Speaking of humanity, it now occurs to me, I have 
heird a report that some well-intentioned men of your religion 
•o interpret the words or wishes of its founder, they would 
abolish slavery throughout the empire. 


8nch deductions have been drawn indeed from our Master's 
doctrine : but the saner part of us receive it metaphorically, 
and would only set men free from the bonds of sin. For if 
domestic slaves were manumitted, we should neither have a 
dinner drest nor a bed made, unless by our own cliildren : 
and as to labour in the fields, who would cultivate tliem in 
this hot climate? We must import slaves from i£thiopia and 


elsewhere, wheresoever they can be procured: but the baidflli^ 
lies not on them; it lies on us, and beaza hesTilj; for we 
must first buy them with our money, and then feed them; mi 
not only must we maintain them while they are hale aad hes^ 
and can serve us, but likewise in sickness and (unkss we oi 
sell them for a trifle) in decrepitude. Bo not imagine^ sy 
cousin, that we are no better than enthusiasts, Tiskmane^ 
subverters of order, and ready to roll society down into ooe 
flat surface. 


I thought you were maligned : I said so. 


When the subject was discussed in our congregatioD, tte 
meaner part of the people were much in favour of the aboUtka : 
but the chief priests and ministers absented tbemselTes, sad 
gave no vote at aU, deeming it secular, and saying that in soi 
matters the laws and customs of the country ought to be 


Several of these chief priests and ministers are robed ia 
purple and fine linen, and fare sumptuously every day. 


I have hopes of you now. 


Why so suddenly ? 


Because you have repeated those blessed words, which are 
only to be found in our scriptures. 


There indeed I found them. But I also found in the same 
volume words of the same speaker, declaring that the rich 
shall never see his face in heaven. 


He does not always mean what you think he does. 


How is this ? Did he then direct his discourse to none but 
men more intelligent than I am ? 


Unless he gave you understanding for the occasion, they 
might mislead you. 





luestionably. For instance^ he tells us to take no heed 
morrow: he tells us to share equally all our worldly 
: but we know that we can not be respected unless we 
r due care on our possessions, and that not only the 
but the well-educated esteem us in proportion to the 
•f fortune. 


! eclectic philosophy is most flourishing among you 
ians. You take whatever suits your appetites^ and reject 



are not half so rich as the priests of Isis. Give us 
possessions ; and we will not sit idle as they do, but be 
Qd ready to do incalculable good to our fellow-creatures. 


ave never seen great possessions excite to great alacrity. 
ly they enfeeble the sympathies, and often overlie and 
er them. 


r religion is founded less on sympathies than on miracles. 
1 ! you smile most when you ought to be most serious. 


as smiling at the thought of one whom I would recom- 
to your especial notice, as soon as you disinherit the 
s of Isis. He may perhaps be refractory ; for he pretends 
:nave I) to work miracles. 


postor ! who is he ? 


lus of Pelnsium. Idle and dissolute, he never gained 
ing honestly but a scourging, if indeed he ever made, 
he long merited, this acquisition. Unable to run into 
rhere he was known, he came over to Alexandria. 


:now him : I know him well. Here, of his own accord, 
I betaken himself to a new and r^ular life. 



He will presently wear it out, or make it sit easier on Im 
shoulders. My metaphor brings me to my story. Havinr 
nothing to carry with him beside an empty valise^ he lesdm 
on filling it with somewliat, however worthless^ lest, seeing Ui 
utter destitution, and hopeless of payment^ a receiver of loqgen 
should refuse to admit him into the hostelry. Accordinj^, 
he went to a tailor^s, and began to joke about his poverk. 
Nothing is more apt to bring people into good humour : for, 
if they are poor themselves, they enjoy the pleasure of dis- 
covering that others are no better off; and, if not poor, there 
is the consciousness of superiority. 

" The favour I am about to ask of a man so wealthy and 
so liberal as you are," said Aulus, " is extremely small : yoo 
can materially serve me, without the slightest loss, hazard, or 
inconvenience. In a few words my vahse is empty : and to 
some ears an empty valise is louder and more discordant than 
a bagpipe : I can not say I like the sound of it myself. GiTC 
me all the shreds and snippings you can spare me. They will 
feel hke clothes ; not exactly so to me and my person, but to 
those who are iutpisitive, and who may be importunate." 

The tailor laughed and distended both arms of Aulus with 
his munificence. Soon was the valise weU filled and rammed 
down. Plenty of boys were in readiness to carry it to the 
boat. Aulus waved them off, looking at some angrily, at 
others suspiciously. Boarding the skiff, he lowered his 
treasure with care and caution, staggering a little at the weight, 
and shaking it gently on deck, with his ear against it : and 
then, finding all safe and compact, he sate on it; but as 
tenderly as a pullet on her first eggs. \Mien he was landed, 
his care was even greater, and whoever came near him was 
warned off with loud vociferations. Anxiously as the other 
passengers were in\ited by the innkeepers to give their house? 
the preference, Aulus was importuned most : the others were 
only beset; he was borne off in triumphant capti\'ity. He 
ordered a bcd-roora, and carried his valise with him: he 
ordered a bath, and carried with him liis valise. He started 
up from the company at dinner, struck his forehead, and cried 
out, " Where is my valise ? " ^' We are honest men here : " 
replied the host. " You have left it, sir, in your chamber: 
where else indeed should you leave it ? " 

" Honesty is seated on your brow," exclaimed Aulus : ''but 


there are few to be trusted in tlie world we live in. I now 
believe 1 can eat/' And he gave a sure token of the belief 
that w&s in him, not without a start now and then and a finger 
at his ear^ as if he heard somebody walking in the direction 
of his bed-chamber. Now began his first miracle : for now he 
contrived to pick \ip^ from time to time, a little money. In 
the presence of his host and fellow-lodgers, he threw a few 
obols, negligently and indifferently, amoug the beggars. 
"These poor creatures,^' said he, "know a new comer as 
well as the gnats do : in one half-hour I am half-ruined by 
them ; and this daily.'' 

Nearly a month had elapsed since his arrival, and no 
account of board and lodging had been delivered or called 
for. Suspicion at length arose in the host whether he really 
was rich. When another man's honesty is doubted, the 
doubter's is sometimes in jeopardy. The host was tempted to 
unsew the valise. To his amazement and horror he found 
only shreds witliin it. However, he was determined to be 
cautious, and to consult his wife, wlio, although a Christian 
like Aulus, and much edified by his discourses, might dissent 
from him in regard to a community of goods, at least in her 
own household, and might defy him to prove by any authority 
that the doctrine was meant for innkeepers. Aulus, on his 
return in the evening, found out that his valise had been 
opened. He hurried back, threw its contents into the canal, 
and^ borrowing an old cloak, he tucked it up under his dress, 
and returned. Nobody had seen him enter or come back 
again, nor was it immediately that his host or hostess were 
willing to appear. But, after he had called them loudly for 
some time, they entered his apartment : and he thus addressed 
the woman. 

*' O Eucharis ! no words are requisite to convince you (firm 
as you are in the faith) of eternal verities, however mysterious. 
Bnt your unhappy husband has betrayed his incredulity in 
resard to the most awful. If my prayers, offered up in our 
holy temples all day long, have been heard, and that they have 
been heard I feel within me the blessed certainty, something 
miraculous has been vouchsafed for the conversion of this 
miserable sinner. Until the present hour, the valise before 
you was filled with precious relics from the apparel of saints 
and martyrs, fresh as when on them." "True, by Jove!" 
said the husband to himself. ''Within the present hour/' 

826 LtciAH AND TDfononja. 

contiimed AuIqs^ "ihej are united into one raime&ty a^niffiig 
our own union^ our own restoration/' 

He drew forth the cloak^ and fell on bis face. Endiaii 
fell also^ and kissed the saintly head prostrate before her. 
The host's eyes were opened, and he bewafled his bardneM «f 
heart. Aulas is now occupied in strengthening bis faith, not 
without an occasional support to the wife's : all three Kve 
together in unity. 


And do you make a joke even of this ? Will you nerer 
cease from the habitude ? 


Too soon. The farther we descend into the vale of yean, 
the fewer illusions accompany us : we have Uttle indinaticHi, 
Uttle time, for jocularity and laughter. Light things are 
easily detached from us, and we shake off heavier as we can. 
Instead of levity, we are liable to moroseness : for always near 
the grave there are more briars than flowers, unless we plant 
them ourselves, or our friends supply them. 


Thinking thus, do you continue to dissemble or to distort 
the truth ? The shreds are become a cable for the faithfiiL 
That they were miraculously turned into one entire garment 
who shall gainsay ? How many hath it already clothed with 
righteousness ? Happy men, casting their doubts away before 
it ! Who knows, O cousin Lucian, but on some future day 
you yourself will invoke the merciful interposition of Aulus ! 


Possibly : for if ever I fall among thieves, nobody is likeUer 
to be at the head of them. 


Uncharitable man ! how suspicious ! how ungenerous ! how 
hardened in unbelief ! Beason is a bladder on which yon may 
paddle like a child as you swim in summer waters : but, when 
the ^inds rise and the waves roughen, it slips from under you, 
and you sink : yes, O Lucian, you sink into a gulf whence 
you never can emerge. 


I deem those the wisest who exert the soonest their owd 
manly strength, now with the stream and now against it, 


Mjojing the exercise in fine weather^ Tentormg out in fonl^ 
if need be, yet avoiding not onlj rocks and whirlpools, bnt 
abo ahallows. In such a light, my cousin, I look on your 
dttpeosations. I shut them out as we shut out winds blowing 
from the desert; hot, debilitating, oppressive, laden with 
hnpalpable sands and pungent salts, and mflicting an incurable 


Wdl, cousin Lucian I I can bear all you say while you are 
Bot witty. Let me bid you farewell in this happy interval. 


Is it not serious and sad, O my cousin, that what the Deity 
hmth willed to lie incomprehensible in his mysteries, we should 
fid! upon with tooth and nail, and ferociously growl over, or 
ignorantly dissect ? 


Ho I now you come to be serious and sad, there are hopes 
of you. Truth always begins or ends so. 


Undoubtedly. • But I think it more reverential to abstain 
from that which, with whatever effort, I should never under- 


Ton are lukewarm, my cousin, you are lukewarm. A most 
dangerous state. 


For milk to continue in, not for men. I would not fain be 

frozen or scalded. 


Alas ! yon are blind, my sweet cousin I 


Well ; do not open my eyes with pincers, nor compose for 
them a coUyrium of spurge. 

May not men eat and drink and talk together, and perform 
in relation one to another all the duties of social life, whose 
opinions are different on things immediately under tlicir eyes P 
Ii they can and do, surely they may as easily on things equally 
above the comprehension of each party. The wisest and most 
virtuous man in the whole extent of the Roman empire is 
Plutarch of Cheronasa : yet Plutarch holds a firm belief in the 
existence of I know not how many gods, every one of whom 


has committed notorious misdemeanours. The neueak to As 
CJieronaean in virtue and wisdom is Tnjan, vho holds all tk 
gods dog-cheap. These two men are friends. If either of 
them were influenced by your religion, as inculcated and 
practised by the priesthood, he womd be the enemy ci the 
other, and wisdom and virtue would plead for the delinqnest 
in vain. AVhen your religion had existed, as you tdl va, 
about a century, Caius Ca^ilius,* of Novum Comum, vai 
Proconsul in Bithynia. Trajan, the mildest and most equitaUe 
of mankind, desirous to remove from them, as far as might bc^ 
the hatred and invectives of those whose old religion w» 
assailed by them, applied to Ceecilius for information on thdr 
behaviour as good citizens. The reply of Qecilius w» 
£&vorable. Had Trajan applied to the most eminent and 
authoritative of the sect, they would certainly have brougbt 
into jeopardy all who differed in one tittle from any point cf 
their doctrine or discipline. For the thorny and bitter ake 
of dissension required less than a century to flower on the 
steps of your temple. 


You are already half a Christian, in exposing to the world 
the vanities both of philosophy and of power. 


I have done no such thing : I have exposed the vanities of 
the philosophising and the powerful. Philosophy is admirable; 
and Power may be glorious : the one conduces to truth, the 
other has nearly all the means of conferring peace and happi- 
ness, but it usually, and indeed almost alwavs. takes a contrary 
direction. I have ridiculed the futility of speculative minds, 
only when they would pave the clouds instead of the streets. 
To see distant things better than near, is a certain proof of a 
defective sight. The people I have held in derision never 
turn their eves to what thev can see, but direct them con- 
tinually where nothing is to be seen. And this, by their 
disciples, is called the sublimity of speculation ! There is little 
merit acquired, or force exhibited, in blowing ofl" a feather that 
would settle on my nose : and this is all I have done in regard 
to the philosophers : but I claim for myself the approbation of 
humanity, in having shown the true dimensions of the great 
The highest of them are no higher than my tunic; but they 

• The younger Plinj. 


ue high enough to trample on the necks of those wretches who 
throw themselves on tiie ground before them. 


Was Alexander of Macedon no higher ? 


What region of the earth, what city, what theater, what 
libnry, what private study, hath lie enliglitened ? If you are 
sQent, 1 may well be. It is ncitlier my philosophy nor your 
idigion which casts tlic blood and bones of men in their faces, 
and insists on the most reverence for those who have made the 
most unhappy. If tlie Homans scourged by the hands of 
children the s^choolmaster who would have betraved tliem, how 
greatly more dcser\ing of flagellation, from the same quarter, 
are those hundn'ds of pedagogues who deliver up the intcHccts 
of youth to such immoral revelers and mad murderers ! They 
would punish a thirsty child for purloining a bunch of grapes 
from a vincyanl, and the same men on the same day would 
insist on his revenMice for the subvcrttr of Tyre, the plunderer 
of Babylon, and the incendiary of Persepolis. And are these 
men tciichers? are these men philosophers? are these men 
priests? Of all the curses that ever afflicted the earth, I think 
Alexander was tlu^ worst. Never was he in so little mischief 
as'whcn he was murdering his friends. 

Yet he built this very city ; a noble and opulent one when 
Rome was of hurdles and rushes. 


He built it ? 1 wish, O Timotheus, he had been as well 
employed as the stone-cutters or the plasterers. 'So, no : the 
wiaicst of architects planned the most bciiutiful and comnuMlious 
of cities, by which, under a rational government and eiiiiitahle 
laws, Africa nn'ght have been civilis(»d to the center, and the 
palm have extended her confpiests through the remotest desert. 
instead of which, a dozen of Macedonian thieves rifled a dying 
drunkard and murdered his children. In process of time, 
another drunkard nrtded hitherward from Uome, made an easy 
mistake in mistaking a paLicc for a brothel, (KTmittcd a 
stripling boy to beat him soundly, and a ser|)ent to receive the 
last caresses of his paramour. 

Shame upon historians and pedagogues for exciting the 


worst passions of jouth by the display of such Cabe ^odetl 
If your religion hath any truth or iT^nence, her profencm vil 
extinguish the promontory lights, which only allure to breakcf& 
They wiJl be assiduous in teaching the young and ardent tbd 
great abilities do not constitute great men, without the ngkl 
and unremitting application of them; and that, in the si^ of 
Humanity and Wisdom, it is better to erect one cottage Hum 
to demolish a hundred cities. Down to the present day vc 
have been taught little else than falsehood. We hare Dea 
told to do this thing and that : we have been told we shall be 

Eunished uidess we do : but at the same time we are shown 
y the finger that prosperity and glory, and the esteem ci aO 
about us^ rest upon other and very different foundations. 
Now, do the ears or the eyes seduce the mo^et easily and Ind 
the most directly to the heart? But both eyes and eais aie 
won over, and alike are persuaded to corrupt us. 


Cousin Lucian, I was leaving you with the strangest of aD 
notions in my head. I began to think for a moment that yon 
doubted my sincerity in the religion I profess; and that a 
man of your admirable good sense, and at your advanced age, 
could reject that only sustenance which supports us throogb 
the grave into eternal life. 


I am the most docile and practicable of men, and never 
reject what people set before me : for if it is bread, it is good 
for my own use ; if bone or bran, it will do for my dog or 
mule. But, although you know my weakness and faciUiy, it 
is unfair to expect I should have admitted at once what the 
followers and personal friends of your Master for a long time 
hesitated to receive. I remember to have read in one of the 
early commentators, that his disciples themselves * could not 
swallow the miracle of the loaves ; and one who wrote more 
recently says, that even liis bretliren did not believe t in him. 


Yet finally, when they have looked over each other's accounts, 
they cast them up, and make them all tallv in the main sum; 
and if one omits an article, the next supplies its place with a 
commodity of the same value. "What would you liave ? But 
it is of little use to argue on religion with a man who^ pro- 

• Mark vi. f John th. 


his readiness to believe^ and even his credulity, yet 
dUwEeres in miracles. 


I should be obstinate and perverse if I disbelieved in the 
CKiftenee of a thing for no better reason than because I never 
mw it^ and can not understand its operations. Do you 
believe, Timotheus, that Perictione, the mother of Plato, 
becune his mother by the sole agency of Apollo^s divine 
wgmi, under the phantasm of that god ? 


I indeed believe such absurdities ? 


Tou touch me on a vital part if you call an absurdity the 
religion or philosophy in which I was educated. Anaxalides, 
mod Clearagus, and Speusippus, his own nephew, assert it. 
liVho should know better than they P 


Where are their proofs ? 


I would not be so indelicate as to require them on such an 
CKcasion. A short time ago 1 conversed with an old centurion, 
who was in service by the side of Vespasian, when Titus, and 
many officers and soldiers of the army, and many captives, 
were present, and who saw one Eleazar put a ring to the nostril 
of a ciemoniac (as the patient was called) and draw the demon 
out of it. 


And do you pretend to believe this nonsense ? 


I only believe that Vespasian and Titus had nothing to gain 
or accomplish by the miracle; and that Eleazar, if he had 
been detected in a trick bv two acute men and several 
thousand enemies, had nothing to look fonnard to but a cross ; 
the only piece of upholstery for which Judea seems to have 
either wood or workmen, and which are as common in tliat 
country as direction-posts are in any other. 


The Jews are a stiff-necked people. 


On such occasions, no doubt. 


TN'^ould you^ O Lucian, be classed among the atheists, lib 

Epicurus ? 


It lies not at my discretion what name shall be given me H 

f resent or hereafter^ any more than it did at my birth. Boi 
wonder at the ignorance and precipitancy of those who caD 
£picurus an atheist. lie saw on the same earth with himself i 
ffreat variety of inferior creatures, some possessing more sensi- 
bility and more thoughtfulness than others. Analogy would 
lead so contemplative a reasoner to the conclusion, that if 
many were inferior and in sight, others might be superior and 
out of sight. He never disbelieved in the existence of the gods; 
he only disbelieved that they troubled their heads with oor 
concerns. Have they none of their own ? If they are ha^, 
does their happiness depend on us, comparatively so imbecuf 
and vile ? He believed, as nearly all nations do, in different 
ranks and orders of superhuman beings: and perhaps he 
thought (but I never was in his confidence or counsels) tkrt 
the higher were rather in communication with the neit to 
them in intellectual faculties, than with the most remote. To 
me the suggestion appears by no means irrational, tliat, if we 
are managed or cared for at all, by beings wiser than ourselTW 
(which in truth would be no sign of any great wisdom in 
them), it can only be by such as are very far from perfection, 
and who indulge us in the commission of innumerable faults 
and follies, for their own speculation or amusement. 


There is onlv one such : and he is the Dc^^l. 


If he delights in our wickedness, which you believe, he most 
be incomparably the happiest of l)eings, which you do noi 
believe. No god of Epicurus rests his elbow on his arm- 
chair M'ith less energetic exertion or discomposure. 


We lead holier and purer hves than such ignorant mortals 
as are not hving under Grace. 


I also live under Grace, O Tiraotheus ! and I venerate her 
for the pleasures I have received at her hands. I do not 


believe she has quite deserted me. If my grey hairs are 
imattractive to her^ and if the trace of her fingers is lost in 
the wrinkles of my foreliead^ stil I sometimes am told it is 
discernible even on the latest and coldest of my writings. 


You are iRilful in misapprehension, Tlie Grace of which I 
speak is adverse to pleasure and impurity. 


Bightly do you separate impurity and pleasure^ whicli 
inde^ soon fly asunder when tlie improvident would unite 
them. But never believe that tenderness of heart signifies 
corruption of morals, if you happen to find it (whicli indeed 
is uiiukely) in the direction you have taken : on the contrary, 
no two nualities are oftener found together, on mind as on 
mstter, than hardness and lubricity. 

Believe me, cousin Timotheus, wlien we come to eighty 
years of age we are all Essenes. In our kingdom of heaven 
there is no marrying or ffiving in marriage ; and austerity in 
ourselves, when Nature holds over us the sharp instrument 
with which Jupiter operated on Saturn, makes us austere to 
others. Bat now happens it that you, both old and young, 
break every bond whicli connected you anciently with the 
Essenes ? Not only do you marry (a highth of wisdom to 
which I never have attained, although in others I commend 
it), but you never share your substance with the poorest of 
your community, as they did, nor live simply and frugally, 
nor refuse rank and ofiices in the state, nor abstain from 
litigation, nor abominate and execrate the wounds and cruelties 
of war. The Essenes did all this, and greatly more, if Joscphus 
and Philo, whose political and religious tenets are opposite to 
theirs, are credible and trust-worthy. 


Doubtless vou would also wish us to retire into the desert, 
and eschew tfie conversation of mankind. 


No indeed ; but I would wish the greater part of your 
people to eschew mine, for they bring all the worst of the 
desert with them wherever they enter; its smothering heats, 
its blinding sands, its sweeping suffocation. Krturu to the 
pure spirit of the Essenes, without their asceticism; ceai^e 
m>m controversy, and drop party designations. If you will 


not do tbis^ do less, and be merelj what joa piofen to V^ 
whidi is quite enough for an honesty a nrtnoosy ud a icfigiov 


Cousin Lucian, I did not come hither to reoeiTe a ketan 
from you. 


I have often given a dinner to a friend who did not come to 
dine with me. 


Then, I trust, you save him something better for dtDner 
than bay-salt and danaelions. If you will not assist us ia 
nettUng our enemies a little for their absurdities and impositioiii^ 
let me intreat you however to let us alone, and to make vo 
remarks on us. I myself nm into no extravagances, like tk 
Essenes, washing and fasting, and roaming into solitude. I 
am not called to them: when I am, I go. 


I am apprehensive the Lord may afflict you with deafixai 
in that ear. 


Nevertheless, I am indifferent to the world, and all things 
in it. This^ I trust, you will acknowledge to be true religkm 
and true philosophy. 


Tliat is not philosophy which betrays an indifference to those 
for whose benefit philosophy was designed ; and those are the 
whole human race. But 1 hold it to be the most unphiloso- 
phical thing in the world, to call away men from useful 
occupations and mutual help, to profitless speculations and 
acrid controversies. Censurable enough, and contemptible 
too, is that supercilious philosopher, sneeringly sedate, who 
narrates in full and flowing periods the persecutions and tor- 
tures of a feUow man, led astray by his credulity, and ready to 
die in the assertion of what in his soul he believes to be tlie 
truth. But hardly less censurable, hardly less contemptiUf, 
is the tranquilly arrogant sectarian, who denies that wisdom or 
honesty can exist beyond the limits of his own ill-lighted 


What ! is he sanguinary ? 



Whenever he can be, he is : and he always has it in his 
power to be even worse than that : for he refuses his custom 
to the industrious and honest shopkeeper who has been taught 
to think diiTcrcnllv from himself, m matters which he has had 
no leisure to study, and by which, if he had enjoyed that 
leimre, he would have been a less industrious and a less expert 


We can not countenance those hard-hearted men who refuse 
to hear the word of the Lord. 


The hard-hearted knowing this of the tender-liearted, and 
receiving the declaration from their own lips, will refuse to 
hear the word of the Lord all their lives. 


Well, well ; it can not be helped. I see, cousin, my hopes 
of obtaining a little of your assistance in your own pleasant 
way arc dis;ip{)ointed : but it is something to have conceived a 
better hoiM» of saving your soul, from your readiness to 
acknowledge your belief in miracles. 


Miracles have existed in all ages and in all religions. Wit- 
nesses to some of them have been numerous; to others of 
them fewer. Occasionally the witnesses have been disinterested 
in the result. 


Kow indeed you speak tndy and wisely. 

But sometimes the most honest and the most quiescent 
have either been unable or unwilling to push tlieniselvc^ 
so forward as to see clearly and distinctly the whole of the 
operation; and have listened to some knave who fdt a 
{Measure in deluding their credulity, or some other who himself 
was cither an enthusiast or a dupe. It also may have 
happeneil in the andent religions, of Kgjpt for instance, or of 
India, or even of Cireece, that narratives nave been attributed 
to authors who never heanl of them ; and have been circulated 
by honest men who firmly believed them ; by half-honest, who 
indulged their vanity in becoming members of a novel and 
bustling society; and by utterly dishonest, who, having no 


other means of rising above the shoulders of the Ynlgar, thiev 
dust into their eyes and made them stoop. 


Ha ! the rogues ! It is nearly all over with them. 


Let us hope so. Parthenius and the Boman poet Ovidins 
Naso, have related the transformations of sujudry men, women, 
and gods. 


Idleness ! Idleness ! I never read such lying authors. 


I myself have seen enough to incline me toward a belief in 


You? Why! you have always been thought an utter 
infidel ; and now you are running, hot and heedless as any 
mad dog, to the opposite extreme ! 


I have lived to see, not indeed one man, but certainly one 
animal turned into another : nay, great numbers. I have seen 
sheep with the most placid faces in the morning; one nibbling 
the tender herb with all its dew upon it ; another, negligent of 
its own sustenance, and giving it copiously to the tottering 
lamb aside it. 


How pretty ! half-poetical ! 


In the heat of the day I saw the very same sheep tearing off 
each other's fleeces with long teeth and longer claws, and 
imitating so admirably the howl of wolves, that at last the 
wolves came down on them in a body, and lent their besi 
assistance at the general devouring. AVhat is more remarkable, 
the people of the villages seemed to enjoy the sport; and, 
instead of attacking the wolves, waited until they had filled 
their stomachs, ate the little that was left, said piouslv and 
from the bottom of their hearts what you call grace^ audi went 
home singing and piping. 




Cori.D a Numidinn horseman ride no faster ? Marcollus! 
ho ! Marcelhis ! He moves not . . he is dead. Did he not 
stir his lingers ? Stand wide, soldiers . . wide, forty paces 
. . give hini air . . bring water . . halt ! Gather tliose 
broad leaves, and all the rest, growing under the brushwood 
• . unbraee his annour. Loose the helmet lirst . . his breast 
rises. I fancied his eyes were fixed on me . . tlu*y have 
rolled biu-k again. Who presumed to touch my shouhler ? 
This horsi'? It was surelv the horse of Marcellus! Let no 
man mount him. Ha ! ha ! the Romans too sink into luxury : 
here is gold about the charger. 


Expcmlje thief ! The golden chain of our kinir under a 
boast's grinders ! The vengeance of the gods hath overtaken 
the impure • . . 


"We will talk about vengeance when we have onttTed Rome, 
and about purity among the priests, if they will he;ir us. 
Sound for the surgeon. That arrow may be extracted from the 
side, deep as it is . . . The conf|ueror of Syracuse lie> before 
mc . . . Send a vessel otf to Cart ha tre. Sav llannii)nl i< at the 
gates of Rome . . . Marcellus, who st(M)d idone between us, 
Allien. Vrave man ! I would rejoice and can not . . . How 
awfully serene a countenance ! Such :is we hear an^ in the 
ilands of the lUessed. And how ghirious a form and stature I 
Such too was theirs ! Hiey also once lay thus upon the earth 
wet with their blood . . few other enter there. And what 
plain armour 1 


Mv party slew him . . indeed I think I slew liim myself. 
I claim the chain : it belongs to my king: the glory of (iaul 
rwiuin-s it. Never will she endure to si't- anotlier take it: 
rather would she lose her last man. AVe swear ! we swear ! 



My friend^ tbe glory of Marcellas did not require him to 
wear it. When he suspended the arms of jonr brave king h 
the temple^ he thought such a trmket unworthy of hinisdf and 
of Jupiter. The shield he battered down, the breast-plate he 
pierced with his sword, these he showed to the people and to 
the gods ; hardly his wife and little children saw this, ere Im 
horse wore it. 


Hear me, O Hannibal ! 


What ! when Marcellus bes before me ? when his life mqr 
perhaps be recalled? when I may lead him in triumph to 
Carthage ? when Italy, SicUy, Greece, Asia, wait to obey mc? 
Content thee ! I ¥rill give thee mine own bridle, worth ta 


For myself ? 


For thyself. 


And these rubies and emeralds and tliat scarlet . . 


Yes, yes. 


glorious Hannibal ! unconquerable hero ! O my happr 
country I to have such an ally and defender. I swear etermu 
gratitude . . yes, gratitude, love, devotion, beyond eternity. 


In Jill treaties we fix the time : I could hardly ask a longer. 
Go back to thy station . . I would see what the sui^eon is 
about, and hear what he thinks. The life of Marcellus ! the 
triumph of Hannibal I what else has the world in it ? only 
Kome and Carthage : these follow. 


Hardly an hour of life is left, 


1 must die then ! The gods be praised ! The commander 
of a Boman army is no captive. 



d not he bear a sea-voyage P Extract the arrow. 


expires that moment. 


lins me : extract it. 


cellu5, I see no expression of pain on your countenance 

vcr will I consent to hasten the death of an enemy in 

rer. Since your recovery is hopeless, you say tndy you 


tAe Surgeon.) Is there nothing, man, that can assuage 

rtal pain ? for, suppress the signs of it as he may, he 

eel it. Is there notning to alleviate and allay it P 


inibai, give me thy hand • . thou hast found it and 
it it me, compassion. 

the Surgeon.) Go, friend; others want thy aid; several 
)Uiid me. 


ommend to your country, Marcellus, while time 
s it, reconciliation and peace with me, informing the 
of my superiority in force, and the impossibility of 
nw. ITie tablet is ready : let me take off this ring . . 
write, to sign it at least. ! what satisfaction I feel at 
you able to rest upon the elbow, and even to smile ! 


hin an hour or less, with how severe a brow would 
say to me, " Marcellus, is this thy writing P '' 
ne loses one man : she hath lost many such, and she 
th many left. 


lid as you are of falsehood, say you this P I confess in 
the ferocity of my countrymen. Unfortunately too the 

posts are occupied by Gauls, infinitely more cruel, 
umidians are so m revenge ; the Gauls both in revenge 

sport. My presence is required at a distance, and I 
icnd the barbarity of one or other, learning, as they 
do, your refusal to execute my wishes for the common 

z 2 


good, and feeling that by this refusal joa deprive them of thek 
country^ after so long an absence. 


Hannibal^ thou art not djing. 
WTiat then ? What mean vou ? 


That thou mayest, and very justly, have many things yet to 
apprehend : I can have none. The barbarity of thv soldien v 
nothing to me : mine would not dare be cruel, bannibal i 
forced to be absent; and his authority ^oes away with Id 
horse. On this turf lies defaced the semblance of a genenl; 
but Marcellus is yet the r^ulator of his army. Dost thoi 
abdicate a power conferred on thee by thy nation ? Or wouldst 
thou acknowledge it to have become, by thy own sole bxit, 
less plenary than thy adversary's ? 

I have spoken too much : let me rest : this mantle oppresses 


I placed my mantle on your head when the helmet was first 
removed, and while you were Ijing in the sun. Let me fold ii 
under, and then replace the ring. 


Take it, Hannibal. It was given me by a poor woman who 
flew to me at Syracuse, and who covered it with her hair, torn 
off in desperation that she had no other gift to offer. Litde 
thought I that her gift and her words should be mine. Hotr 
suddenly may the most powerful be in the situation of the 
most helpless I Let that ring and the mantle under my head 
be the exchange of guests at parting. The time may ccMoe^ 
Hannibal, when thou (and the gods alone know whether as 
conqueror or conquered) mayest sit under the roof of mj 
children, and in either case it shall serve thee. In thy advene 
fortune, they will remember on whose pillow their father 
breathed his last; in thy prosperous (heaven grant it msj 
shine upon thee in some other country) it will rejoice thee to 
protect them. We feel ourselves the most exempt firom 
affliction when we relieve it, although we are then the most 
conscious that it may befall us. 


There is one thing here which is not at the disposal of 




This body. 


Whither would you be lifted ? Men are ready. 


I meant not so. My strength is failing. I seem to hear 
nther what is within than what is without. My sight and my 
Diher senses are in confusion. I would have said. This body, 
when a few bubbles of air shall have left it, is no more worthy 
[)f thy notice than of mine ; but thy glory will not let thee 
refase it to the piety of my family. 


ITou would ask something else. I perceive an inquietude 
not visible til now. 


Duty and Death make us think of home sometimes. 


Thitherward the thoughts of the conqueror and of the 
conquered fly together. 


Hast thou any prisoners from my escort ? 


A few dying lie about . . and let them lie . . they are 
Tuscans. The remainder I saw at a distance, flying, and but 
one brave man among them . . he appeared a Roniau . . a 
jouth who turned back, though wounded. Tliey surrounded 
and dragged him away, spurring his horse with their swords. 
These £trurians measure their courage carefully, and tack it 
well together before they, put it on, but throw it off again with 
lordly ease. 

M!arcellus, why think about them? or does aught else 
disquiet your thoughts ? 


I have suppressed it long enough. My son . . my beloved 



Where is he ? Can it be ? Was he with you 



He would have shared my fate . . and has not. Gods of 
my country ! beneficent throughout life to me, in death 
ingly ben^cent, I render you, for the last time, thanks. 

P. scrpio iD^mjANus, polybius, pan-stits. 

Polybius, if you have found me slow in rising to you, if I 
lifted not up my eyes to salute you on your entrance, do not 
hold me ungrateful . . proud there is no danger that you vill 
ever call me : this day of all davs would least make me so : it 
shows me the power of the immortal gods, the mutabihtT of 
fortune, the instability of empire, the feebleness, the nothing- 
ness of man. The earth stands motionless ; the grass upon h 
bends and returns, the same to-day as yesterday, the same in 
this age as in a hundred past : the sky darkens and is serene 
again; the clouds melt away, but they are clouds another time, 
and float like triumphal pageants along the heavens. Carthage 
is fallen ! to rise no more ! the funereal horns have this hour 
announced to us, that, after eighteen days and eighteen nights 
of conflagration, her last embers are extinguished. 


Perhaps, O -Emihanus, I ought not to have come in. 

Welcome, my friend. 


While you were speaking I would by no means interrupt 
you so idly, as to ask you to whom you have been proud, or to 
whom could you be ungrateful. 


To him, if to any, whose hand is in mine ; to him on whose 
shoulder I rest my head, weary with presages and \'isiLs. 
Collect my thoughts' for me, O my friend ! the fiall of Carthage 


hath shaken and scattered them. There are moments when, 
if we are quite contented with ourselves, we never can remount 
to what we were before. 


Panstius is absent. 


Feeling the necessity, at the moment, of utter loneliness, I 
despatched him toward the city. Tliere may be (yes, even 
there) some suiferings which the senate would not censure us 
for assua^ng. But behold he returns ! AVe were speaking 
of you, Pantctius ! 


And about what beside ? Come, honestly tell me, Polybius, 
on what are you reflecting and meditating with such sedately 
iuteuse enthusiasm ? 


After the burning of some village, or the overleaping of 
some garden-wall, to exterminate a few pirates or highwaymen, 
I have seen the commander's tent thronged with oflicers ; I 
have heard as many trumpets around him as would have sliaken 
down the places of themselves; I have seen the horses start 
from the pretorium, as if they would fly from under their 
trappings, and spurred as if they were to reach the east and 
west before sunset, that nations might hciir of the exploit, and 
sleep soundly. And now do I behold in solitude, almost in 
gloom, and in such silence tliat, unless my voice prevents it, 
the grasshop})er is audible, him who hzis levelled to the earth 
the strongest and most populous of cities, the wealthiest and 
most formidable of em])ires. I had seen Rome ; I had seen 
(n'hat those who never saw never tcHl see) Carthage ; 1 thought 
I had seen Scipio : it was but the image of him : here I Und 


There are many hearts that ache this day : there are many 
that never will ache more : hath one man done it ? one man's 
breath? AVliat air, upon the earth, or upon the waters, or in 
the void of heaven, is lost so quickly I it flies away at the 
point of an arrow, and returns no more ! the sea -foam stifles 
It ! the tooth of a reptile stops it ! a noxious leaf suppresses it. 
AVliat are wc in our greatness ? whence rises it ? whilher 
tends it ? 

Merciful gods I may not Rome be what Carthage is ? may 


not those who love her devotedlT> those who will hxik on kr 
with fondness and affection after me^ see her in siidi conditioB 

as to wish she were so ? 


One of the heaviest groans over fiallen Carthage, burst bam 
the breast of Scipio : who would believe this tale ? 


Men like my Folybius : others must never hear it. 


You have not ridden forth, /Rmihanus, to survey the mins. 


No, Folybius : since I removed my tent to avoid the heit 
from the conflagration, I never have ridden nor walked nor 
looked toward them. At this elevation, and three miles oS^ 
the temperature of the season is altered. I do not believe, as 
those about me would have persuaded me, that the gods were 
visible in the clouds ; that thrones of ebony and gold were 
scattered in all directions ; that broken chariots and flamii^ 
steeds, and brazen bridges, had cast their fragments upon t)» 
earth ; that eagles and lions, dolphins and tridents, and other 
emblems of }K)wer and empire, were visible at one moment, and 
at the next had vanished ; that purple and scarlet overspread 
the mansions of the gods ; that their voices were heard at first 
confusedly and discordantly; and that the apparition closed 
with their high festivals. I could not keep my eyes on the 
heavens : a crash of arch or of theater or of tower, a column of 
flame rising higher than they were, or a imiversal cry, as if 
none until then had perished, drew them thitherward. Such 
were the dismal sights and sounds, a fresh city seemed to have 
been taken every hour, for seventeen days. This is the 
nineteenth since the smoke arose from the level roofs and from 
the lofty temples, and thousands died, and tens of thousands 
ran in search of death. 

Calamity moves me ; heroism moves me more. That a 
nation whose avarice we have so often reprehended, should 
have cast into the furnace gold and silver, from the insufficiency 
of brass and iron for arms ; that palaces the most magniiicent 
should have been demolished by the proprietor for their beams 
and rafters, in order to build a fleet against us ; tliat the ropes 
whereby the slaves hauled them down to the new harbour, 


LOQld in part be composed of hair, for one lock of which 
ngs would have laid down their diadems; that Asdrubal 
toold have found equals, his wife none . . my mind, my very 
nbs, are unstcddy with admiration. 

O Liberty ! what art thou to the valiant and brave, when 
lou art thus to the weak and timid! dearer than life, 
ronger than death, higher than purest love. Never will I 
11 upon thee where thy name can be profemed, and nevor 
lall u)y soul acknowledge a more exalted Power than thee. 


The Carthaginians and Moors have, beyond other nations, 
delicate feeling on female chastity. Bather than that their 
omen should become slaves and concubines, they slay them : 

it certain that Asdrubal did not observe, or cause to be 
Merved, the custom of his country ? 


Certain : on the surrender of Ids array his wife threw herself 
id her two infants into the flames. Not only memorable 
jts, of what the dastardly will call desperation, were performed, 
at some also of deliberate and signal justice. Avaricious as 
e called the people, and unjustly, as you have proved, 
'Imilianus, I will relate what I myself was witness to. 

In a part of the city where the fire had subsided, we were 
Lcited oy loud cries, rather of indignation, we thought, than 
such as fear or lament or threaten or exhort ; and we 
ressed forward to disperse the multitude. Our horses often 
lunged in the soft dust, and in the holes whence the 
ivement had been removed for missiles, and often reared 
p and snorted violently at smeUs which we could not 
srceive, but which we discovered to rise from bodies, 
iQtilated and half-burnt, of soldiers and horses, laid bare, 
me partly, some wholly, by the march of the troop. 
lihough the distance from the place whence we parted to that 
here we heard the cries, was very short, yet from the incum- 
rances in tliat street, and from the dust and smoke issuing 
at of others, it was some time before we reached it. On 
u near approach, two old men threw themselves on the 
pound before us, and the elder spake thus. " Our age, O 
omans, neither will nor ought to be our protection : we are, 
' rather we have been, judges of this land ; and to the utter- 


most of our power we have invited our countrrmen to resit 
you. The laws are now yours/' 

The expectation of the people was intense and sflent : ve 
had heard some groans ; and now the last words of the old 
man were taken up by others^ by men in agony. 

^* Yes^ O Bomans ! " said the elder who accompanied him 
that had addressed us^ ''the laws are yours; and none punish 
more severely than you do treason and parricide. Let your 
horses turn this comer, and you will see before you traitors and 

We entered a small square: it had been a market-place: 
the roofs of the stalls were demolished, and the stones d 
several columns, (thrown down to extract the cramps of iron 
and the lead that fastened them) served for the spectators, male 
and female, to mount on. Five men were nailed on crosses; 
two others were nailed against a wall, from scarcity (as we 
were told) of wood. 

''Can seven men have murdered their parents in the same 
year?'' cried I. 

" No, nor has any of the seven," replied the first who had 
spoken. " But when hea\T impositions were laid upon tho^e 
who were backward in voluntary contributions, these men, 
among the richest in our city, protested by the gods that they 
had no gold or silver left. They protested trulv." 

"And they die for this! inhuman, insatiable, inexorable 
wretch ! " 

" Their books," added he, immoved at my reproaches, " were 
seized by public authority and examined. It was discovered 
that, instead of emplojing their riches in external or internal 
commerce, or in manufactories, or in agriculture, instead of 
reserxing it for the embellishment of the city, or the utility of 
the citizens, instead of lending it on interest to the industrious 
and the needy, they had lent it to foren kings and tyrants, 
some of whom were waging unjust wars by these very means, 
and others were enslaring their own country. For so hainous 
a crime the laws had appointed no specific punishment. On 
such occasions the people and elders vote in what manner the 
delinquent shall be prosecuted, lest any offender should escape 
with impunity, from their humanity or improvidence. Some 
voted that these wretches should te cast amid the panthers; 
the majority decreed them (I think wisely) a more lingering 
and more ignominious death." 


The men upon the crosses held down their heads^ whether 
from shame or pain or feebleness. The sunbeams were striking 
them fiercely; sweat ran from them^ liquefying the blood that 
lad blackened and hardened on their hands and feet. A soldier 
flood by the side of each, lowering the point of his spear to 
^he ground; but no one of them gave it up to us. A centu- 
rion asked the nearest of them how he dared to stand armed 
tiefore him. 

" Because the city is in ruins, and the laws stil live/' said 
be. ''At the first order of the conqueror or the elders, 
[ surrender my spear.'' 

'' What is your pleasure, commander ? " said the elder. 

''That an act of justice be the last public act performed by 
the citizens of Carthage, and that the sufferings of these 
wretches be not abridged." 

Such was my reply. The soldiers piled their spears, for the 
x)ints of which the hearts of the crucified men tnirsted ; and 
:he people hailed us as they would have hailed deliverers. 


It is wonderful that a city, in which private men are so 
realthv as to furnish the armories of tyrants, should have 
existed so long, and flourisliing in power and freedom. 

It survived but shortly this flagrant crime in its richer 
ntizens. An admirable form of government, spacious and safe 
larbours, a fertile soil, a healthy climate, industry and science 
n agriculture, in which no nation is equal to the Moorish, 
rere the causes of its prosperity: there are many of its 


Enumerate them, Fanietius, with your wonted clearness. 

We are fond, my friends ! of likening power and great- 
teas to the luminaries of heaven; and we think ourselves 
[uite moderate when we compare the agitations of elevated 
ools to whatever is highest and strongest on the earth, liable 
Uke to shocks and sufferings, and able alike to survive and 
veroome them. And truly thus to reason, as if all things 
round and above us sympathized, is good both for heart and 
dtellect. I have little or nothing of the poetical in my 


character ; and yet firom reading over and considermg thoe 
similitudes, I am fain to look upon nations with somewhat of 
the same feeling; and, dropping from the mountains anil 
disentangling myself from the woods and forests, to fancy I see 
in states what I have seen in cornfields. The green bladei 
rise up vigorously in an inclement season, and the wind itadf 
makes them shine against the sim. There is room enongh fior 
all of them : none wounds another by collision or weakens by 
overtopping it; but, rising and bencQng simultaneously, thej 
seem equally and mutually supported, ^o sooner do the ean 
of com upon them he close together in their full maturity, 
than a sUglit inundation is enough to cast them down, or » 
fjEont blast of wind to shed and scatter them. In Carthage 
we have seen the powerful families, however discordant among 
themselves, unite against the popular ; and it was only when 
their Uves were at stake that the people co-operated with the 

A mercantile democracy may govern long and widely; a 
mercantile aristocracy can not stand. WTiat people will enduie 
the supremacy of those, uneducated and presumptuous, from 
whom they buy their mats and faggots, and who receive their 
money for the most ordinary and Wle utensils ? If no con- 
queror enslaves them from abroad, they would, under such 
disgrace, welcome as their deliverer, and acknowledge as their 
master, the citizen most distinguished for his miUtary achieve- 
ments. The rich men who were crucified in the weltering 
wilderness beneath us, would not have employed such criminal 
means of gro^ring richer, liad they never been persuaded to the 
contrary, and that enormous wealth would enable them to 
commit another and a more flagitious act of treason against 
their country, in raising them above the people, and enabUng 
them to become its taxers and oppressors. 

.Eniilianus ! what a costly beacon here hath Rome before 
her in this awful conflagration : the greatest (I hope) ever to 
be, until tliat wherein the world must perish. 


How many Sibvlhne books are legible in yonder embers ! 

The causes, O !f anajtius, which you have stated, of Carthage's 
former most flourishing condition, are also those why a hostile 
senate hath seen the necessity of her destruction, necessary not 
only to the dominion, but to the security, of Some. Italy has 


the fewest and the worst (arbours of any country known to 
OS : a third of her soil is sterile^ a third of the remainder is 
pestiferous : and her inhabitants are more addicted to war and 
rapine than to industry and commerce. To make room for her 
few merchants on the Adriatic and Ionian seas^ she bums 
Corinth : to leave no rival in traffic or in power, she bums 



If the Carthaginians had extended their laws and Language 
over the surrounding states of Africa, which they might have 
done bv moderation and equity, this ruin could not have been 
effected. Bome has been victorious by ha\ing been the first 
to adopt a liberal policy, which even in war itself is a wise one. 
The parricides who lent their money to the petty tyrants of 
other countries, would have found it greatly more advantageous 
to emph>y it in cultivation nearer home, and in feeding those as 
husbandmen whom else they must fear as enemies. So little 
is the Carthaginian language known, that I doubt whether we 
shall in our Hfctimc see anvone translate their aniuils into 
Latin or Greek : and within these few days what tn\nsurcs of 
antiquity have been irreparably lost ! The Romans will repose 
at riirean* tables for ages, and never know at last perhaps 
whence the Carthaginians brought their wood. 


It is an awful thing to close as we have done the history of 
a people. If .the inteUigence brought this morning to P(>lyl)ius 
be true, t in one year the two most flourishing and most 
beautiful cities in the world have perished, in comparison with 
which our Kome presents but the pent-houses of artizans or 
the sheds of shepherds. With whatever celerity the mi'ss(Miger 
fled from Corinth and arrived here, the particulars must have 
been known at Kome as early, and I shall receive tlu^m ere 
many days are past. 

* The traU citrea is not eitrtm wood oa we underatand the fniit tivo. It 
was often of great dimensions: it appears from the iIescri]>tioii df its 
colour to hsTO been mahogany. The trade to the Atlantic cuntineiit and 
ilands must have been poaeeMod bj a company, bound to kcitvcv by oath 
and interest. The prodigious price of this wood at Home proves that it 
had ceafte<l to be imported, or perhai>s found, in the time of Cicero. 

f Corinth in foci was not burnt until some months after Cartha^'c : but as 
one »ucces4 is always followed by the rumour of another, the relation is 
not improbable. 



I hardly know whether we are not less afiSected at the 
occnrrence of two or three momentous and terrible evenia^ 
than at one ; and whether the gods do not naoally place flm 
together in the order of 1iiings|y tlmt we may be awe-stricken 
by the former, and reconciled to their decrees by the latter, 
firom an impression of their power. I know not what Babyka 
may have been ; but I presume that, as in the case of all other 
great Asiatic capitals, the habitations of the people (who are 
slaves) were wretched, and that the magnificence of the place 
consisted in the property of the king and priesthood, and 'm 
the walls erected for the defence of it. Many streets probably 
were hardly worth a little bronze cow of Myron, such as a 
stripling could steal and carry off. The case of Corinth and 
of Carthage was very different. Wealth overspread the greater 
part of them, competence and content the whole. Wherever 
there are despotical governments, poverty and industry dwdl 
together ; Shame dogs them in the public walks ; Hunmiation 
is among their household gods. 


I do not remember the overthrow of any two other great 
cities within so short an interval. 

I was not thinking so much of cities or their inhabitants, 
when I began to speak of what a breath of the gods removes 
at once from earth. I was recollecting, O JSmilianus, that 
in one Olympiad the three greatest men that ever appeared 
together were swept off. What is Babylon, or Corinth, or 
Carthage, in comparison with these ! what would their destrac- 
tion be, if every hair on the head of every inhabitant had 
become a man, such as most men are ! First in order of 
removal was he whose steps you have followed, and whose 
labours you have completed, Africanus: then PhilopoemcD, 
whose task was more difficult, more complex, more perfect: 
and lastly Hannibal. What he was you know better than any. 


Had he been supported by his country, had only his losses 
been filled up, and skilful engineers sent out to him with 
machinery and implements for si(^s, we should not be dis- 
coursing here on what he was: the Roman name had been 



Since .£milianas is as unwilling to blame an enemy as a 
friend, I take it on myself to censure Hannibal for two things, 
sabject however to the decision of him who has conquered 


The first I anticipate : now what is the second ? 


I would hear both stated and discoursed on, although the 
knowledge will be of little use to me. 


I condemn, as every one docs, his inaction after the battle 
of Cannae; and, in his last engagement with Africanus, I 
condemn no less his bringing into the front of the center, as 
became some showy tetrarch rather than Hannibal, his eighty 
elephants, by the refractoriness of which he lost the battle. 


TVhat would you have done with them, Polybius ? 


Scipio, I think it unwise and unmilitary to employ any force 
on which we can by no means calculate. 


Gravely said and worthy of Polybius. In the first book of 
your historj', which leaves me no other wisli or desire than 
that you should continue as you begin it, we have, in three 
different engagements, three different effects produced by 
the employment of elephants. The first, when our soldiers in 
Sicily, under Lucius Postumius and Quinctus Mamihus, drove 
the Carthaginians into Heraclea; in which battle the advanced 

Kurd of the enemy, being repulsed, propelled these animals 
ore it upon the main body of the army, causing an irrepar- 
able disaster : the second, in the ill-conducted engagement of 
Atilius Beeulus, who, fearing the shock of them, condensed his 
center, and was outflanked. He should have opened the lines 
to them and have suffered them to pass through, as the enemy's 
cavalry was in the wings, and the infantry not enougli in 
advance to profit by such an evolution. The third was evinced 
at Panormus, when Metellus gave orders to the light-armed 
troops to harass them and retreat into the trenches, from which, 


wounded and confounded^ and finding no way open, thev rnakd 
back (as many as could) against the Carthaginian army, and 
accelerated its discomfiture. 


If I had employed the elephants at all, it should rather hue 
been in the rear or on the flank ; and even there not at the 
banning of the engagement, unless I knew that the horses or 
the soldiers were unused to encounter them. Hannibal most 
have well remembered (being equally great in memory and 
invention) that the Romans had been accustomed to them in 
the war with Pyrrhus, and must have expected more service 
from them against the barbarians of the two Gauls, against the 
Insubres and Taurini, than against our legions. He kner 
that the Eomans had on more than one occasion made them 
detrimental to their masters. Having with him a large bod? 
of troops collected by force from various nations, and \iepi 
together with difiiculty, he should have placed the elephants 
where they would have been a terror to these soldiers, not 
without a threat that they were to trample down such of them 
as attempted to fly or declined to fight. 


Kow, what think you, Pana;tius ? 

It is well, O iEmilianus, when soldiers would be philoso- 
phers ; but it is ill when philosophers would be soldiers. Do 
you and Polybius agree on the point ? if you do, the question 
need be asked of none other. 


Truly, Pansetius, I would rather hear the tlung from him 
than that Hannibal should have heard it : for a wise man will 
say many things which even a wiser may not have thought of. 
Let me tell you both however, what Polybius may perha{» 
know already, that combustibles were placed by Africanus both 
in flank and rear, at equal distances, Tilth archers from among 
the light horsemen, whose arrows had liquid fire attached to 
them, and whose movements would have irritated, distracted, 
and wearied down the elephants, even if the wounds and 
scorchings had been ineffectual. But come, Polybius, you 
must talk now as others talk ; we all do sometimes. 


I am the last to admit the authority of the vulgar ; but hof 



»T »n m«< and unite, Without asserting or believing that 
the erncral opinion ia of atiy weight against a captain like 
ilniiiiiti-il ; agreeing on the eotitrarj- with I'aniPtius, and tiimly 
pn«iia<lr<i ihal injriudo of little men van no more compensate 
■ great ow than they can make him ; jou will listen to me if 
I ulducc the authority of Lielius. 

On*t authority ! and perhup, asliTing and conversing with 
tkoM who K'lnemliered the action of Canns, preferable even 
to jour own. 

It was liis opinion that, from the consternation of Eome, 
fiu city might have been taken. 

Tt suited not the Trisdom or the cKperience of llannibal to 
rrly on the cuoatcniatiou of the llomau people. I too, tliat 
*r may be on equal terms, have some authority to bring 
rarwanl. Tlic Kon of .Vfricauus, he who adojited me into tlie 
family of the Scipiw, was, as you both rememlR-r, a man of 
dilicale h<'Alth and scih'ntary habits, learned, elecaiil, and 
jriired. He rehiled to me, as hnvLiig lieartt it from his futher, 
that Iluiniba] after the batUe sent home the rings of the li4iman 
kniffbCs, and said iu bia letter, " If vou will instantly give me 
a addier for each ring, titgether with such macliines aa are 
■Ircaily in the arsenal, I will replace them surmounted by the 
rtatue of Cnpiftline .lupiler, and our supplications to the gods 
of onr munlTy uliall bi^ mn'le along the slreels and in the 
tonple:!, nn the robes nf the Botusu senate." Could be doubt 
of K moderate a supply P he wnitfd for it in vain. 

And now I will relate to you another thing, which I am 
pemuiiW yon will acnrpt as a sullicient reason of iltelf why 
Hnnnilinl did not be*ii'ge our city after the battle of C«nnte. 
Hl* ii* ri hiM VM la severe, that, in bis whole nnny, he could 
no! nm-'iT ten thousand men." 

Bui, my fnenda, as I am certain that neither of you will 
over ibuik me inndious, and as the CT-cnlncss of Ilnnnibol docs 
oat dinunisb the n-piitnlion of Airienniis, but ougincnt it, 
I will venture to remark that he boil httle sLiIl or practice in 
fl)i;ga; that, afttr the bnttk- of Thtiuymeue, he uttuckcd (yoQ 

' Plnturh Mjt. aiiil andonlitc'tlj tipon imae iDnlotit BulLodLv, lint 


remember) Spoletum unsuccessfully; and that, a short tiBie 
before the unhappy day at Canns, a much smaller town tha 
Spoletum had resisted and repulsed him. Perhaps he rejoiced 
in his heart that he was not supplied with materials reouiaile 
for the capture of strong places ; since in Bome, he well knev, 
he would nave found a Dody of men^ partly citizens who hal 
formerly borne arms^ partly the wealUiier of our allies who hal 
taken refuge there^ together with their slaves and client!^ 
exceeding his army in number^ not inferior in valour, oom> 
pensating the want of generalship by the advantage of positioB 
and by the desperation of their fortunes, and possessing the 
abundant means of a vigorous and long defence. Unneoessur 
is it to speak of its duration. When a garrison can hold our 
city six months, or even less, the besieger must retire. Such 
is the humiditv of the air in its vicinity, that the Carthaginians^ 
who enjoyed Lere at home a very dry and salubrious climate, 
would have perished utterly. The Grauls, I imagine, left us 
unconquered on a former occasion from the same necessity. 
Beside, they are impatient of inaction, and would have been 
most so imder a general to whom, without any cause in common, 
thev were but hired auxiliaries. None in anv a;re hath 
performed such wonderful exploits as Hannibal; and we 
ought not to censure him for deficiency in an art which ve 
ourselves have acquired but lately. Is there, Polybius, any 
proof or record that Alexander of Macedon was master of it ? 


I have found none. We know that he exposed his person, 
and had nciirly lost his life, by leaping from the walls ci a 
city ; which a commander-in-cliief ought never to do, unless 
he would rather hear the huzzas of children, than the appro- 
bation of mihtary men, or any men of discretion or sense. 
Alexander was without an excuse for his temeritv, since he 
was attended by the generals who had taken Thebes, and who 
therefor, he might well know, would take the weaker and less 
bravely defended towns of Asia. 

Here again you must observe the superiority of Hannibal 
He was accompanied by no general of extraordinary talents, 
resolute as were many of them, and indeed all. His irruption 
into and through Gaul, with so inconsiderable a force ; his 
formation of allies out of enemies, in so brief a space of time; 

ih miracles, ■ 


1 hi* holiliiig the ni together so long; are such 
tting through eternal snavs, and marching through 
lich seem to us simpended loosely and hardly poised in 
noB, arc leas. Aud these too were his device and 
Drawing of parallel, captain against captain, is the 
ion vt ■ trifling nnd scholastic mind, and seldom is coui- 

uid awer coiidnct*-d, imiiartiullv. Yet, my friends, 
these idlers in pamllelogmms is so idle, as to conipaH 
■sion of Persia with the iuvitsion of Oaiil, tim Atpa 
It; Moors and Carthaginians with Mncedouiatis aui 

J)iiriai« and lus hordes and satraps with Roman legions 

man consals ? 

Uanuihnl lived, Polybius aud Pamctins ! although 

IT hefore ua smouldenng in its ashes, ours would ou 

i^ O Sdf io, that th<^ Romans had Icaint but recently^ 
W sie^; and yet many cities in Italy appear V 
~rhicb yoKU armies look long ago, 

I and patience. If PyTrhiis had never invaded n _ 

I scarcely have excelled the Cartliagioians, or even 

ladn, in castrametation, and have been inferior to bott 

Whatever we know, we have learned from yonrl 

, whether it be useful in peace or war . , I say yoorl 

■l for tlie Macvduriinns were instructc4 by the Gre«ks.a 

T of Aleiutuler, tlie first of his family who w. 

s and ignorant as n Cariaii or Aniienian slovc, rcctiveiDJ 

1 the bouse of Epamiiiondas. 

, me now to return, O Scipio, to a question no( 
cted witli philosophy. Whether it was [irudcut c 
'nnnibal to mvcsl the city of Ruinc aftt^r lii^i vii:torT 
where have employed bis army, where it shoul 

B away with luxury. 

], Panntius, seem to know more about luxui 
1 do. I can not say upon what thet 
t it are founded, bat certainly they : 


p. scipio j;«[LU\r9, poltbios, pxvxmi. 

For us, I wish I could as easily make rtra sm3e 
O J^lnulUnus, as I shaU our gDoJ-ljnniKin) and 
Pana>tius ; a ptiilosopher, ns we have expcriciicnl, less 
to speuk ill or ludicrously of otJiers, be the s ' ' ' 
thau aiiy I know or liave heard of. 

In my early dayn, one of a difleieat kind, and wl 
at luxury were (as we discovered) suliduet) in soma 
some places, was invited by CnlaUos to dine with m . 
us, all tlten young officrrs, ou our naardi Itodi Aetna 
£lis. Uis florid and open couulcnancc matlc! ht* 
very acceptable : and the more so, as we w er e infc 
Oilolsus that he never was importnnale with hia nuxality 

Philosopliers, if they deserve the name, are by no w 
indifferent as td the placid iit which it is their ititentioB to 
the seeds of virtue. They choose the ing^uuQs, tbe mo: 
the sensible, tbe obedieut. "We tboueilit rather of vheti 
should place our table. Behind us lay tbe forest of 
with its manT glens opening to the plain : befon; ns 
Temple of Olympian Zeus, indistinctly discernible, 
against the azure heavens: and tbe rivulet of Sdimts 
few stallions from us, seen only wbrre it recetvod ft m 
streamlet, originating at a fountain dose by. 

The cistus, the pomegranate, the myrtle, tlie sb_ 
bloomed over our beads and beside us ; for we had choKi 
platform where a projecting rock, fonnerly a 
shaded us, and where a little rill, of which the spring 
there, bedinuned our goblets with the purest water, 
awuiugs we had brought with us t« protect us from the 
were unnecessary for tlat purpose : we ruUed them tbe 
into two long seats, filling tbem with moss, which grew 
fusely a few paces below. "When our guest arrives," 
Critolaus, " every one of these flowers will sent liiin for i 
moral illustration ; every shrub will be the rod of Merctny 
his hnnds," We were impatient for the time of his nmiii 
TlieljTunin, the beloved of Critolaus, bad been iiislnided 
him in a stratagem, to subvert, or shake at least and staj 
the pliilosophy of Euthvmedes. Has tbe name escaped 
no matter . . perhapa lie is dead . . if living, he would i 
at a recoverable lapse as easily as we did. 

Tbelyuinia wore a drese like ours, and acceded to c 


e of Critolans, oxtvpting tlut ahc wonld not consent so 
— Jt Io mtirinc her lirad witli ivj. At first sbe obj(«lcd 
I uen; wds not enougti of it fur nil. luatautly two or three 
U pulled doirn (fur nothing ia itiure brittle) a vaat quantity 
ji Ur rock, which luoseucd same »tones, and brouebt down 
ttha with them a bird's nest of the last vear. Then she 

I dan; not um; this ivy : the omen is a mid one." 
" Do yuu Rkcan the uist, Tlielymnia f " snid Critoluus. 
" Kti| nut the nest so much as the sloues," replied she, 

b ! thnae signifv the dugmas of Cuthvinedes, wUieb you, 
'j Thcljfmiiia, are to loosen and throw down." 
■ sbfi sniilod faintly and brieflv, and bc^an to bn»k 
o of the more gloesy leaves; anil we who stood aruimd 
T reiult Io tuke them and place thun in her tinir; wheo 
tnlj vheneld ihcnn tighter, nud let her hand drop. On 
I^M Bskiug her nhv she hf^itnted, she bliLnhed deeply, 
\ "Phorotieu* told m*! I look best in myrtle." 
at and simjilu and most sweet (T remember) was her 
when she had spoken, the traces of it were 
[Ht her li|M. [ler beautiful throat itwlf changed 
it Kcmed to undulate ; and the roncate predominated 
I lb pcariy bue. I'huroncus lind been lier admirer : she gave 
ifanee to Critolam* : yet the name of Phoronfias at that 
dind grratei effect npoii him than the recollection of 

rijmuiia recovered herself sooner. \Vc ran wherever we 
r ■mtles, and tlicre were many about, and she took a part 
r coronal from every one of us, smiling on eaeh ; but it 
jtdy of Critolaiis tliat ihc asknl if he thought that mvrtJe 
me hei best, " Phoroiieu*," unxwered he, not without 
ibcImIt, " is infallible as Part»." 'iliere was something in 
t of the tender sprays resembling that of the hair they 
i: tiie blossoms too were whtto as her forehead. Site 
A me of those ancient fables whiuh n-pn-sent the 
■ of the gods a* tuniing inti> plant* ; »o ac[-x>r>lant and 
id WB« her beauty with the tlunc» and foliage she had 
B to odoni it. 

In the miilst of oar felicitations to her we lienrd the 

■tiprtncb of horses, for the ground was dry and solid ; and 

Ku'.byracdca was presently with us. The mounted ilave who 

'1 otf hi) BUfUira charger, for auch he appeared to be in all 

358 P. SCIPIO iEiaUANUS, poltbius, vjohmoos. 

points^ suddenly disappeared; I presume lest tlie n^ of 
loxuiT should corrapt him. I know not wheie the grooi 
rested, nor where the two animals (no neglected ones cawh, 
for they were plump and stately) found provender. 

Euthymedes was of lofty stature, had somewhat passed tk 
middle age, but the Graces had not left his person, as they 
usually do when it b^ius to bear an impression of anthontf. 
He was placed by the side of Thdymnia. Gladness and 
expectation sparkled from eveiy eye : the beauty of Thdymnii 
seemed to be a light sent from heaven for the festival ; a U^ 
the pure radiance of which cheered and replenished the vhok 
heart. Desire of her was chastened, I may rather say wh 
removed, by the confidence of Critolaus in our friendship 

Well said ! The story b^ins to please and interest me. 
Where love finds the soul he neglects the body, and only tnrm 
to it in his idleness as to an afterthought. Its oest alluremoifti 
are but the nuts and figs of the divine repast. 


We exulted in the felicity of our friend, and wished for 
notliing which even he would not have granted. Happv 
was the man from whom the glancing eye of Thelymnia semed 
to ask some advice, how she should act or answer: happr 
he who, oft'ering her an apple in the midst of her discourse, 
fixed his keen survey upon the next, anxious to mark where 
she had touched it. For it was a calamity to doubt upon 
what streak or speck, while she was inattentive to the basket, 
she had placed her finger. 


I wish, -Smilianus, you would look rather more sevedr 
than you do . . upon my life ! I can not . . and put an end 
to these dithyramoics. The ivy runs about us, and may 
infuriate us. 


The dithyrambics, I do assure you, Panaetius, are not of mj 
composing. We are both in danger from the same thjTsus: 
we will parry it as well as we can, or bend our heads before it. 

Come, Polybius, we must foUow you then, I see, or fly you. 



Would you rather hear the remainder another time P 
Bj Hercules ! I have more curiosity than becomes me. 


No doubt^ in the course of the conversation, Euthymedes 
had made the discovery we hoped to obviate. Never was his 
|diQo8ophy more amiable or more impressive. Pleasure was 
treated as a friend^ not as a master : many things were found 
innocent that had long been doubtful : excesses alone were 
Dondemned. Thelymnia was enchanted by the frankness and 
libendity of her philosopher, although, in addressing her, 
more purity on his part and more rigour were discernible. 
His delicacy was exquisite. When his eyes met hers, they did 
not retire with rapidity and confusion, but softly and compla- 
cently, and as though it were the proper time and season of 
reposing from the splendours they had encountered. Hers 
from the banning were less governable: when she found 
that they were so, she contrived scheme after scheme for 
diverting them from the table, and entertaining his unob- 

The higher part of the quarry, which had protected us 
alwavs from the western sun, was covered with bircli and 
haxel; the lower with innumerable shrubs, principallv the 
arbutus and myrtle. " Look at those goats aoove us,' said 
Thelvmnia. ''What has tangled their hair so? they seem 

*' They have been lying on the cistus in the plain,*' replied 
Euthymedes ; '' many of its broken flowers are sticking upon 
them yet, resisting all the efforts, as you see, of hoof and 

" How beauteous," said she, " are the flexible and crimson 
branches of this arbutus," taking it in one hand and beating 
with it the back of the other. " It seems only to liave come 
out of its crevice to pat my shoulder at dinner, and twitch my 
myrtle when mv head leaned back. I wonder how it can grow 
in such a rock. 

" The arbutus," answered he, " clings to the Earth with the 
most fondness where it finds her in the worst poverty, and 
covers her bewintered bosom with leaves, berries, and flowers. 
On the same branch is unripe fruit of the most vivid green; 


ripiiing, of the richest orange; ripened, of perfect scvkL 
The maidens of Tyre could never give so brilliint and svcci a 
lustre to the fleeces of Miletus ; nor did they ever string sock 
even and graceful pearls as the blossoms are, for the bridei of 

Assj-rian or Persian kings/' 

''And yet the myrtle is preferred to the arbotas," anl 
Thelvmnia^ iKith some alight uneasiness. 

"I know why/' replied he .. "may I tell it?" 8W 
bowed and smiled^ perhaps not without the expectation of 
some comphment. He continued . • " The myrtle has dme 
what the arbutus comes too late for. 

'' The myrtle has covered with her starry crown the bdofd 
of the reaper and vintager : the myrtle was around the heal 
of many a maiden celebrated in song, when the breezes of 
autumn scattered the first leaves, and rustled among them oa 
the ground, and when she cried timidly. Rise, riae ! people an 
coming ! here ! there ! many ! *' 

Thelvmnia said, " That now is not true. Where did voa 
hear it ? " and in a softer and lower voice, if I mav trust 
Androcles, " O Euthvmedes, do not believe it ! '* 

Either he did not hear her, or dissembled it ; and went on . . 
"This deserves preference; this desenes immortality; this 
deserves a place in the temple of Yenus ; in her hand, in her 
hair, in her breast : Thehmiiia herself wears it/' 

AVe laughed and applauded : she blushed and looked grave 
and sighed . . for she had never heard anyone, I imagine, talk 
so long at once. However it was, she sighed : I saw and 
heard her. Critolaus gave her some glances : she did not 
catch them. One of the party clapped his hands longer than 
the rest, whether in approbation or derision of tliis rhapsody, 
delivered >vith glee and melody, and entreated the philosopher 
to indulge us with a few of his adventures. 

"You deserve, young man," said Euthymedes gravely, "to 
have as few as I have liad, vou whose idle curiositv would thus 
intemperately reveal the most sacred mysteries. Poets and 
pliilosophers may reason on love, and dream about it, but rardy 
do they possess the object, and, whenever they do, that object 
is the invisible deity of a silent worshiper." 

" Keason then or dream," replied the other, breathing an 
air of scorn to sooth the soreness of the reproof. 

" When we reason on love," said Euthymedes, " we often 
talk as if we were dreaming : let me try whether the recital of 


my tlmm can make vou think I talk as if I were reasoning. 
^ oa tn*y nil it a dream, a Tision, or what vou will. 

" 1 WM ill a pluct- not very unlike tlii?, my head lying 

'h.>.\ Kj^iin^l n TtH-k, wlu-n- its crevices were tufted with soft 

I iNliiriftrrous hrrl)9, atid wtipre viiit? leaves prutectcd my face 

II the sun, and from tlie bees, which however were less 

uarJv to niolL-st BtL*, being busy in thidr firat hours tif btiney- 

^g amnni* liic blossoms. Sleeji soon fell upon me; for 

P philotKtpbi-n' 1 nm certainly the drowsicut, though 

■jn lli<-jr UK uiikny luiiif. of t^ijuiil ability in rommiuiirnting 

jtaft nf drowsiiiL'Kii. Presently I kiw ihree hgiirts, two uf 

p men beautiful, very dilferently, but in tlie *amo degree : 

■her was much less so. The least of the three, at the 

planer, I rccoimised to be Love, althouf^ I saw no wings, 

■nv*. nor quiver, nor torch, nor emblem of any kind 

■ling his oltribntcs. Tlie nest was not Vcmis, nor a 

taNmph, iior GuddcM of whom in worship or 

tntiun i hail ever conceived an idea ; and yel my heart 

I mc slu! was a GoddcM, and from the maunef in 

which she spoke to Love, an<l he again to her, I was convinced 

ilii- iiiiivi lie. Quietly and nuinovedly as she was standing; 

I [KTCcived was adapted to the perfection of activity. 

succulence and supplrncss of early youth, scarcely 

riy, it however gave mc the idea, from iU graccfiu 

■jimr, of its being poxsciist^d by a fondncus for 

r eyes were large and serene, and of a (|uality to 

intensity of thought, or even the hnl>itude of 

111! incapable of exprcssin)^ the plenitude of joy; 

;i[i-i I 'T '"iititcuance wnf lingnl with »o dchcate n colour, that 

it appcnm) an elllui-ni« fnim an imidinted cloud, passing over 

it m Ute lieaveiu. Hie thiril figure, who ■oinetimci'i stood in 

one place Mid fometimev in another, and of «:liu.-ii- couiitrnance 

I cuold only distinffuish that it waa [tide, anxious, and mia< 

troatful, inlermpted her perpetually. 1 listened atttnti>clv 

ud with curiimity to tlic iM^nviTsatioD, and by de;^iTea I 

caofclil th'- api>cllationi tlirr interchanged. The one I found 

waa \U'\>r ; iind [ wondi-ruii I did nut ttnd it out »ooner : tha 

Oihcr W3* Vvat ; which I sluiuld Tuil have fooiid oot at ill ; 

tor abe did not look terrible nor agh.iJit, but more like Sorrow 

or Ihsponilcney. The hrst worils 1 muld collect of llopa 

!R toete, aimkm very mildly, and mthrr with a look uf 

I of accusuliiiii. ' Too »uit-lT you have forgvtte 


for never was child more forgetful or more ungratdJal, liov 
many times I have carried you in my bosom, when even toot 
mother drove yon from her, and when yon could find no oths 
resting-place in heaven or earth/ 

" ' O unsteddy unruly Love ! ' cried the pale goddess wi£k 
much energy, ' it has often been by my intenrention that tiff 
wavering authority was fixed. For this I have thrown aiam 
after alarm into the heedless breast that Hope had onoe 
beguiled, and that was growing insensible and torpid under 
her feebler influence. I do not upbraid thee ; and it ners 
was my nature to caress thee; but I claim from thee mj 
portion of the human heart, mine, ever mine, abhorrent as it 
may be of me. Let Hope stand on one side of thy altars, bat 
let my place be on the other ; or, I swear by all the gods ! not 
any altars shalt thou possess upon the globe.' 

*' She ceased • . and Love trembled. He turned his eves 
upon Hope, as if in his turn appealing to her. She said, 'It 
must be so ; it was so from the beginning of the world : onlv 
let me never lose you from my sight.' She clasped her hands 
upon her breast, as she said it, and he looked on her with a 
smile, and was going up (I thought) to kiss her, when he was 
recalled, and stopped. 

" ^ Wiere Love is, there will I be also,' said Fear, ' and 
even thou, O Hope ! never shalt be beyond my power.' 

" At these words I saw them both depart. I then looked 
toward Love : I did not see him go ; but he was gone." 

The narration being ended, there were some who remarked 
what very odd tilings dreams are : but Thelymnia looked 
almost as if she herself was dreaming ; and Alcimus, who sac 
opposite, and fancied she was pondering on what the vision 
could mean, said it appeared to iiim a thing next to certainty, 
that it signified how love can not exist without hope or without 
fear. Euthymedes nodded assent, and assured him that i 
soothsayer in great repute had given the same interpretation. 
Upon which the younger friends of Alcimus immediately took 
the ivy from his forehead, and crowned him with laurel, as 
being worthy to serve Apollo. But they did it with so much 
noise and festivity, that, before the operation was completed, 
he began to suspect they were in jest. Thelynmia had listened 
to many stories in her lifetime, yet never had she heard one 
from any man before who had been favored by the deities 
with a vision. Hope and Love, as her excited imagination 



represented them to her, seemed stil to be with EuthTmedcs. 
She thought the tale would have been better without the men- 
tion of Fear : but perhaps tliis part was oidy a dream, all the 
rest a really true vision. She liad many tilings to ask him : 
she did not know when, nor exactly what, for she was afmid of 

Ctting too hard a question to him in the presence of so many, 
t it might abash him if he could not answer it : but she 
wished to ask him sometliing, anvtliing. She soon did it, nut 
without faltering, and was enclianted by the fraidiness and 
liberality of her philosopher. 

" DiJ vou ever love?'* said she smilinsr. thouch not inclined 
to smile, but doing it to conceal (as in her sitnplicity she 
thought it would) her bluslies, and looking a little aside, at 
the only cloud in the heavens, which crossed the moon, as if 
adorning her for a festival, with a fillet of pale sa])phiro and 
interlucent gold. 

" I thouglit I did,'' replied he, lowering his eyes that she 
might lower hers to rest \x])on him. 

" Do then people ever doubt this ? " she asked in wonder, 
looking full in his face with earnest curiosity. 

"Alas!'' said he softly, "until a few hours airo, until 
Tlu'lymnia was placed I)eside me, until an ungenerous lu'art 
cx|iosed the trtrasure that sliuuld have dwelt within it, to the 
taniish of a stranger, if that stranger liad tlie baseness to 
employ the sopliistry lliiit was in part expected from him, never 
should 1 have known that I had not loved before. ^Ve niav 
be uncertain if a vase or an imager l>e of the richest metal, 
until the richest metal be set right against it. Thelynuiia ! if 
I thought it possible at any time hereafter, that you should 
love me as 1 love vou, I would exert to the uttermost mv 
humble powers of persuasion to avert it." 

" Oil ! there is no dangiT," saitl she, disconcerted ; " 1 did 
not love anyone: I thought 1 did, just hke you; but imhrd, 
indeed, Kuthymedes, I was equally in an error. Women have 
dropiM:d into the gnive from it, and have declared to the 
last moment that they never loved: men have sworn the\ 
should die with desperation, and have lived merrily, and have 
dared to run into the {)eril fifty times. They have hard cold 
hearts, incommunicative and distrustful." 

" Have I too, Thelymnia ? " gently he expostulated. 

''No, not vou," said she; "you mav believe 1 wjis n«»t 
. • .* I'll 

thinking of vuu when I was speaking, but the idea dots 


really make me smile and almost lau^ that yoa aboiild for 
me^ supposing it possible, if you could aappose my audi thiagi 
Love does not kill men, take my word for it." 

He looked rather in sorrow than in doubt, and ansvml: 
*' Unpropitious love may not kill us always, may noi depciie 
us at once of what at their festivals the idle and inoonsidciila 
call life ; but, O Thelymnia ! our lives are troly at an cmI 
when we are beloved no longer. Existence may oe continued, 
or rather may be renewed, yet the agonies of death and Ae 
chilliness of the grave have been passed through; nor are then 
Elysian fields, nor the sports that delighted in fornix time, 
awaiting us, nor pleasant converse, nor walks with linked 
hands, nor intermitted songs, nor vengeful kisaes for leaving 
them otf abruptlv, nor looks that shake us to assure ns after* 
ward, nor that {)land inquietude, as gently tremulooa as the 
expansion of buds into blossoms, which hurries us 'from repose 
to exercise and from exercise to repose/' 

*' O ! I have been very near loving ! " sighed Thelnmua. 
*' Where in the world can a pliilosopher have learned all this 
about it ! " 

The beauty of Thelymnia, her blushes, first at the deceit, 
afterward at the encouragement she received in her replies, and 
lastly from some other things which we could not penetrate, 
highly gratified Critolaus. Soon however (for wine always 
brings back to us our last strong feeling) he thought again of 
Phoroneus, as young, as handsome, and once (is that the 
word ?) as dear to her. He saddened at the myrtle on the 
head of his beloved ; it threw shadows and gloom upon his 
soul ; her smiles, her spirits, her wit, and, above all, her nods of 
approbation, wounded him. He sighed when she covered her 
face with her hand ; when she disclosed it he sighed again. 
Every glance of pleasure, every turn of surprise, every move- 
ment of her body, pained and oppressed him. He cursed in 
his heart whoever it was who had stuffed that portion of the 
couch; there was so little moss, thought he, between Thelymnia 
and £uthymedes. He might have seen Athos part them, and 
would have murmured stil. 

Tlie rest of us were in admiration at the facility and grace 
with which Thelymnia sustained her part, and obiserving kss 
Critolaus than we did in the commencement, when he acknow- 
ledged and enjoyed our transports, indifferently and contentedly 
saw iiim rise from the table and go away, thinkjng h^ 



e a preconcerted sertion of the stratagtin. Hr rrtired, 
' us aflcrwanl, iuto a gmt. So IjiIh]]}' vas hi« miud 
1 (rom thr cntCTlaiumrat, he left t\w tnl>le ntliint, 
;l u it WM wifb fruit nnd wine, and nbundaiit as ran 
I the clcfUTst and sweetest and most refresliing rill. 
^reUtMl to niP thai, nt the cilrciDitj of the caiem, h« 

i bi« parched longiic to the dripping rock, Klmnnini; the 

t of day, the voice of friettdship, so violent was his <icsin; 

lie and coDceahnent, and he hehl his forehi-iid nriil bis 

ftirninRt it when his lips had closed. We knew not and 

Dot his filings at the time, and rejoiced at the 

m of the sillj tiling a philosopher fhoidd have 

, which Thelrmnia in tlie mominj,' of the festival had 

na to detail the next dnv. Lovr h apt to pA 

nnd to trip and atunible when he tints on the gnri> 

ilrip : it is too lon^ and loose for njm to walk in, 

lie lumeJinieR Unds it convenient for a covering. 

ivmolea the philowtphcr made this discovery, to wliicil 

» others tuuy lay equal cluim. 

T tlie leNMHi he had liccn pivinff her, which anin»ied liet 
dirtation, she sUhiA ciitnjtiwd and thoughtful, and lliea 
-nid liesitaiint^lv, " But would tt brrpiiie proper? would there 
■ iKithiDg of msineerity and fiilxehood in it, my Critobua? " 
He aoffht her np in his anns, and, as in bin euthununn he 
hod raiwd her head above his, he kissed her bosom. She 
repTMvrd and pardoned him, making him first declare and 
pinteft lie wonid nM-er do tlm like again, "O soul of tnilh 
and deiica*^y!" cried lie aloud; and Tlielymnia, no doubt, 
tmnlded le»t her lover shonld in a moment Ix; forsworn ; xa 
imminrBt and inevitable seeined the repetition of liix otfeucv. 
fint ho obtcrved on her eyelashes, what had arisen from his 
ipitatioo in our presence, 


A haitalins long nupoadad tor, 

liku Out which huigi upon Uia riar fnA-pnatml, 

Ciitt] th* Diiuniuii kiimm it awajr. 

The Nymph*, who oflcn drivn men wild (tiiey tell na) ham 
led me aalmy : I inu!>t return with yon Us iJit- ^-rot. Wr pmt 
enrf faciiity to the atratajrem. One "l:i ' iireo- 

tion, mulher in auoilier; but, at n r : i nm 

itcnroaaof joining »ome romraiie, un : -icr: 

h rcproTcd tlie bu^^hter, cvt-iinlit.i ...; u.., .>■. <• ^ix 

366 p. tCIFIO .filflLIAKUS, POLTBIUSy PAViBiniS. 

do hann^ reserving it for the morrow. While thcr wilkti 
along^ conversing^ the words of Euthjmedes fell on the ears of 
Thelymnia softly as cistus-petals^ fluttering and panting for a 
moment in the air^ fall on the thirsty sand. Sne, in a vcice 
that makes the brain dizzy as it plunges into the breast, lepbd 
to him, 

'' Euthymcdes ! you must have lived vour whole life^bne 
in the hearts of women to know them so thoroughly : I nera 
knew mine before you taught me." 

Euthymcdes now was silent, being one of the few wise moi 
whom love ever made wiser. But, in his silence and abstrac- 
tion, he took especial care to press the softer part of her ann 
against his heart, that she might be sensible of its quid 
pulsation : and, as she rested her elbow within the curvatiut 
of his, the slenderest of her fingers solicited, fiirst one, then 
another, of those beneath them, but timidly, briefly, incon- 
clusively, and then clung around it pressingly for conntenanoe 
and support. Panstius, you have seen the mountains on the 
left hand, eastward, when you are in Olympia, and perhaps the 
little stream that runs from the nearest of them into the 
Alpheus. Could you have seen them that evening ! the moon 
never shone so calmly, so brightly, upon Latmos, nor the torch 
of Love before her. And yet many of the stars were visible; 
the most beautiful were among them; and as Euthvmedes 
taught Tlielymuia their names, their radiance seemed moie 
joyous, more efifulgent, more beneficent. K you have ever 
walked forth into the wilds and open plains upon such moon- 
light nights, cautious as you are, I will venture to say, 
Pana^tius, you have often tript, even though the stars were not 
your study. There was an arm to support or to catch 
Tlielymnia: yet she seemed incorrigible. Euthymedes was 

Eatient : at last he did I know not what, which was followed 
y a reproof, and a wonder how he could have done so, and 
another how he could answer for it. He looked ingenuooslT 
and apologetically, forgetting to correct his fault in the mean- 
while. She listened to him attentively, pushing his hand 
away at intervals, yet less frequently and less resolutely in the 
course of his remonstrance, particidarly when he complained 
to her that tlie finer and more delicate part of us, the eye, may 
wander at leisure over what is in its wav: vet that its 
dependents in the corporeal system must not follow it ; that 
they must hunger and faint in the service of a power so rich 

p. SCIPIO ^UlUASrS, I'OLTBItS, I'AN^ETirs. 367 

hai ahtoliitc, "This being hard, unjust, ami cruel," wiid lie, 

" neviT be thi' orilinance of the pods. Love alone feeds 

th»- fniTii-liiii^; Love iilouf ptiices all tbinps, both of matter 

-■■ ' ' ■ r i!, ill [M-rfwt hnrmunv; Lovu hath less to Icaru fcoin 

111 \Vi«ilum hnlli to Iwim from L«ve." 

: man I " said hIiis to herself, " there is b gtmt deal 

L what he says, considering he ia * piiihifnipher." 

4.fd him, after a pause, why lie had not spoken so 

r«3tioii on love, which appeared to give animation, 

xit, tiithe dnllest. of the cumpnii;, and even to 

I ini-s uf Chicm, C'rcte, tuid Lcabos, sparkle with fresh 

ilit'ir Koblels. 

■MS placed by the fountain-head," replied he, "had 
. I >n to follow the shallow and slender streiim, lakiiiu 
i:^ L-uurx' toward slrceU and lanes, and dipt into and muddied 
by unlulhttred mid unclrnnly hnnils. After diiiner such topics 
■ir umuIIt intriidiieed, whew the objects thai onglit to inspire 
iiiir jn'!iT sentinjenta are gone away. An iiideiieiu-y worse 
Ihsii llir.n-iau ! The purest gales of heaven in the nio^t jwrfect 
•<<liiiiil'-, >h(>uld alouc hft up the aspiration of our snuU to 
Ilic diMuilies all men worship." 

" Scturiblr ereaturc 1 " sighed Thelymnla in her iMSom, 
" liow figtilly lie do(» tliink ! 

"Come, fain-« of wanderers," wliispercl he softly and 

]>e-r»ua'>ivcly, "•mcU will i full you, though the stjirs hrar uic, 

and thi>ut;h the gods too in a night like tnis trnrHue ihnr Inves 

up«n eunh . . tbe moon has no litlle pools filled with lii-r light 

iri.[ir ill. rock yonder; she detrivcs us in the depth of these 

"<- thi: limpid sea. Jk-side, we arc here among tlio 

"aiid-roM^ : do they never priek your ankles with 

I- and thorns P Kven their leaves »t lliis lolc season 

ire t'lii ifli III hart yon," 

" 1 think ihty do," replied she. and thanked him, with t 
tmder iimiil gliince, for wime fn^h security hia arm or bond 
I'.MJ given liCT in c-wnriiiig from them. " O now we are qnilfi 
it of Ihiin all! How cool is the saxifragt 1 how coal the 
" I f.jtii\, my sweet scholar ! or shall I ralliCT sny {for tou 
III my BWPil teller I they arc not i»j- 
i]']>cnr to be periwinkles." 
Ill- and *tv," wild Thi-lvmuia. 
1^,.-. ■■■•.I iiidc and drep holbws : uf what are they 


incapable when the convolvulos is in league with tfaem 1 Sk 
slipped from the arm of Euthymedes, and in an instant hii 
disappeared. In an instant too he had {flowed. 

These are mad pranks, and always end ill. Moonli^! 
can not we see them quiedy from the tops of oar houses^ or 
from the plain pavement? Must we give challenges ts 
mastifs, make appointments with wolves, run after asps, ani 
languish for stonequarries ? Unwary philosopher and simpk 
girl I Were they found again ? 


Yea, by Castor ! and most unwillingly. 


I do not wonder. When the bones are broken, without the 
consolation of some great ser\ice rendered in such misfortone, 
and when beauty must become deformity, I can well beliere 
that they both would rather have perished. 


Amaranth on the couch of Jove and Hebe was never softer 
than the bed they fell on. Critolaus had advanced to the 
opening of the cavern : he had heard the exclamation of 
Thelymnia as she was falling . . he forgave her .. he ran to 
her for her forgiveness . . he heard some low sounds . . hf 
smote his heart, else it had fainted in him . . he stopped. 

Euthymedes was raising up Thelymnia, foigetful (as was 
too apparent) of himself. "Traitor!" exclaimed the fim 
Critolaus, "thy blood shall pay for this. Impostor! whose 
lesson tliis very day was, that luxury is the worst of poisons." 

"Critolaus," answered he calmly, drawing his robe about 
him (for, falling in so rough a place, his vesture was a littk 
disordered), '^ we will not talk of blood ; but as for my lesson 
of to-day, I must defend it. In few words then, since 1 think 
we are none of us disposed for many, hemlock does not hut 
goats, nor luxury philosophers." 

Thelvmnia had risen more beautiful from her confusion: 
but her colour soon went away, and, if any slight trace oi it 
were remaining on her cheeks, the modest mooidight and the 
severer stars would let none show itself. She looked as the 
statue of Pygmalion would have looked, had she been destined 
the hour after animation to return into her inanimate state. 


Mering no excuse, she was the worthier of pardon : but there 
M one hour in which pardon never entered the human breast, 
ind that hour was this. Critolaus, who always had ridiculed 
lie philosophers, now hated them from the bottom of his 
leart. Every sect was detestable to lum, the Stoic, the 
Platonic, the Epicurean; all equally; but especially those 
iTpocrites and impostors in each, who, under the cloak of 
pmlosophy, come fon^ard with stately figures, prepossessing 
Dounteuanoes, and bland discourse. 


We do not desire to hear what such foolish men think of 
philosophers, true or false ; but pray tell us how he acted on 
bis own notable discovery ; for I opine he was the unlikeliest 
of the three to grow quite calm on a sudden. 


He went away; not without fierce glances at the stars, 
reproaches to the gods themselves, and serious and sad reflec- 
tions upon destiny. Being however a pious man by consti- 
tution and education, he thought he had spoken of the omens 
unadvisedly, and found other interpretations for the stoni^ we 
had thrown down with the ivy. ''And ah 1^' said he sighing, 
" the bird's nest of last year too ! I now know what 


Polybius, I considered you too grave a man to report such 
idle stories. The manner is not yours : 1 rather think you 
have torn out a page or two from some love-feast (not generally 
known) of Plato. 


Your judgment has for once deserted you, my friend. If 
Plato had been present, he might then indeed have de.'«cnbed 
what he saw, and elegantly ; but if he had feigned the story, 
the name that most interests us would not have ended with a 



Yon convince me, Polybius. 


join my hands, and give them to you. 


Mj usual manner is without variety. I endeavour to 


collect as much sound sense and as manj solid hdB as I oi, 
to distribute them as commodiously^ and to keep them as dm 
of ornament. If anyone thought of me or my style in itidiBg 
my history, I should condemn myself as a defeated man. 


Folybius, you are by &r the wisest that ever wrote histoji 
though many wise have written it, and if your fiicts ait 
sufficiently abundant, your work will be the most interesting 
and important. 


Live then, Scipio I 


The gods grant it ! 


I know what I can do and what I can not (the proudest 
words perhaps that ever man uttered)^ I say it plainly to yon, 
my sincere and judicious monitor ; but you most also let me 
say that, doubtful whether I could amuse our ^milianus in 
his present mood, I would borrow a tale, unaccustomed as I 
am to such, from the libraries of Miletus, or snatch it from 
the bosom of Elephantis. 

Your friendship comes under various forms to me, my dear 
Polybius, but it is always warm and always welcome. Nothing 
can be kinder or more delicate in you, than to diversify as 
much as possible our conversation this day. Panaetius would 
be more argumentative on luxury than I : even Euthymedes 
(it appears) was unanswerable. 


the knave ! such men bring reproaches upon philosophy. 


1 see no more reason why they should, than why a sLattem 
who empties a certain vase on your head in the street;, should 
make you cry, " Jupiter ! what a curse is water ! 



I am ready to propose almost such an exchange with you, 
iEmilianus, as Diomedes with Glaucus . . my robe for youis. 


Panaetius, could it be done, you would wish it undone. 


■c vmi untlcrtiike is thr more ttiltlc-ult : wu have not ] 
I Iwtii aides, iis you have. 

hiul teen Ntrait, you nould tiave sern tlmt Ili« olTcr 1 
exchaDge my philosopbv for jour*. Vuu neeil less 1 
1, and employ more, thaii any man. Now if you 1 
it to say on Iuxut)-, li^t me licor it. 

lid be idle to run into tlie poils of it, and to make % J 
t of tlinl wliirli tre nirrer »n ; bat it is not m to | 
fou that we were lulkinfi: of it in soldiers; for tha 
tale of 'l'h<-lymni;i is onoujch to mnke' us forget ibea. j 
'e tlic trumpet is soundiuB;. [Wlieve me, ray friend J 
Polrbiua), a good grncral will turn this formidabl«l 
ity to somp acrount. lie will litkc rare that, lika I 
K vinrgai tlic Irffionarii^ aury with them, it should J 
u, and l^us be u:«fiil. 

it ia laxury no longer. 

kod DOW tell me, Pana^ius, or yon Polybiiu, what 1 
ever m exubenint in riches, aa to maintain a grmt 1 
Ig together in shet'r luxury? ] am nut aiteakinu of j 
It bare hcca lackcd, but of the allied nnu Grieimty, 
are to be obvKrvird, whtMc alTcetion to bt 
and i«tainciL Hannibal knew tJila and minded it. 

it have aim added to thi: tDtcrrogotion, if Toa had 
^^pcr, thoKc dt)i» which itatv been tacked; for there I 
•oon wasted, and not aoon anpplied again. 

I look closer at the Mildit-r'ft board, and see what is on ' 
rich Capua. \f plrntifnl nnd wh(i]i±.iiimt^ foodluiurv? 
Idler* run tnt') the murki-t-pliici- far a pheaatinl? or do 
whom Ifaey are quartered pray and prcaa them to eat 
they went hunting tjuaiU, hares, jMrtridgea; 
reader them Ita acbvc ? There are no wild-boftm 
■ighbonrhnod, or we might ninti fr'm a buar-btuit 
ID of tltc gout. SnpjtoK the men drew tJirii ids td • 
s a 3 


pleasure from the school or from the practices of Euthymela. 
One vice is corrected by another, where a higher princnk 
does not act, and where a man does not exert the pronoeik 
dominion over the most turbulent of states . . . himsdL 
Hannibal, we may be sure, never allowed his army to repw 
in utter inactivity ; no, nor to remain a single day without ib 
exercise ... a battle, a march, a foraging, a conveyance of 
wood or water, a siurey of the banks of rivers, a fathoming of 
their depth, a certification of their soundness or unsoundnes 
at bottom, a measurement of the greater or less extent of thdr 
fords, a review, or a castrametation. The plenty of his ctaaxf 
at Capua (for you hardly can imagine, Pansetius, that the 
soldiers had in a military sense the freedom of the citv, and 
took what they pleased without pay and without restriction) 
attached to him the various nations of which it was composed, 
and kept together the heterogeneous and discordant mass. It 
was time that he should think of this : for probably there was 
not a soldier left who had not lost in battle or by fatigue his 
dearest friend and comrade. 

Dn* bread and hard blows are excellent things in themselves, 
and military requisites . . to those who converse on them over 
their cups, turning tlieir heads for the approbation of others 
on whose bosom they recline, and yawning from sad dis- 
quietude at the degeneracy and effeminacy of the age. But 
there is finally a day when the cement of power begins to lose 
its strength and coherency, and when the fabric must be kept 
together by jwinting it anew, and by protecting it a little from 
that rigour of the seasons which at first compacted it. 

The story of Hannibal and his army wasting away in luxuiy, 
is common, general, universal : its absurdity is remarked by 
few, or rather bv none. 


The wisest of us are slow to disbelieve what we have learned 
early : vet this story has alwavs been to me incredible. 

Beside the reasons I have adduced, is it necessary to remind 
you that Campania is subject to diseases which incapacitate the 
soldier? Tliose of Hannibal were afflicted by them: few 
indeed perished ; but they were debilitated by their maladv, 
and while they were waiting for the machinery which (even if 
they had had the artificers among them) could not have been 

I . I 


constructed in double the time requisite for importing it^ the 
xriod of dismay at Rome^ if ever it existed^ had elapsed. The 
vonder is less that Hannibal did not take Rome^ than that he 
vas able to remain in Italy, not having taken it. Considering 
low he held together, how he disciplined, how he provisioned 
[the most difficult tiling of all, in the face of such enemies) an 
innjr in great part, as one would imagine, so intractable and 
iraateful ; what commanders, what soldiers, what rivers, and 
what mountains, opposed liini ; I think, Polybius, you will 
bardly admit to a parity or comparison with him, in the rare 
uiion of political and milit^iry science, the most distinguished 
of your own countrymen ; not Philoposmen, nor Philip of 
liacedon; if indeed you can hear me without anger and 
indignation name a barbarian king with Greeks. 


When kincs are docile, and pay due respect to those who 
are wiser and more virtuous than themselves, I would not 
point at them as objects of scorn or contumely, even among 
the free. There is little danger that men educated as we have 
been should value them too iiighlv, or tluit men educated as 
ther have bet*n should eclipse the glory of Philopccmen. 
People in a republic know that their power and existence must 
depend on the zeal and assiduity, the counige and integrity, of 
those they employ in their first offices of state ; kings on the 
contrary Uy the foundations of their power on abject hearts 
and prostituted intellects, and fear and abominate tiiose whom 
the breath of God liath mised higher than the breath of man. 
Hence, from being the dependents of their own slaves, both 
thry and their slaves become at last the dependents of free 
nations, and alight from their cars to be tied by the neck to 
the cars of better men. 


Deplorable condition ! if their education had allowed any 
sense of honour to abide in them. But we must consider them 
as the tulips and anemones and other gaudy flowers, tliat shoot 
from the earth to be looked upon in idleness, and to be 
snapped by the stick or broken by the wind, without our 
interest, care, or notice. We can not thus calmly contemplate 
the utter subversion of a mighty capital; we can not thus 
imiifferentlj stand over the strong agony of an expiring 

874 p. scipio xMiUASvn, poltbiijb^ panjeiius. 

nation^ after a gasp of yean in a battte of ages, to win a vodi, 
or be jfor ever fallen. 

Seldom are we prone to commiserate the miafortnnes of 
enemies : the reason is^ they are seldom great or virtnoos 
and when they are, we are apt to thmk otherwise. Bii 
Hannibal hath shown greatness both in prosperity and adTcnitjr. 
He hath conciliated both the most barbaroos and the mat 
civilised of mankind^ the most frugal and the most InxurioiB^ 
the mountaineers of Helvetia, the princes of Campania ; and, i 
truth is ever painful to utter, it is painful now^ he hath via- 
quished the most experienced in war. A^ain I see the Alps 
rise up before me; and I witness the disoomfiture of tint 
commander whose name I reverence and bear. BesentmaH 
hath no place in my bosom : I can pity the man whom u 
ungrateful country helped his enemies to throw down ; who 
flies from potentate to potentate for protection; who is 
destined to die not in the land that nurtured him, probahlr 
not in the field of battle, probably not with kindred or friend 
about him. Enough ! enough ! somewhat of this may heM 
even those who are now prosperous and triumphant. 

We see little when we are cast down ; and when we arf 
raised high we are ill-iuclined to see all we might. Ingratitude 
is a monster not peculiar to Africa. 


The breed wiU never be exterminated. 


Never ; be sure of that : but there are men, however few of 
them, in all countries, who know a remedy for its venom. 


What can that be ? 

Covering the fresh wound with fresh kindness. It is not 
eveiy one who has the pri\alege of making an ingrate ; there 
must be power and will to benefit. Hannibal, at all events, 
owes but small gratitude to the Boman Senate; yet, if his 
character is indeed so exalted as I am willing to suppose it, 
he would not be insensible to the praises his vanquisner hath 
bestowed on liim. You estimate, O ^£milianus, the abihties 
of a general, not by the number of battles he has won, nor 


ies he hath eJain or led captive, but by the combinatioi 
; formeil, thu blows of fortune he hath parried i 
the prejudices he hath removed, and the difficulties^ 
kind Di: )inth nvercume. In like mannci we ahuiild 
' kings. Educuteil stil more burbaruusly than other 
B», sucking llieir milk iilteniattrly from Vice uiid Folly, 
b their first stepn by Unplieitv and Flattery, whatever 
but decently is worthy of applause ; whatei-er t' ' 
ij, of admiration. I would say it even lu Caiui 
le ; I Would tell him it cvcu in the presence of his 
; onBtipallcd by tivr nmjeMtic mien, her Inily KomiiB I 
, her urow that oui not frown, but llnit n-proves witlil 
' t am not m hostile to royalty aa otiier pnilosophc 
because I have been willing to ace leas of it. 

im i» dearer to me for hisr virtues than even for otii 
^^linity; und 1 reeiproeate the fondness of her I 
^gent sons, whose estriiugement from our on1rr 1 fei 
Mkd grieve to reprehend. Iiet us ratiier look o 
jftmr (iwu country, Greece. M;»ny hjivc b 
[eous, signally judicionx, in battle ; luauy I 
]uve been leaders at Home, whe-re tumults at 
. _lorc rewly to lircok out and more difficult li 
1u«e niaiiogi-il the hif^h and weighty magistraturo 
;ly and discretion, with hand ecjually linu and p 
t of tlieae qualities is sufficient to constitute a ma 
But, O PaQffitina and I'olybius, wc do not find ii 
of history, wc do not find in the regions of fubl% 
than your PerielcM, your Kpamiuondas, 

tnm yon, ^^miliuutis. Mould liave supported I 

Pliiloputmai, whicli Muk only under the ruins of ooi 

Of »urh mulerinU aa this praise, such gluriflfatioB 

■ior miiidii, iire ilie lamps that shine inm 1 1 iigui shabby 

lb. £t*rual thanks to the Uom.'uif ! who, whatevcc' 

y may have had to treat the (ireeks as cm™ 

Mod peneoite sneh men as Lyiu.irttis my father, snd i 

my early frieud, to cuusuine our cities wilh &t^ 

r out iitrwl* with t*)rrents (as we have beard lately], 

bum the remulteu imagM of guds and heroes, ban 


however so far respected the mother of Civilisatioii and of Lit, 
as never to permit the cruel mockery of erectiiig Bttfauiaft 
and Boyalty on their vacant bases. 

Our ancient institutions in part exist; we lost the rest wha 
we lost the simplicity of our forefathers. Let it be oar ^an 
that we have resisted the most populous and wealthy nations^ 
and that^ having been conquered, we have been conquered by the 
most ratuous ; that every one of our chief cities hath produced 
a greater number of illustrious men tlian all the remainder of 
the earth around us ; that no man can anywhere enter his haD 
or portico, and see the countenances of his ancestors from 
their marble columels, without a commemorative and gratefol 
sense of obligation to us ; that neither his solemn feasts nor 
his cultivated fields are silent on it ; that not the lamp which 
shows him the glad faces of his children, and prolongs his 
studies, and watches by his rest; that not the ceremonies 
whereby he hopes to avert the vengeance of the gods, nor the 
tenderer ones whereon are founded the affinities of domestic 
life, nor finally those which lead toward another ; would have 
existed in his country, if Greece had not conveved thtm. 
Bethink thee, Scipio, how little hath been done by any other 
nation, to promote the moral dignity or enlarge the soclJ 
pleasures of the human race. What parties ever met, in their 
most populous cities, for the enjoyment of liberal and specu- 
lative conversation? What Alcibiades, elated with war aud 
glory, turned his youtliful mind from general admiration and 
from the cheers and caresses of coeval friends, to strengthen 
and purify it under the cold reproofs of the aged ? What 
Aspasia led Philosophy to smile on Love, or taught Love to 
reverence Pliilosophy ? These, as thou knowest, are not the 
safest guides for either sex to follow ; yet in these were imited 
the gravity and the graces of wisdom, never seen, never 
imagined, out of Athens. 

I would not oflend thee by comparing the genius of the 
Roman people with ours: the offence is removable, and 
in part removed already, by tliy hand. The little of 
sound learning, the little of pure ^vit, that hath appeared in 
Rome from her foundation, hath been concentrated under 
thy roof: one tile would cover it. Have we not walked 
together, O Scipio, by starhght, on the shores of Surrentum 


and Baix, of Ischia and Ciiprra^ and hatli it not occurred to 
thee that the heavens themselves^ both what we sec of them 
AQil what lieth above our vision, are |)eopled with our heroes 
and heroines? The ocean, tliat roars so heavily in the ears of 
other men, hath for us its tuneful shells, its placid nvinphs, 
and its beneficent ruler. The trees of the forest, the llowers, 
the pbints, passed indiscriminately elsewhere, awaken and 
wann our alfeetion; they mingle with the objects of our 
worship ; they breathe the spirit of our ancestors ; they lived in 
our fonn ; they s|M)ke in our language ; they sutfered as our 
daughters may suiTer; the deities revisit them with pity; and 
tome (we tliink) dwell among them. 

Poetry! poetry! 


Yes ; I own it. Tlic spirit of Greece, passing through and 
ascending above the world, hath so animated universal nature, 
that the very rocks and woods, the very torrents and \iihls 
bunt forth with it . . and it falls, .Kmilianus, even from mv. 

It is from Greece I have remved my friends Pana:tius and 


Sav more, .Emilianus! You have indii-^l said it hen* 
alrt-auy; but say it again at Rome: it is Gn-ecc who tau^'ht 
the Unmans all beyond the rudiments of war: it i^* (in-m'. 
who placed in your hand the sword that conquered (Jurtliagr. 


Well met, Caius Mariu> ! Mv order"* an- to find ni-ljinllv 
a centurion who shall numnt the walU; om- rapaiih- of f>)iTr- 
vation, acute in remark, prompt, calm, .v-ti\i-, intnpi'l. The 
Nuniantians an* sacriticinir to the L'oii-* in Min"«v ; !li»\ li.ivi- 
sounded the horn once onlv: and hoar-M-lv, and \*^y^, ami 



Was that ladder I see yonder among the caper-bashes and 
purple lilies, under where the fig-tree grows out of Ac 
rampart, left for me P 

Even so, wert thou willing. Wouldst then mount it? 

Bejoicingly. If none are below or near^ may I explore the 
state of thmgs by entering the city ? 


Use thy discretion in that. 

What seest thou? Wouldst thou leap down? Lift the 


Are there spikes in it where it sticks in the tuif ? I should 
slip else. 


How! bravest of our centurions, art even thou afraid: 
Seest thou any one by ? 


Ay ; some hundreds close beneath me. 


Eetire then. Hasten back ; I will protect thy descent. 


May I speak, O Metellus, without an offence to discipline? 




Listen ! Dost thou not hear ! 


Shame on thee ! alight, alight ! my shield shall cover thee. 


There is a murmur like the hum of bees in the beanfield of 
Cereate ;• for the sun is hot, and the CTOund is thirsty. When 
will it have drunk up for me the blood that has run, and is vet 
oozing on it, from those fresh bodies ! 

* The &rm of Marius, near Arpinum. 


HowP We have not fought for many days; what bodies 

then are fresh ones? 


Close beneath the wall are those of in&nts and of girls : in 
the middle of the road are youths, emaciated; some either 
unwounded or wounded months ago ; some on their spears, 
sthers on their swords : no few have received in mutual death 
the last interchange of friendship ; their da^ers unite them, 
liflt to hilt, bosom to bosom. 


Mark rather the living . . what are they about ? 


About the sacrifice, which portends them, I conjecture, but 
little good, it bums sullenly and slowly. The victim will lie 
upon the pyre til morning, and stil be unconsumed, unless 
they bring more fuel. 

1 will leap down and walk on cautiously, and return with 
tidings, if death should spare me. 

Never was any race of mortals so unmilitary as these 
Numantians : no watch, no stations, no palisades across the 


Did they want then all the wood for the altar ? 


It appears so . . I will return anon. 

The gods speed thee, my brave honest Marius ! 


The ladder should have been better spiked for that slippery 
ground. I am down again safe however. . Here a man may 
walk securely, and without picking his steps. 

Tell me, Oaios, what thou sawest. 


The streets of Numantia. 


Doobtlen; but what else? 



The temples and markets and plaoes of exercise and {om- 


Art thou crazed, centurion ! what more ? speak plainhr, al 
once, and briefly. 


I beheld then all Numantia. 


Has terror maddened thee ? hast thou descried nothing of 
the inhabitants but those carcases under the ramparts ? 


Those, Metellus, lie scattered, although not indeed iar 
asunder. The greater part of the soldiers and citizens, of the 
fathers, hpsbands, widows, wives, espoused, were assembkd 


About the altar ? 


Upon it. 


So busy and earnest in devotion ! but how all upon it ? 


It blazed under them and over them and round about them. 


Immortal gods! Art thou sane, Caius Marius? Thv 
visage is scorched : thy speech may wander after such an 
enterprise : thy shield bums my hand. 


I thought it had cooled again. Why, truly, it seems hot 
I now feel it. 


Wipe oflF those embers. 


'Twere better : there will be none opposite to shake them 
upon, for some time. 

The funereal horn that sounded with such feebleness, sounded 
not so from the faint heart of him who blew it. Him I saw ; 
him only of the hving. Should I say it ? there was another : 
there was one child whom its parent could not killj could not 


part from. She had hidden it in her robe^ I suspect ; and, 
when the fire had reached it, either it shrieked or she did. 
For suddenly a crj' pierced through the crackling pinewood, 
and something of round in figure fell from brand to brand, 
until it reached the pavement, at the feet of him who had 
blown tlie horn. I rushed toward him, for I wanted to hear 
the whole story, and felt the pressure of time. Condemn 
not mv weakness. CVcilius ! I wished an enemv to live 
an hour longer ; for my orders were to explore and bring 
intelligence. AVhen I gazed on him, in highth ahnost gigantic, 
I wondered not that the bhist of his trum{)et was so weak : 
rather did I wonder that Famine, whose hand had indented 
cver\' limb and feature, had left him anv voice articulate. I 
rushed toward him however, ere mv eyes had measured eitlier 
his form or strength. He held the cliild against me, and 
sta^^red under it. 

** IWiold," he exclaimed, " the glorious ornament of a 
Roman triumph ! " 

I stood horror-stricken ; when suddenly drops, as of rain, 
pattered down from the pyre. 1 looked ; and many were tlie 
precious stones, many were tlie amulets an<l rings and bnict-lets, 
and other barbaric ornaments, unknown to mv in form or 

{>urpose, that tinkled on the hardened an<l black branches, 
rem mothers and wives and lK'tn)thed maids ; and some too, 
I can imagine, from robuster arms, things of joyance won in 
battle. The crowd of incumbent bodit^ was so drnsc and 
heavy, tliat neither the tire nor the smoke could iH*netrate 
upward from among them ; and they sank, whole ami at once, 
into the smouldering cavern eaten out below. He at whose 
neck hung the trum|K*t, felt this, and started. 

"There is yet room," he cried, "and there is strength 
enough yet, l)oth in the clement and in me." 

He extended his withered anns, he thrust forward the gaunt 
links of his throat, and upon knarled knees, that smote each 
other audibly, tottered into the civic tire. It, like some hungry 
and strangest beast on the imiennost wild of .Xfrica, pientfl, 
broken, prostrate, motionless, gsized at by its hunter in the 
impatience of glory, in the delight of awe, panted once nion*, 
anu seized him. 

I lu&ve S4*en within this hour, O Metellus! what Home in 
the cycle of her triumphs nill never see, what the Sun in his 
eternal course can never show her, what the Earth ha.*« borne 


but now and most never rear again for her, what YidQiT 
henelf has envied her • . a Nnmantian. 


We shall feast to-morrow. Hope, Gains Marins, to become 
a tribune : trust in fortune. 


Augnries are surer : surest of all is perseverance. 


I hope the wine has not grown vapid in my tent : I ban 
kept it waiting, and must now report to Scipio the inteUigenoe 
of our discovery. Come after me, Cains. 

MABius (aloke). 

The tribune is the discoverer ! the centurion is the scout ! 
Cains Marius must enter more Numantias. Light-hearted 
Csecilius, thou mayest perhaps hereafter, and not with himibled 
but with exulting pride, take orders from this hand. If 
Scipio's words are mte, and to me they sound so, the portals 
of the Capitol may shake before my chariot, as my norses 
plunge back at the applauses of the people, and Jove in his 
high domicile may welcome the citizen of Arpinum. 

Marius was joung at the siege of XumaDtia, and, entering the army with 
no advantage of connexion, would have risen slowly; but Scipio had 
marked his regularity and good morals^ and desirous of showing the valve 
he placed on discipline, when he was asked who, in case of aeddent 
to him, should succeed in the chief command, replied, Perkapi tkit mm, 
touching the shoulder of Marius. 

Caius CsDcUius Metellus was the yoimgest of four brothers : he served 
as tribune before Numantia, where Scipio said of him. Si qmnimm parttd 
mater ejus, annum fuiste parituram. He was the kinsman of that Melelhit 
by whose jealousy Marius was persecuted in the Nomidian 



ius Lucullus, I come to yoii privKtelj and unattended, 
aora which you will know ; confiding, I dare not aj in 
friendship, since no service of mine toward too hath 
ed it, but in your generoua and disinterested love of 
Hear me on. Cueioa Pompeiu?, according to the 

of my connexions in the city, had, on the instant of my 
; it fur the province, b^^n to solicit his dependants to 
me ignomimonaly of authority. Neither vows nor 
r can Diiid him. lie would degrade the father of his 
he would humiliate his own children, the unoffending, 
nbom ; he would poison his own nascent love at the 
>tion of Ambition. Matters are now brought so far, 
ither he or I must nibmit to a reverse of fortune ; since 
icession can asstu^ his malice, divert Ids envy, or gratify 
pidity. No sooner could I raise myself up, from the 
mation and stupe&ction into which the certamty of these 
a had thrown me, than I begau to consider in what 
;r niv own private afflictions might become tlic least 
lis to the republic. Into whose arms then could I throw 
r more naturally and more securely, to whose bosom 

I commit and consign more sacredly the hopes and 
ies of our beloved countiy, than his who laid down 
' in the midst of its enjoyments, in the vigour of youth, 
! pride of triumph, when Dignity solicited, when Friend> 
irged, entreated, supplicated, and when Liberty herself 
d and bcclconcd to him, from the senatorial order and 
the curule chair ? Betrayed and abandoned by those we 
onfidcd in, our next friendship, if ever our hearts receive 
ir if any will venture in those places of desolation, flies 
rd instinctively to what is most contrary and dissimilar, 
r is hence the viutant of Lucnltns. 

tiad always thought Fonipcius more modvmtv and more 
'cd than you itprescnt hiiii, Ciuus JolJua [ and yet I am 


considered in general, and surely you also will 
but little liable to be prepossessed bj him. 


Unless he may have ingratiated himself with you reoeDth, 
by the administration of tliat worthy whom last winter \m 
partisans dragged before the senate, and forced to aanrt 
publicly that you and Cato had instigated a party to circam?eiit 
and murder him ; and whose carcase, a few days afterwud, 
when it had been announced that he had died by a natuil 
death, was found covered with bruises, stabs, and dislocaticHis. 


You bring much to my memory which had quite slipped o«t 
of it, and I wonder that it could make such an impression on 
yours. A proof to me that the interest you take in my behalf 
began earlier than your delicacy will permit you to acknowledge. 
You are fatigued, which I ought to have perceived before. 


Not at all : the fresh air has given me life and alertness : 
I feel it upon my cheek even in the room. 


After our dinner and sleep, we will spend the remainder of 
the day on the subject of your visit. 


Tliose Etliiopian slaves of yours shiver with cold upon the 
mountain here ; and truly I myself was not insensible to the 
change of climate, in the way from Mutina. 

AVhat white bread ! I never found such even at Naples or 
Capua. This Formian i^ine (which I prefer to the Chian) how 
exquisite ! 


Such is the urbanity of Csesar, even while he bites his lip 
with displeasure. How! surely it bleeds! Permit me to 
examine the cup. 


I believe a jewel has fallen out of the rim in the carriage: 
the gold is rough there. 


Marcipor ! let me never see that cup again. No aimwer, I 


desire. My guest pardons heavier faults. Miud that dinner 
be prepared for us shortly. 


In the meantime^ Lucullus^ if your health permits it, shall 
I walk a few paces round the villa ? for I have not seen 
anything of the Idnd before. 


The walls are double : the space between them two feet : 
the materials for the most-part earth and straw. Two hundred 
slaves, and about as many mules and oxen, brought the beams 
and rafters up the mountain : my architects fixed them at once 
in their places : every part was ready, even the wooden nails. 
The roof is thatched, you see. 


Is there no danger that so hght a material should be carried 
off by the winds, on such an eminence ? 


None resists them equally well. 


On this immenselv high mountain I should be apprehensive 
of the lightning, which the poets, and I think the pnilosophers 
too, have told us, strikes the highest. 


The poets arc right ; for whatever is received as truth, is 
truth in poetry ; and a fable may illustrate like a fact. But 
the philosophers are wrong ; as they generally are, even in the 
commonest things; because they seldom look beyond their 
own tenets, unless through captiousness ; and because they 
argue more tlian they meditate, and display more than they 
examine. Archimedes and Euclid are, in my opinion, after our 
Epicurus, the worthiest of the name, having kept apart to the 
demonstrable, the practical, and the useful. Many of the rest 
are ^ooil writers and good disputants ; but unfaithful suitors 
of simple Science ; boasters of their acquaintance with gods 
and goddesses ; plagiarists and impostors. I had forgotten my 
root, although it is composed of much the same materials as 
the philosophers'. Let the lightning fall: one handful of 
silver, or len, repairs the damage. 



Impossible ! nor indeed one thousand; nor twentj^ if fluee 
tapestaies* and pictures are consumed. 


True ; but only the thatch would bum. "Fat befoie tk 
baths were tessellated, I filled the area with alum and water, 
and soaked the timbers and laths for many months^ and coveicd 
them afterward with alum in powder, by means of liquid ^iK. 
Mithridates taught me this. Having in vain attacked vith 
combustibles a wooden tower, I took it by stratagem, and fomul 
within it a mass of alum, which, if a great hurry had not been 
observed by us among the enemy in the attempt to conceal it, 
would have escaped our notice. I never scrupled to extort 
the truth from my prisoners : but my instruments were pnrplf 
robes and plate, ana the only wheel in my armoury, destined 
to such purposes, was the wheel of Fortune. 


I wish, in my campaigns, I could have equalled your 
clemency and humanitv : but the Gauls are more uncertain, 
fierce, and perfidious, than the wildest tribes of Caucasus; and 
our policy can not be carried with us ; it must be formed upon 
the spot. Tliey love you, not for abstaining from hurting 
them, but for ceasing ; and they embrace you only at two 
seasons ; when stripes are fresh or when stripes are imminent 
Elsewhere I hope to become the rival of Lucullus in this 
admirable part of \irtue. 

I shall never build villas, because . . but what are your 
proportions ? Surely the edifice is extremely low. 


Tliere is only one floor : the highth of the apartments is 
twenty feet to the cornice, five above it ; the breadth is twenty- 
five; the length fortv. The building, as you perceive, is 
quadrangular : three sides contain four rooms each : the other 
has many partitions and two stories, for domestics and offices. 
Here is my salt-bath. 


A bath indeed for all the Nereids named by Hesiod, witk 
room enough for the Tritons and their herds and horses. 

• Caesar would regard such things attentively. "In expediHcmSm 
tessellata et sectitia pavimenta drcumtulisse ; signa, tabulaa^ openi 
antiqui, semper animosissime compor&sse/ says Suetoma& 



Next to it, where vonder boys are carrying the myrrhine 
^, is a tepid one of fresh water, ready for your reception. 

I resign the higher pleasure for the inferior, as we all are 
wpt to do; and I will return to the enjoyment of your 
ccmrersation when I have indulged a quarter of an hour in 
this refreshment. 


Meanwhile I will take refuse with some less elegant philo- 
sopher, whose society I shall quit again with less regret. 
{Ctttar returning,) It is useless, Caius Julius, to inquire if 
tliere has been any negligence or any omission in the service 
of the bath : for these are secrets which you never impart to 
the most favored of your friends. 


I have often enjoyed the luxury much longer, but never 
more highly. Pardon my impatience to see the remainder of 
jour Apennine villa. 


Here stand my two cows. Their milk is brought to me 
with its warmth and frotli ; for it loses its salubrity both by 
repose and by motion. Pardon me, Caesar : I shall appear to 
Tou to have forgotten that I am not conducting Marcus 


You would convert him into Cacus : he would drive them 
off. Wliat beautiful beasts ! how sleek and white and cleanly I 
I never saw any like them, excepting when we sacritice to 
Jupiter the stately leader from the pastures of the Clitumnus. 


Often do I make a visit to these quiet creature:*, and with 

no less pleasure than in former days to my horses. Nor indeed 

can I much wonder that whole nations have been consentanc ous 

in treating them as objects of devotion : the only thing 

wonderful is, that gratitude seems to liave acted as {)owerfully 

snd extensively as fear ; indeed more extensively ; for no object 

of worship whatever has attracted so many wor$hii)er8. 

IVhere Jupiter has one, the cow has ten : she was venerated 



before he was bom, and will be when e^en the careen hue 
forgotten him. 

Unwillingly should I see it ; for the character of our gob 
hath formed the character of our nation. Serapis and Isis hate 
stolen in among them within our memory, and others viA 
follow, until at last Saturn will not be the only one emascolstod 
by his successor. TVliat can be more august than our rites? 
The first dignitaries of the republic are emulous to administer 
them : notliing of low or venal has any place in them, nothing 
pusillanimous, nothing unsocial and austere. I speak of then 
as they were; before Superstition woke up again from her 
slumber, and caught to her bosom with maternal love the 
alluvial monsters of the Kile. Philosophy, never fit for the 
people, had entered the best houses, and the image of Epicurus 
had taken the place of theLemures. But men can not bear to 
be deprived long together of anything they are used to ; not 
even of their fears ; and, by a reaction of the mind appertaining 
to our nature, new stimulants were looked for, not on the side 
of pleasure, where nothing new could be expected or imagined, 
but on the opposite. Irreligion is foUowed by fanaticism, and 
fanaticism by irreligion, alternately and perpetually. 


Tlie religion of our country, as you observe, is well adapted 
to its inliabitants. Our progenitor Mars hath Venus recnm- 
bent on his breast, and looking up to him, teaching us that 
pleasure is to be sought in the bosom of valour and by the 
means of war. No great alteration, 1 tliiuk, will ever be made 
in our rites and ceremonies ; the best and most imposing that 
could be collected from all nations, and uniting them to us by 
our complacence in adopting them. The gods themselves 
may change names, to flatter new power : and indeed, as we 
degenerate, Religion will acconunodate herself to our propen- 
sities and desires. Our heaven is now popular : it will oecome 
monarchal; not without a crowded court, as befits it, of 
apparitors and satellites and minions of both sexes, paid and 
caressed for carrjing to their stem dark-bearded master prayer? 
and supplications. Altars must be strown with broken minds, 
and incense rise amid abject aspirations. Gods will be found 
unfit for their places ; and it is not impossible that, in the ruin 
imminent from our contentions for power, and in the necessair 


extinction both of ancient families and of generous sentiments^ 
our consular fas<*cs may become the water-sprinklers of some 
upstart priesthood^ and that my sou may apply for histration 
to the son of my groom. The interest of sucn men requires 
that the spirit of arms and of arts be extinguished. They will 
predicate (R'ace, that the people may be tractable to them : but 
a religion altogether pacific is the fomenter of wars and the 
nurse of crimes^ alluring Sloth from within and Violence from 
afar. If ever it should prevail among the Komans^ it must 
prevail alone : for nations more \igorous and energetic will 
invade them, close upon them^ trample them under foot ; and 
tbe name of Koinan^ wliich is now the most glorious, will become 
the most opprobrious u}K)n earth. 


The time I hope may be distant ; for next to my own name 
I hold my countr}''s. 


Mine, not coming from Troy or Ida, is lower in my estima- 
tion : I place my country's tirst. 

You are surveying the little hike beside us. It contains no 
fish : binls never alight on it : the water is extremely pure and 
cold : the walk round is pleasant ; not oidy because there is 
always a gentle bre(v,e from it, but because the turf is fine, and 
the surfiice of the mountain on this summit is {HTfectly on a 
level, to a ^rreat extent in length ; not a trifling advantage to 
me, who walk often and am weak. I have no alley, no garden, 
no inclosure : the park is in the vale below, wliere a brook 
supplies the ponds, and where my servants are lodged; for 
here I Imvc only twelve in attendance. 

What is that so white^ toward the Adriatic ? 


The Adriatic itself. Turn round and vou mav descrv the 
Tuscan Sea. Our situation is reported to be among the highest 
of the Ai^ennines . • . Marcipor lias made the sign to me 
that dinner is ready. Pass tliis way. 


What a library is here ! Ah Marcus Tullius ! I salute thy 
image. Why frownest thou upon me ? collecting the consular 


robe and upliftiiig the right-am^ as when Borne stood fim 
again, and Catiline fled bdbre thee. 


Just SO ; such was the action the statuary cheese, as adding 
a new endearment to the memoiy of my absent friend. 


Sylla, who honored you above all men^ is not here. 


I have his Cammentarien : he inscribed them^ as you know; 
to me. Something even of our beneCetctors may be forgotten^ 
and gratitude be unreproved. 


The impression on that couch, and the two fresh honeysuckks | 
in the leaves of those two books, would show, even, to i 

strancer, that this room is peculiarly the master's. Are thet , 

sacred? * 


To me and Csesar. 


I would have asked permission . . 

Caius Julius, you have nothing to ask of Polybius and 
Thucydides; nor of Xenophon, the next to them on the 


Thucydides ! the most geuerous, the most unprejudiced, the 
most sagacious, of historians. Now, Lucullus, yon whose 
judgment in style is more accurate than any other Homan's, do 
tell me whether a commander, desirous of writing his Commfn- 
iaries, could take to himself a more perfect model than 


Nothing is more perfect, nor ever will be : the scholar of 
Pericles, the master of Demosthenes, the equal of the one 
in military science, and of the other not the inferior in dvil 
and forensic ; the calm dispassionate judge of the general by 
whom he was defeated, liis defender, his encomiast. To talk 
of such men is conducive not only to virtue but to health. 

We have no writer who could keep up long together his 


and strength. I would follow him ; but I shall be 
d with my genius^ if (Thucydides in sight) I come 
ices behind^ and attain by study and attention the 
and secure mediocrity of Xenophon. 


rill avoids I think, Cssar, one of his peculiarities ; his 
to superstition. 


e promise this ; and even to write nothing so flat and 
is introduction to the Cyropadia. The first sentence 
ows it, I perceive, repeats the same word, with its 
ivc, four times. This is a trifle : but great writers and 
inters do miracles or mischief by a single touch. Our 
are so addicted of late to imitate the Grecian, that a 
3duction is more classical than a good one. Not to 
any friend of yours, Crispus Sallustius, who is mine, 
me one recently of this description; together with 
tarhed pieces of a history, which nothing in our prose 
r Irnth surpassed in animation. 


ught to talk of these things by ourselves ; not before 
par ; by which expression I mean the unlearned and 
it, in forum and in senate. Our Cicero has indeed 
such inelegance as that of Xenophon : one perhaps 
donable may be found repeatedly in his works: I 
ay an inelegance not arising from neglect, or obtusity 
but coming forth in the absence of reflection. He 
ys, " mirari Bolton Now surely a wise man soon 
) wonder at anj-tliing, and, instead of indulging in the 
J of wonder at one object, brings it closer to him, 
. familiar, discusses, and dismisses it. He told me in 
letter of an incredible love and afl'ection for me. 
me, Cffisar ! pardon me. Genius of Rome ! and 
! I exclaimed, " ike clown ! " kughing heartily. He 
lot tliat I should really have thought his regard 
'^ ; ou the contrary, that I should believe in it and 
in it to it« full extent, and that I should flatter myself 
ot only possible but reasonable. In vain will any one 
to me, " iuck pAr(ues are common." In our ordinary 
e there are many beauties, more or less visible according 
place and season, which a judicious writer and forcible 

892 LrcuLLUS and gasas. 

orator will subject to his arbitration and seniee : fheie ue 
also many things which, if used at all, must be used cantioii^T. 
I may be much at my ease without being in tatters, and 
without treading on the feet of those I come forward to sahtc 
I arrogate to myself no superiority, in detecting a peculiar and 
latent mark upon that exalted luminary : his own ^ulgenoe 
showed me it. From Cicero down to me the distance is as 
great, as between the priuce of the senate and the lowest voter. 
I influenced the friends of order; he fulminated and exter- 
minated the enemies : I have served my country : he hath 
saved it. 

This other is my dining-room. Ton expect the dishes. 


I misunderstood . . I fancied . . 


fiepose vourself, and touch with the ebony wand, beside 
you, the sphynx on either of those obelisks, right or left. 


Let me look at them first. 


The contrivance was intended for one person, or two at 
most, desirous of privacy and quiet. The blocks of jasper in 
my pair, and of porphyry in yours, easily j-ield in their grooves, 
each forming one partition. There are four, containing four 
platforms. The lower holds four dishes, such as sucking 
forest-boars, venison, hares, timnies, sturgeons, which you will 
find within; the upper three, eight each, but diminutive. 
The confectionary is brought separately : for the steam would 
spoil it, if any should escape. The melons are in the snow 
thirty feet under us : they came early this morning from a 
place in the vicinity of Luni, so that I hope they may be crisp, 
independently of their coolness. 


I wonder not at amihing of refined elegance in Lucullus : 
but really here Antiochia and Alexandria seemed to have 
cooked for us, and magicians to be our attendants. 


The absence of slaves from our repast is the luxury : for 
Marcipor alone enters, and he only when I press a spring with 


my foot or wand. When you desire his appearance^ touch 
that chalcedony^ just before you. 


I eat quick, and ratlier plentifully : yet the valetudinarian 
(excuse my rusticity, for I rejoice at seeing it) ai)pears to 
equal the traveler in appetite, and to be contented \ntli one 


It is Hiilk : such, with strawberries, which ri|)en on the 
Apennin(*s many months in continuance, and some other 
berries of sharp and grateful flavour, lias been my only diet 
aiiice my tirst residence here. The state of my health re(iuires it ; 
and the habitude of nearly three months renders this food not 
only more commodious to my studies and more conducive to 
my sleep, but also more agreeable to my palate, than ,auy 


Bctuming to Kome or Baia;, you must domesticate and tame 
them. The cherries you intrmluced from Pontus are now 
growing in Cisalpine and Transidpine Gaul, and the largest 
and lM*st in the world perhaps are upon the more sterile side 
of Lake Larius. 


llierc are some fruits, and some virtues, which require a 
harsh soil and bleak exposure for their perfection. 


In such a profusion of viands, and so savour}-, I i)erceive 
no odour. 


A flue conducts heat through the compartments of the 
obelisks ; and if you look up, you may observe that i\u)sv gilt 
itMCs, lH'tw(«n the astragals ni the cornice, are prominent fr(»m 
it half a span. Here is an aperture in the wall, between 
which and the outer is a i)eqM»tual current of air. \\v are 
now in the dog-davs ; and 1 have never felt in tin* whole 
summer more heat tlian at Kome in manv davs of March. 


Usually you are attended by troops of d<>mesti(*s nnd of 
dinner-fnends, not to mention the learned and seientitie, nor 
jour own family, your attachment to which, from youth upward, 


is one of the higher graces in your character. Your broths 
was seldom absent from you. 


Marcus was coming: but the vehement heats along the 
Amo^ in which valley he has a property he never saw befoiti 
inflamed his blood ; and he now is resting for a few days at 
Fssulse^ a little town destroyed by Svlla within our memoiy, 
who left it only air and water, the best in Tuscany. The 
health of Marcus, like mine, has been dectining for several 
months : we are running our last race against each other : and 
never was I, in youth along the Tib^, so anxious of fiz^ 
reaching the goal. I would not outlive him : I should reflect 
too pai^uUy on earlier days, and look forward too despond- 
ently on future. As for niends, lampreys and turbots beget 
theip, and they spawn not amid the solitude of the Apennines. 
To dine in company with more than two, is a Gaulish and 
German thing. I can hardly bring myself to believe that I 
have eaten in concert with twenty ; so barbarous and herd- 
like a practice does not now appear to me : such an incentive 
to drink much and talk loosely ; not to add, such a necessity 
to speak loud : which is clownish and odious in the extreme. 
On this mountain-summit I hear no noises, no voices, not 
even of salutation : we have no flies about us, and scarcely an 
insect or reptile. 


Your amiable son is probably with his uncle : is he well ? 


Perfectly : he was indeed with my brother in Ids intended 
\'isit to me : but Marcus, unable to accompany him hither, or 
superintend his studies in the present state of his health, sent 
him directlv to his uncle Cato at Tusculum, a man fitter than 
either of us to direct his education, and preferable to any, 
excepting yourself and Marcus TuUius, in eloquence and 


Cato is so great, that whoever is greater must be the happiest 
and first of men. 


That any such be stil existing, O Julius, ought to excite 
no groan from the breast of a Boman citizen. But perhap I 


wrong you : perhaps voor mind was forced reluctantly back 
again, on your past animosities and contests in the senate. 


I revere him, but can not love him. 


Then, Gains Julius, you groaned with reason ; and I would 
pity rather than reprove you. 

On the ceiling at which you are looking, there is no gilding, 
and little painting . . a mere .trellis of vines bearing grapes, 
and the heads, shoulders, and arms, rising from the cornice 
only, of boys and girls dunbing up to steal them, and scram- 
bling for them : nothing over-head : no ffiants tumbling down, 
no Jupiter thundering, no Mars and Venus caught at mid-dny, 
no river-gods pouring out their urns upon us : for, as I think 
nothing so insipid as a flat ceiling, I think nothing so absurd 
as a storied one. Before I was aware, and mithout my parti- 
cipation, the painter had adorned tliat of my bedchamber with 
a golden shower, bursting from varied and irradiated clouds. 
On my expostulation, his excuse was, that he knew t)ie Danae 
of Sco(ias, in a recumbent ^sture, was to occupy the centre of 
the room. Tlie walls, behind the tapestry and pictures, arc 
quite rough. In forty-three days the whole fabric was put 
together and habitable. 

The wine has probably lost its freslmess : will you try 
some other? 

Its temperature is exact ; its flavour exquisite. Latterly I 
have never sat long after dinner, and am curious to pass 
through the other apartments, if you will trust me. 


I attend you. 


Lucullus I who is here ? what figure is that on the |)oop of 
the vessel ? can it be . . . 


The subject was dictated by myself; you gave it. 


Oh bow beautifully is the water painted ! how vividly the 
sun strikes against tnc snows on Taurus ! the grey temples 
and pier-head of Tarsus catch it ditferently, and the monu- 


mental mount on the left is half in shade. In the coontenance 
of those pirates I did not observe such diversity^ nor that any 
boy pulled his father back : I did not indeed mark them or 
notice them at all. 


The painter in this fresco, the last work finished, had 
dissatisfied me in one particular. ''That beautiful joung 
face," said I, " appears not to threaten death." 

'* Lucius," he replied, *' if one muscle were moved, it were 
not Caesar's : beside, he said it jokingly, though resolved." 

'' I am contented with your apology, Antipho : but what 
are you doing now ? for you never lay down or suspend jour 
pencil, let who will ta]J^ and argue. The lines of that smaller 
face in the distance are the same." 

*' Not the same," replied he, " nor very different : it smiles : 
as surely the goddess must have done, at the first heroic act of 
her descendant." 


In her exultation and impatience to press forward, she seems 
to forget that she is standing at the extremity of the shell, 
which rises up behind out of the water ; and she takes no 
notice of the terror on the countenance of this Cupid who 
would detain her, nor of this who is flnng off and looking 
back. The reflection of the shell has given a warmer hue 
below the knee : a long streak of yellow hght in the horizon 
is on the level of her bosom ; some of her hair is almost lost 
in it : above her head on every side is the pure azure of the 

! and you would not have led me up to this ? You, 
among whose primary studies is the most perfect satisfaction 
of your guests. 


In the next apartment are seven or eight other pictures from 
our history. 

There are no more : what do you look for ? 


I find not among the rest any descriptive of your ovn 
exploits. Ah LucuDus ! there is no surer way of making 
them remembered. 

This, I presume by the harps in the two comers, is the 



No indeed ; nor can I be said to have one here : for I love 
best the music of a single instrument, and listen to it willinglv 
at all times, but most wiUingly while I am reading. At sucli 
seasons a voice or even a whisper disturbs me : but music 
refreshes my brain when I have read long, and streugtiiens it 
from the beginning. I find also that if I write anything in 
poetr}' (a youthful propensity stil remaining) it gives rapidity 
and variety and brightness to my ideas. On ceasing, I com- 
mand a fresh measure and instrument, or another voice; 
which is to the mind like a change of posture or of air to the 
bodv. My health is benefited by the gentle play thus opened 
to the most delicate of the fibers. 


Iict me augur that a disorder so tractable may be soon 
removed. AVIiat is it thought to be ? 


There are they who would surmise and signify, and my 
physician did not long attempt to persuade me of the contrary, 
that the ancient realms of iiiiOites have supphed me with sonic 
other plants than the cherrv, and such as I should be sorr}' 
to see domesticated here in Italy. 


The pods forbid! Anticipate better things. Tlic reason 
of Lucullus is stronger than the taedicaments of llithridates ; 
but why not use them too ? Let nothing be neglected. You 
may raisonably hope for many years of life: your mother 
stil enjoys it.* 


To stand upon one's guard against Death, exasperates her 
malice and protracts our sutlcrings. 


Rightlv and gravely said : but your country at this time 
can not Jo well without you. 


Tlie bowl of milk which to-day is presented to me, will 
shortly be presented to my Manes. 

* Cicero reUtot tliat he went from hii tIIIa to attend her funeral a few 


Do you suspect the hand ? 


I will not suspect a Eoman : let us converse no more JboHi 

It is the only subject on which I am resolved never to 
think^ as relates to myself. Life may concern us, death not; 
for in death we neither can act nor reason, we neither can 
persuade nor command ; and our statues are worth more than 
we are, let them be but wax. Lucius, I will not divine your 
thoughts : I will not penetrate into your suspicions, nor 
suggest mine. I am lost in admiration of your magnanimitr 
and forbearance ; that your only dissimulation should be upon 
the guilt of your assassin ; that you should leave him power^ 
and create him virtues. 


Caius Julius, if I can assist you in anything you meditate, 
needful or advantageous to our country, speak it unreservedly. 


I really am ashamed of my association with Crassus and 
Pompeius : I would not have anything in common with them, 
not even power itself. Unworthy and ignominious must it 
appear to you, as it does to me, to compromise with an 
auctioneer and a rope-dancer ; for the meanness and venality 
of Crassus, the levity and tergiversation of Pompeius, leave 
them no better names. The bestiality of the one, the infidehtr 
of the other, urge and inflame me with an inextinguishable 
desire of uniting my authority to yours for the salvation of 
the republic. 


I foretold to Cicero, in the words of Lucretius on the 
dissolution of the world, 

Tria talia texta 
Una dies dabit exitio. 


Assist me in accomplishing your prophecy : or rather, 
accept my assistance : for I would more willingly hear a 
proposal from you than ofier one. Eeflections must strike 
you, Lucullus, no less forcibly than me, and perhaps more 
justly; you are calmer. Consider all the late actions of 


^ius^ and tell me who has ever committed any so indecorous 
h so grave a face ? He abstained in great measure from 
follies of youth^ only to reserve them accumulated for 
turer age. Human life^ if I may venture to speak fanci- 
ly in your presence, hath its equinoxes. In the vernal its 
rers open under violent tempests: in the autiunnal it is 
re exempt from gusts and storms, more regular, serene, and 
iperato, looks complacently on the fruits it has gathered, 
the liarvests it lias reaped, and is not averse to the graces 
onler, to the avocations of literature, to the genial warmth 
honest conviviality, and to the mild necessity of repose, 
rown out from the course of nature, this man stood aside 
1 solitary, and found everything around him unattractive. 
d now, in the decline of life, he has recourse to those 
ociates, of whom the best that can be said is, that they 
uld have less disCTaced its outset, fieuulsing you and 
rero and Cato, the leaders of his party and the propagators 
his power, Pompeius the Great takes the arm of Clodius, 
1 walks uublicly ^ith him in the forum ; who nevertheless 
\ other day headed a chorus (I am informed) of the most 
)fiig:ite and opprobrious youths in Bome, and sang respon- 
ely worse tlian Fescennine songs to his dishonour. "Where 
s ho ? Before them ? in court ? defending a client ? He 
ne indeed with that intention ; but sat mortified, speechless, 
J dei?pondent. The senate connived at the indignity. Even 
ibinius, his flatterer and dependent, shuns him. The other 
osul is alienated from him totally, and favors me through 
Iptmiia, who watches over my security and interests at 
me. Juha my daughter was given in marriage to 
nnpeius for this purpose only : she fails to accomplish it : 
litically then and morally, the marriage loses its validity by 
dug its intent. I go into Gaul, commander for five years : 
assus is preparing for an expedition against the Parthians : 
e Semite and people bend before Pompeius, but reluctantly 
d indignantly. Everything would be more tolerable to 
*, if I could {)ermit him to ooast that he Iiad duped me : 
it my glory requires that, letting him choose his own encamp- 
?nt, square the declivities, clear the ground about the 
linence, foss and pale it, I should storm and keep it. 
liatever he may boast of his eloquence and mihtary skill, 
fear nothing from the orator who tells us what he would 
ve spoken, nor from the general who sees what he should 


liave done. My first proposal for acoommodation and ooncni 
shall be submitted to you (if indeed yon will not frame it is 
me)^ and should jou deem it unfair shall be suppressed. % 
successive step shall be made by me without your concurreiwe: 
in short, I am inclined to take up any line of conduct, ii 
conjunction with you, for the settling of the commonwealtL 
Does the proposal seem to you so unimportant on the on 
hand^ or so impracticable and unreasonable on the other, thil 
you smile and shake your head ? 


Csesar! Csesar! you write upon language and analogr; 
no man better. Tell me then whether mud is not said to 
be settled when it sinks to the bottom ? and whether those 
who are about to sink a state, do not in like manner talk of 
settling it? 

I wish I had time to converse with you on language, or 
skill to parry your reproofs with equal wit ; for serious yoa 
can not be. At present let us remove what is bad ; which 
must always be done before good of any kind can spring up. 

The designs of Cneius are suspected by many in the senate, 
and liis pride is obnoxious to all. Your party would prevaQ 
against him ; for he has enriched fewer adherents than yoa 
have; and even his best friends are for the most-part ini 
greater degree yours, 


I have enriched no adherents, Caius Julius. Many of my 
officers, it is true, are easy in their circumstances : they how- 
ever gained their weaUh, not from the plunder of our 
confederates, not from those who should enjoy with security 
their municipal rights and paternal farms in Italy, but from 
the enemy^s camps and cities. 

TVe two might appease the public mind, preparing the 
leaders of the senate for our labours, and intimidating the 


Hilarity never forsakes you, Csesar ! and you are the 
happiest man u])on earth in the facility with which you com- 
municate it. Hear me, and believe me. I am about to 
mount higher than \n\nxi\\i^\T?fc\vsMaL ^t than triumphal car. 


They who are under me will turn their faces from me ; such 
are the rites : but not a voice of reproach or of petulance shall 
be heard, when the trumpets tell our city that the funereal 
flames are surmounting the mortal spoils of Lucullus. 

Mildest and most equitable of men I I have been much 
wronged; would you also wrong me? Lucius, you have 
forced from me a tear before the time. I weep at magna- 
nimity ; wliich no man docs who wants it. 


Why can not you enjoy the command of your province, and 
the glory of having quelled so many nations ? 


I can not bear the superiority of another. 


The weakest of women feel so : but even the weakest of 
them are ashamed to acknowledge it : who hath ever Iieard 
any one? Have jroii, who know them widely and well? 
Poetasters and mimes, laboring under such infirmity, put the 
mask on. You pursue glory : the pursuit is just and nitional ; 
but reflect that statuaries and painters have represented heroes 
calm and (|uiesccnt, not straining and panting hke pugilists 
ancl gladiators. 

From being for ever in action, for ever in contention, and 
from exHling in them all otlier mortals, what advantage 
derive \kc? I would not ask what satisfaction ? what glorv ? 
The insects have more activity than ourselves, the l)ea,sts more 
■trength, even inert matter more firmness and stabilitv the 
gods alone more goodness. To the exercise of this' evrrv 
country lies oiK»n : and neither I eastward nor vou westward 
have found any exhausted by contests for it. 

Must we give men blows because they will not look at us ^ 
or chain them to make them hold the balance evener ? 

Do not expect to be acknowledged for what you are much 
less for wliat you would be ; since no one can well measure a 
great man but upon the bier. There was a time m hen the 
most anient friend to Alexander of Macedon, would hav 
cmbrareil the partisan for his enthusiasm, who should hiv 
compaa*d hnu with Alexander of Therd:. U m\i^V\\wNv,V 



at a splendid feast^ and late at it, when Scipio should hive 
been raised to an equality with Bomulus, or Cato with Cuiins. 
It has been whispered in my ear, after a speech of Cicero, "H 
he goes on so, he will tread down the sandal of Marcos 
Antonius in t)ie long run, and perhaps leave Hortensiis 
behind." OiBcers of mine, speaking about you, have exclaimed 
with admiration, "He fights like Cinna/' Tliiuk, Caiu 
Julius ! (for you have been instructed to think botli as a poet 
and as a philosopher) that among the hundred hands of 
Ambition, to whom we may attribute them more properly than 
to Briareus, there is not one wliich holds anything tirmly. In 
the precipitancy of her course, what appears great is smaD, 
and what appears small is great. Our estimate of men is apt 
to be as inaccurate and inexact as that of tlungs, or more. 
"Wishing to have all on our side, we often leave those we 
should keep by us, run after those we should avoid, and caD 
im|)ortuuately on others who sit quiet and will not come. We 
can not at once catch the applause of the \^gar and expect 
the approbation of the wise. What are parties ? Do naen 
really great ever enter into them ? Are they not ball-courtS| 
where ragged adventurers strip and strive, and where disso- 
lute youtlis abuse one another, and chaUonge and game anJ 
wager ? If you and I can not quite divest ourselves of infir- 
mities and passions, let us think however that there is enough 
in us to be divided into two portions, and let us keep the 
upper undisturbed and ])ure. A part of Ohmpus itself lies in 
dreariness and in clouds, variable and stormy ; but it is not 
the highest : there the gods govern. Your soul is large 
enough to embrace your country : all other ati'ection is for less 
objects, and less men are capable of it. Abandon, O Caesar ! 
such thoughts and wishes as now agitate and proj^ell you : leave 
them to mere men of the marsh, to fat hearts and mirr 
intellects. Fortunate may we call ourselves to have been bom 
in an age so productive of elotjuence, so rich in erudition. 
Neither of us would be excluded, or hooted at, on canvassing 
for these honours. He who can think dispassionately ana 
deeply as I do, is great as I am ; none other : but his opinions 
are at freedom to diverge from mine, as mine are from his ; 
and indeed, on recollection, I never loved those most who 
thought with nie, but those rather who deemed my sentiments 
worth discussion, and who corrected me with frimkuess ami 



cullas! you perhaps have taken the wiser and better 
certainly the pleasanter. I can not argue with you : I 
. gladly hear one who could, but you again more gladly. 
lid think unworthily of you if I thought you capable of 
[ig or receding. I do not even ask you to keep our con- 
ion long a secret ; so greatly does it preponderate in your 
r ; so much more of gentleness, of eloquence^ and of 
lent. I came hither with one soldier, avoiding the cities, 
leeping at the villa of a confidential friend. To-night I 
in yours, and, if your dinner <loes not disturb me, shall 
soundly. You go early to rest, I know. 


t however by daylight. Be assured, Cains Julius, that 
y as your discourse at&icts me, no part of it shall escape 
M. If you approach the city with arms, with arms I 
you ; then your denouncer and enemy, at present your 
ind confident. 


ball conquer you. 


it smile would cease upon it : you sigh already. 


§, Lucullus, if I am oppressed I shall overcome my 
ssor : I know my army and myself. A sigh escaped me ; 
oany more will follow : but one transport will nse amid 
when, vanquisher of mv enemies and avenger of my 
y, I press again the hand of Lucullus, mindful of 



e last calamities of our country, my brother Quinctus, 

again united us ; and something like the tenderness of 

r days appears to have returned, in the silence of ambition 

Q the subsidence of hope. It has frecjuently occurred to 

m different we are from the moment when the parental 

inists asundeTj as it wcrc^ and the inmates are scattered 



abroad^ and build up here and there new families. Manf, 
who before lived in amity and concord, are then in fte 
condition of those who^ receiving intelligence of a shipwreii, 
collect at once for plunder^ and qnarrel on toaching the fink 


We never disagreed on the division of any property, nnksi 
indeed the state and its honours may be considered as sndi; 
and although in r^ard to Csesar, our fortune drew us differeat 
ways latterlv, and my gratitude made me, until your remon- 
strances and prayers prevailed, reluctant to abandon him, m 
will remember my anxiety to procure you the consulate and 
the triumph. I on can not and never could suppose ne 
unmindful of the signal benefits and high distinctions I hive 
received from Csesar, or quite unreluctuit to desert an armT, 
for my services in which ne often praised me to you, while I 
was m Britain and in Gaul. Such moreover was his 
generosity, he did not erase my name from his Commeniaria^ 
for haNing abandoned and opposed liis cause. Mv joy there- 
for ought not to be unmingled at his violent death, to whom 
I am indebted not oiilv for confidence and command, not onlr 
for advancement and glorv, but also for immortality. When 
you yourself had resolved on leaving Italy to follow Cneius 
Poinpeius, you were sensible, as you told me, that my obliga- 
tions to Caisar should at least detain me in Italy. Our 
disputes, which among men who reason wiU be frequent, were 
always amicable : our political views have always been similar, 
and generally the same. You indeed were somewhat more 
aristocratical and senatorial : and this prejudice hath ruined 
both. As if the immortal gods took a pleasure in confounding 
us by the difiBculty of our choice, they placed the best men at 
the head of the worst cause. Decimus Brutus and Porcias 
Cato held up the train of Sylla ; for the late civil wars were 
only a continuation of those which the old dictator seemed, 
for a time, to have extinguished in blood and ruins. His 
faction was in authority when you first appeared at Rome; 
and although among your friends and sometimes in puUi^ 
you liave spoken as a Koman should speak of Cains Marine 
a respect for Fompeius, the most insincere of mortals, made 
you silent on the merits of Sertorius ; than whom there never 
was a better man in private life, a magistrate more upright, % 
general morengilant, a citizen more zealous for the prerogative 


of OUT republic. Caius Caesar, the later champion of the same 
party, overcame difficulties almost equally great, and tiaving, 
■cted upon a more splendid theater, may perhaps appear a stil 
greater character. 


He will seem so to those only who place temperance and 
prudence, fidelity and patriotism, aside from the component 
parts of greatness. Ceesar, of all men, knew best when to 
trust fortune: Sertorius never trusted her at all, nor ever 
marched a step along a path he liad not patiently nnd well 
explored. The best of Romans slew the one, the worst the 
Dtber. The death of Ceesar was that which the wise and 
rirtoous would most deprecate for themselves and for their 
children; that of Sertorius what they would most desire. 
And since, Quinctus, we liave seen the ruin of our country, 
and her enemies are intent on ours, let us be grateful tliat the 
last years of hfe have neither been useless nor inglorious, and 
that it is likelv to close, not under the condemnation of such 
citizens as Cato and Brutus, but as Lepidus and Antonius. 
It is with more sorrow than asperity that I reflect on Caius 
Cesar. O ! had his heart bet*n unambitious as his style, had 
he been as prompt to succour his country as to enslave her, 
how great, how incomparably gn*at, were he I Then perhaps 
It this hour, O Quinctus, and in this villa, we should liave 
enjoyed his humorous and erudite discourse ; for no man ever 
tempered so seasonably and so justly the materials of conver- 
sation. How graceful was he ! how unguarded I His whole 
character was uncovered ; as we repr(*sent the bodies of heroes 
ind of gods. Two years ago, at this very season, on the third 
of the SSatumaha, he came hither spontaneously and unex- 
pectedly to dine with me ; and although one of his attendants 
read to him, as he desired while he was bathing, the verses 
90 him and Mamurra, he retained his usual good-humour, 
ind discoursed after dinner on many jroints of literature, with 
idminible ease and judgment. Him 1 sliall s<^ agsiin ; and, 
while he acknowledges my justice, I shall acknowledge his 
rirtues, and contemplate them unclouded. I shall see again 
)ur lather, and Mutius Sctevola, and you, and our sons, and 
the ingenuous and faithful Tyro. He alone has ]>ower over 
my life, if any has ; for to him I contide my writings. And 
our worthy Marcus Brutus will mn't me, whom I would 
embrace among the first: for, if I have not done him an 


injury^ I have caused him one. Had I never live^ or badl 
never excited his envy^ he might perhaps have written » I 
have done ; but for the sake of avoiding me he caoght \xA 
cold and fever. Let us pardon him ; let us love him. 'Witk 
a weakness that injured Ids eloquence, and with a softnen d 
soul that sapped the constitution of our state, he is i» 
unworthy branch of that family which will be remembered the 
longest among m en, j 

happy day, when I shall meet my equals, and when m 
inferiors shall trouble me no more ! 

Man thinks it miserable to be cut off in the midst of Iiis 
projects : he should rather think it miserable to have formed 
them. For the one is his own action, the other is not ; the 
one was subject from the b^inning to disappointments and 
vexations, the other ends them. And what truly is tbat 
period of life in which we are not in the midst of our projects? 
They spring up only the more rank and wild^ vear after yetf, 
from their extinction or change of form, as herbage from die 
corruption and djing down of herbage. 

1 will not dissemble that I upheld the senatorial cause for 
no other reason than that my dignity was to depend on it 
My first enthusiasm was excited by Alarius ; my first poem 
was written on liim. AVe were proud of him as a fellow- 
citizen of Arpinum. Say no more of him. It is only the 
most generous nature that grows more generous by age: 
Marius, like Pompeius, grew more and more austere. I 
praised his exploits in the enthusiasm of youth and poetir; 
either of wliich is sufficient excuse for many errors ; and both 
together may extort somewhat more than pardon, when valonr 
in a fellow-townsman is the exciter of our praise. But, sitting 
now in calmer judgment, we see liim stript of his victonoos 
arms and sevenfold consulship; we see him in his native 
rudeness, selfishness, and ferocity; we see him the murderer 
of his colleague in the consulship, of his comrade in the camp. 
Scarcely can we admire even the severity of his morals, whoi 
its principal use was to enforce the discipline needful to the 
accgmplishment of his designs. 


Marius is an example that a liberal education is peculiarii 
necessar}' where power is almost unlimited. Quiet, social, 
philosophical intercourse, can alone restrict that tendency to 


^ noe which war encourages^ and alone can inculcate that 
abstinence from wrong and spoliation which we liave lately seen 
ercised more intemperately than even by Marius or by Sylla, 
d carried into the farms and villas of ancient friends and 
dose connections. 


Had the party of our townsman been triumphant^ and tlie 
senate (as it would have been) abolish^, I. should never have 
had a Catilinarian conspiracy to quell, and few of my best 
orations would have been dehvered. 


Do vou Ix'Iieve that the Marian faction would have annulled 
our order ? 


I believe tliat their safety would have required its ruin, and 
that tlieir vengeance, not to say their equity, would have 
accompH^slied it. The civil war was of the senate against the 
equestrian order and the people, and was maintained by the 
wealth of the {Mitricians, accumulated in the time of Sylla, 
from the proscription of all whom violence made, or avurice 
called, its adversaries. It would have been necessan' to con- 
fiscate the whole property of the onler, and to banish its 
members from Italy. Any measures short of these would have 
been inadequate to compensate the ixx)ple for their losses ; nor 
would then* have been a suflicient ])k'(lge for the maintenance 
of tran(|uillity. The exclusion of threes hundred families 
from their estates, which they had acquired in great part 
by rapine, and their expulsion from a count r}* which they had 
inundateti with blood, would have pn^vmted that partition- 
treaty, wherebv are placed in the hands of three men the 
properties and lives of all. 

Tlien* should in no government be a contrariety of interests. 
Cliecks are useful : but it is better to stand in no need of thrm. 
Bolts and bars are gooil things: but wouki you establish a 
college of thieves and robbers to try how good they are? 
Misfortune has taught me many truths, wiiich a few vears ago 
I should have dimmed suspicious and dangen>us. Ihe fall of 
Kome and of Cartilage, the form of whose governments was 
almost tlie same, has been occasioniHl by the divisions of the 
ambitious in their senates : for we conscript fathers call that 
ambition which the lower ranks call avarice. In fact the only 


difference is^ that the one wears fine Hnen, the other couae; 
one covets the government of Asia, the other a cask of vnwgir. 
The people were indifferent which side prevailed, ontil tbeir 
houses in that country were reduced to ashes ; in thisy wcr 
dehvered to murderers and gamesters. 


Painful is it to reflect, that the greatness of most men 
originates from what has been taken by fraud or violence out 
of the common stock. The greatness of states, on the contzair, 
depends on the subdivision of property, chiefly of the landed, 
in moderate portions; on the frugal pay of functionariea^ 
chiefly of those who possess a property; and on unity of 
interests and designs. Where provinces are allotted, not for 
the public service, but for the enrichment of private familiesy 
where consuls wish one thing and tribunes wish another, kov 
can there be prosperity or safety? If Carthage, whose 
government (as you observe) much resembled ours, had 
fdlowed the same rights generally to the inhabitants of Africa; 
had she been as zealous in civilising as in coercing them ; she 
would have ruined our commonwealth and ruled the world. 
Eome found the rest of Italy more cultivated than herself, 
but corrupted for the greater part by luxury, ignorant of 
military science, and more patient of slavery than of toil 
She conquered ; and in process of time infused into them 
somewhat of her spirit, and imparted to tliem somewhat 
of her institutions. Nothing was then wanting to her 
policy, but only to grant voluntarily what she might have 
foreseen they would unite to enforce, and to have constituted 
a social body in Italy. Tliis would have rendered her 
invincible. Ambition would not permit our senators to divide 
with otliers the wealth and aggrandisement arising from 
authority : and hence our worst citizens are become our rulers. 
The same error was committed by Sertorius, from purer 
principles, when he created a senate in Spain, but admitted no 
Spaniard. The practice of disinterestedness, the force of 
virtue, in despite of so grievous an affront, united to him the 
bravest and most honorable of nations. If he had granted 
to them what was theirs by nature, and again due for benetits, 
he would have had nothing else to regret, than that they had 
so often broken our legions, and covered our commanders with 


TVliat could be exi)ected in our countn', where the aris- 
tocracy pos!ies!»<id in the time of Sylla more tlian lialf the land^ 
and di.*«p(>sfd of all the revenues and offices arising from our 
conquc»t:« ? It would be idle to remark that the armies were 
paid out of them^ when those armies were but the household 
of the rich, and necessary to their safety. On such reasoning 
there is no clear profit, no property, no ])ossession : we can 
not eat without a cook, without a husbandman, without a 
butcher : these take a piirt of our money. The armies were 
no less the annies of the aristocracy than the money that ])aid 
and the provinces that supplied them; no less, in short, tlian 
their beds and bolsters. 

Why couhl not we liave done from policy and e(iuity what 
has bt-eii and often will be done, uuder another name, by 
favour and injustice ? On the agrarian law we never were 
unanimous : yet Tiberius Gracchus had among the upholders 
of his plan the most prudent, the most equitable, and the most 
difniirii'd in the republic : La.*lius, the friend of Scinio, whose 

wisdom and mcMk'nition vou have latelv extolled in vour 

• • • 

dialogue; C'nissus, then Pontifex ^[aximus; and Appius 
Claudius, who r(*solved by this virtuous and patriotic dird to 
wijie away the stahi left for agi.*s on his family, by its lirt^u- 
tiouMK'Ss, pride, and tyranny. To these names another must 
b<* added ; a name which we have been taught from our youth 
upward to hold in reverence, the greatest of our jurists, ^Iutius 
^k9?voIa. The adversaries of the measure can not denv the 
humauitv and lil)eralitv of its provisions, bv which those who 
migiit Ih.' punished for violating the laws should be imh'ninitied 
fc»r the loss of the |)ossessions they held illegally, and these 
possessions sliouhl be distributed among the poorer families ; 
not for the purpose of corrupting their votes, but tliat tliey 
shoidd have no temptation to sell theiu. 
You smile, Marcus ! 


For this ver}' thing tlic Conscript Fathers were ininiiral to 
Tiberius (iRicehus, and accused him of an attempt to intro- 
duce visionary and impRicticabh* changes into the eominon- 
wealth. Anidiig the elder of his partisans somtr were called 
ambitious, some prejudiced; among tlie younger, some were 
mailmen, tin* rest traitors; just as they were j)roterird or 
unprotected by the ]>ower of their families or the intinenee of 
their friends. 



The most equitable and necessaiy law promulgated of latter 
times in our republic^ was that by Caios Gracchos, who, finding 
all our magistratures in the disposal of the senate, and wit- 
nessing the acquittal of all criminals whose peculations and 
extortions had ruined our provinces and shaken our dominion, 
transferred the judicial power to the equestrian order. Gepioi's 
law, five-and-twenty years afterward, was an infringement of 
this ; and the oration of Lucius Crassus in its favour, beanni 
with it the force of genius and the stamp of authority, fonned 
in great measure, as you acknowledge, both yonr poUtics and 
your eloquence. The intimacy of Crassus with Aculeo, tkc 
nusband of our maternal aunt, inclined you perhaps to follow 
the more readily his opinions, and to set a higher value, tban 
you might otherwise have done, on his celebrated oration. 


You must remember, my brother, that I neither was dot 
professed myself to be adverse to every agrarian law, though I 
opposed with all my eneigy and authority that agitated by 
Bullus. On which occasion I represented the two Gracchi as 
most excellent men, inflamed by the purest love of the Roman 
people, in their proposal to divide among the citizens what 
was uiifiuestionably their due. I mentioned them as those on 
whose Avisdom and institutions many of the solider parts in 
our government were erected; and I opposed the particular 
law at that time laid before the people, as leading to the 
tpanny of a decemvirate. The projects of Caesar and 
Pompeius on this business were unjust and pernicious ; those 
of Gracchus I now acknowledge to have been equitable to the 
citizens and salutar)' to the state. Unless I made you this 
concession, how could I defend my own conduct a few months 
ago, in persuading the senate to distribute among the soldiers 
of the fourth legion and the legion of Mars, for their services 
to the republic, those lands in Campania which Capsar and 
Pompeius would have allotted in favour of their partisans in 
usurpation ? Cains Gracchus on the contrary would look aadc 
to no advantage or utility ; and lost the most powerful of 
his friends, adherents, and relatives, by his inflexible recti- 
tude. Beside those letters of liis which are published, I 
remember on^ in answer to his mother, which Scaevola was 
fond of quoting, and of which he possessed the original 


Have we the transcript of it ? 


The wortlfl of Cornelia^ as well as I can recollect them, are 

*' I have received the determination of Leelius and Scipio, in 
which they agree, as usual. He tells me that he never shall 
oease to be the advocate of so righteous a cause, if you will 
consent that tlie soldiers, who subdued for our republic the 
cities of Carthage and Numantia, shall partake in the public 
benefit. That bcipio is well aware how adverse the proposal 
would render the senate to him ; and at the same time how 
unpopular he shall be among his fellow citizens at Borne, which 
maj excite a suspicion in biEid and thoughtless men that he 
would gratify the army in defiance of each authority. He 
requests you to consider that these soldiers are for the greater 
part somewhat elderly ; and tlmt granting them possessions, on 
which they may sit down and rest, can not be the means an 
ambitious man would take for his aggrandisement. He wishes 
to render them inclined to peace, not alert for disturbances, 
and as good citizens as they nave been good soldiers ; and he 
entreats you, by the sanctity of your office, not to deprive them 
of what they should possess in common with others, for no 
better reason than because they defended by their valour the 
property of aU. If vou assent to this proposal, it will be 
onnecessary for him, he savs, to undertake tne settlement of 
the Commonwealth, referred to him by the Senate, not with- 
out danger, my dear Caius, though rather to his life than to 
his dignity. So desirable a measure, he adds, ought never to 
be carried into effect, nor supported too pertinaciously, by the 
general of an army.'^ 


I never knew of this letter. Scaevola, I imagine, would not 
nre it out of his hands for any one to read, in pubUc or at 
borne. Do you remember as much of the answer P 

I think I ma^ do : for the language of the Gracchi was 
imonff my exercises : and I wonder that you have not heard 
me rehearse both pieces, in the practice of declamation. Caius 
inswers his mother thus : 

'' Mother, until you have exerted your own eloquence to 


Ersuade me^ if indeed you participate in the opinions of 
elius, never shall I agree that the soldiers of Sdpio have an 
allotment of land in Italy. When we withdraw our vetoani 
from Spain and Africa, barbarian kings will tread upon our 
footsteps, efface the traces of our civilisation, and oUitetate 
the memorials of our glory. The countries will be useful to 
us : even if they never were to be, we must provide against 
their becoming injurious and pernicious, as they would be 
under any other power. Either we should not fight an enemji 
or we should fight until we have overcome him. Afterward 
to throw away what we have taken, is the pettishness of a 
child ; to drop it is the imbeciUty of a suckling. Nothing of 
wantonness or frowardness is compatible with warfare, or con- 
genial with the Roman character. To relinquish a conquest is 
an acknowledgment of injustice, or incapaci^, or fear. 

'' Our soldiers, under the command of Scipio, have subdued 
two countries, of a soil more fertile than ours, and become by 
a series of battles, and by intestine discord, less populous : let 
them divide and enjoy it. The beaten should always pay the 
expenses of the war, and the instigators should be deprived of 
their possessions and their lives. Which, I pray you, is the 
more reasonable ; that the Roman people shall incur debts by 
having conquered, or that the weiglit of those debts shall fail 
totally on the vanquished ? Either the war was unjust against 
them, or the conditions of peace against w^. Our citizens are 
fined and imprisoned (since their debts begin with fine and 
end with imprisonment) for having hurt them. What ! shall 
we strike and run away ? or shall oiu* soldier, when he liath 
stripped the armour firom his adversar}^ say, ' No, I ^ill not 
take this : I will go to Rome, and suit myself with better ! ' 

" Let the army be compensated for its toils and i>erils : let 
it enjoy the fruit of its triumphs on the soil that bore them : 
for never will any new one keep the natives in such awe. 
Those who fight for slavery should at all events have it : they 
should be sold as bondmen. The calamities of Carthage and 
of Xumantia strike the bosom even of the conqueror. How 
many brave, how many free, how many wise and \'irtuoiis, 
perished within their waUs ! But the petty princes and iheir 
satellites should be brought to market : not one of them should 
have a span of earth, or a vest, or a carcase of his omi. 
Spaniards and Africans, who prefer the domination of a 
tefrarch to the ptolec\.\oii ol \)cva\ab^^, wy^\ft\sfc ^'ICat the 


benefit of our legionaries in Spain and ^Vfrica, vhether bv the 
gang or the dozen^ whether for the mine ur the arena. AVhile 
any such arc in existence, and while their counirr, of wlj^h 
they are unworthy^ opens regions unexplored U-fore ti> niA 
teeming with fertility, I will not permit that the victorious 
army {mrtnke in the dif>tribution of our home donaain^. Write 
this to Lirlius ; and write it for Scipio'* iiiformation, 
him sf) to act as that he never may enfeeble the jK^puiar v ice, 
nor deaden the world's applause. Keiiiind him, O iLfr.'u.T, for 
we both love him^ how httle it would become a 'J/^j*! r-irizen 
and brave soldier, to raise up any cause wiiy he ?hou!f] ii.r*e 
to guard himself against the suspicions and stratagerL* of riic 


Tlie attempt to restore the sounder of our in-'titutioL*, was 
insolentlv and falsclv called innovation. For, from t u*- 'mi : ; • J . • . l' 
of our city, a part of the conquered lands was *iijh\ by '.luiv.f.n 
under the npear ; an expression which iLith *in^'- U:<ii u-eri to 
desi^nte the same transaction wit Lin the widl* ; anoiti' r p;irt 
was liuldeu in common : a third '4ii.« I«-.'i<>eii r.ut at an r-.i** rate 
to the |KK)rcr citizens. So that former!;, the lowf-r an' I iiit<T- 
medi:itt' chiss ])os<es«ed by ri^^iit ti.*- ex'ju-i\t Urj»ii» of f^ru. 
third* y and an equal cliaiire whenvf-r li.'.r*- wa- i:i'iii-rr\ ...-.d 
frugality) of the other. L»tl*Tly, liv var.oii* kin'i- of \» ...iTj',:i 
and oppresi^ion, they hail b«Tn d»jjnviil of ri*-.»rly tiie '^\.uV, 

Cornelia was not a woman of a hr-nrt «/> •jckly \.v\i\\*x a< to 
awaken its sympathies at ail Lour.-, aii>l to r-xcite ari'I ]<.iriip- r 
in it a fals«* ap|)etite. Like tlie nsl of her faiijil\, -:.• t \x*A 
little or nothinff for tlie appla^ir*- aij*l opiniouji of !!.♦■ [•••'i'>- : 
she |iiv«i| justice: and it w.i-* *,\\ ju-fu*- tliat ««rie wi- .•'! i.- r 
childri'U to lay the foundation of rhf-ir L'lory. Thii* .ir'i'Hir -.\.)- 
incxtiniruished in her by thi- bloorl of lier eh!e-l i(»n. .S:.« -.t'-v 
his name placed where «hc «i-hid it ; and «h«- yrxMA \\ ' 
to Caius. Srandaliiu^ Udnlri may be written on i!i< '^\\\ u'.A*t 
it, bv diaU-rs in vot#-> and traMnk'T?- in lo^alt; ; I. 'it \\\\V. ti 
the woriii of a name that {N:n^h*'*4 b^ r:!».ilk or r.h.irco.ii. 

lf4Rf.: K 

Tlic moral, like the phy-i^al b'-iv, l.iMi not al'.i:iv«. lli*- irur- 
wants in tlie ^ani** fl«:rr*'e. \V»; j. .* ■.:r '.r on a irri.itir -ir !- t 
quantity of rlotl.i • acoordmcf tu * ..• -a-oii; an-l it i- :.. t!.i- 
season that ««■ ir^'j^r aceomn.o'lal*- '.wrseVvta \u '^ r*v\w.v^>\v». 


wherem there are only a few leading principles which are never 
to be disturbed. I now perceive that the laws of society in 
one thing resemble the laws of perspective : they require thai 
what is below should rise gradually^ and that what is above 
should descend in the same proportion^ but not that they 
should touch. Stil less do they inform us, what is echoed in 
our ears by new masters from camp and schoolroon], that the 
wisest and best should depend on the weakest and worst ; and 
that^ when individuals^ however ignorant of moral discipline 
and impatient of self-restraint^ are deemed adequate to the 
management of their afTairs at twenty years^ a state should never 
be ; that boys should come out of pupilage^ that men should 
return to it ; that people in their actions and abilities so con- 
temptible as the trium\drate, should become by their own 
appointment our tutors and guardians^ and shake their scourges 
over Marcus Brutus^ Marcus Yarro, Marcus Tollius. Tbt 
Romans are hastening back^ I see^ to the government of heie- 
ditaiT kiugs^ whether by that name or another is inmiaterial, 
which no virtuous and dignified man^ no philosopher of what- 
ever sect^ hath recommended, approved, or tolerated ; and than 
which no moralist, no fabulist, no visionary, no poet, satirical 
or comic, no Fcsccnnine jester, no dwarf or eunuch (the most 
privileged of privileged classes), no runner at the side of a 
triumphal car, in the uttermost extravagance of his licentiousness^ 
has imagined anything more absurd, more indecorous, or more 
insulting. What else indeed is the reason why a nation is 
called barbarous by the Greeks and us ? This alone stamps 
the character upon it, standing for whatever is monstrous, for 
whatever is debased. 

Wliat a shocking sight should we consider an old father of 
a family led in chains along the public street, with boys and 
prostitutes shouting after him ! and should we not retire from 
it quickly and anxiously? A sight greatly more shocking 
now presents itself : an ancient nation is reduced to slaveir, 
by those who vowed before the people and before the altars to 
defend her. ^Vnd is it hard for us, O Quinctus, to turn away 
our eyes from this abomination ? or is it necessary for a Gaul 
or an lllyriau to command us that we close them on it. 


No, Marcus, no. Let us think upon it as our forefathers 
always thought, and o\ii li\e\i^\aX.O^^, 



I am your host, mv brother, ami must recall vou awhile to 
pleasanter ideas. How beautiful is this Formiau cuasi ! how 
ftixy this villa ! Ah whither have I beckoned your reflec- 
tions ! it is the last of ours |)erliapd we may ever see. Do you 
remember the races of our children along the sands, and their 
oonstemation when Tyro cried ' the iMtatrytjonH ! the Ltr^try- 
gom!* He little thought he prophesied in his mirth, and all 
that poetry luis feigned of these monsters should in so few 

Srs l)c accomplished. Tlie other evening, an hour or two 
ore sunset, I sailed quietly alortg the coast, for there w;is 
little wind, and the stillness on shore made mv heart faint 
within me. I rememberiHl how short a time ago I had con- 
versed with Cato around the villa of LucuUus, whose son, such 
was the modest v of the vouth, followe<I rather than acconi- 
paniru us. O (lods ! how little then did 1 foresee or ap))re- 
nend tliat the guardianship of this young man, and also of 
Cato's son, would within one year have devolvinl on me, by the 
deplorable death of their natural protector. :V fading purple 
invested by degrees the whole pn)niontory : 1 looktMl up at 
Misenus, and at those solitar}' and silent walks, enlivened so 
lately by friendship and philosophy. The List inchn-d of the 
thoughts we comnmnicated were sorniwful and despondent, 
hut, heavy as they were, they did not pain me like those which 
were now coming over me in my loneliness on the sea. For 
there oid? is the sense of solitude where evervthinir we behold 
is unlike us, and where we have been accustomed to meet our 
friends and e<|uals. 

There is something of softness, not unallied to sorrow, in 
these mild winter davs and their humid sunshine. 


I know not, (^uinctns, by what train or coiniection of ideas 
they lead me rather to the ])ast than to the future; unless it 
be tliat, when the libers of our bodies are relaxinl, as they must 
be in such weather, the spirits fall back easily ujhmi retieetion, 
and are slowly incited to expectation. The memory uf tlio^e 
great men who consolidated our n'publie by tlnir wi'^dnm, 
exalted it by their valour, and proieete4l and dtlenili-il it by 
their constaiiev, stands not alone nor idiv : tliev draw ii^ at'trr 
them, they place us with them. U QuiucVus \ V W\A\ V tv^vW 


impart to you my firm persuasion, that after death we shall 
enter into their society ; and what matter if the place of our 
reunion he not the capitol or the fomm, be not Eljsisii 
meadows or Atlantic ilanda? Locahty has nothing to do 
with mind once free. Carry this thought peipetuidly wiA 
you ; and Death, whether you beUeve it terminates our whok 
existence or otherwise, will lose, I will not say its temm, 
for the brave and wise have none, but its anxieties and 


Brother, when I see that many dogmas in religion have 
been invented to keep the intellect in subjection, I may iaiih 
doubt the rest. 

Yes, if any emolument be derived from them to the coH^res 
of priests. But surely he deserves the dignity and the worsfaqp 
of a god, who first instructed men that by their own volitioii 
they may enjoy eternal happiness ; that the road to it is most 
easy and most beautiful, such as any one would follow by 
preference, even if nothing desirable were at the end of it 
Neither to give nor to take offence, are surely the two things 
most delightful in human Ufe ; and it is by these two things 
that eternal happiness may be attained. We shall enjoy a 
future state accordingly as we have employed our intellect and 
our allections. Perfect bliss can be expected by few : but 
fewer will be so miserable as they have be^ here. 

A l)clief to the contrary, if we admit a future life, would 

Elace the gods beneath us in their best properties, justice and 


Belief in a future life is the appetite of reason : and I see 
not why we should not gratify it as unreluctautly as the baser. 
Keligioii does not call upon us to believe the fables of the 
vulgar, but on the contrary to correct them. 


Otherwise, overrun as we are in Bome by foreners of eveir 
nation, and ready to receive, as we have been, the buffoooeria 
of Syrian and Eg)'ptian priests, our citizens may witliin a fei' 
vears become not only the dupes, but the tributaries, of these 
impostors. The S^fna-n \xiVs ^eova^ wa Motil we join him in 


bis lamentation of Adonis ; and the Egyptian may tell as that 
it is unholy to eat a chicken, and holy to eat an egg ; while a 
sly rogue of Judsea whispers in our ear, '' that is sujierstition : 
you go to heaven if you pay me a tenth of your han'csts/' 
Thisy I have heard Cueius Pompeius relate, is done in Judsea. 

True, but the tenth paid all the expenses both of civil 
government and religious ; for the magistracy was (if such an 
expression can be repeated with seriousness} tkeocraticaL In 
time of peace a decimation of property would be intolerable." 
Piaistratus and Iliero did exact it ; but they were usurpers, 
and the exercise of their power was no more legitimate than 
the assumption. Among us likewise the tribunes of the 
people have complained, in former times, that taxes levied on 
the commons went to abase and ruin them. Certainly the 
senate did not contribute in the same proportion; but the 
oommons were taxed out of the produce of what had been 
allotted to them, in the partition of conquered lands ; and it 
was only the sti|x;nd of the soldier fur preser>'ing by arms the 
property that his arms had won. llie Jews have been always 
at war ; natives of a sterile country and borderers of a fertile 
one, acute, meditative, melancholy, morose. I know not 
whether we ourselves have performed such actions as they 
have, or whether any nation has fought with such resolution 
and pertinacity. We laugh at their worship ; they abominate 
ours. In this I tliink we are the wiser ; for surely on specu- 
lative points it is better to laugh than to abominate. But 
whence have you brought your eggs and chickens ? I have 
heard our Varro tell many stories about the Egyptian ordi- 
nances ; but I do not remember this among them ; nor indec^d 
did lus friend Turranius, who resided long in that country, and 
was intimately versed in its antiquities, nor his son Maiiius, a 
joung man of much pleasantry, ever relate it in conversation 
when we met at Varro s. 


Indeed the distinction seems a little too absurd, even for the 
worshipers of cats and crocodiles. Perhaps I may have 

* Tht Spaniardi had been a refractory and rebeUioiu people, and 
therefor were treated, wt may preauuie, with little lenity : yet T. Liritu 
tolla ofl that a part of Spain paid a fm/A, another part a lirrniitlk. Lib. 
zliii. See aUo Tacitua on the aubject of taxation, J nh. xiiL, and buniuAx>x 
ik YidtigaiL 


wronged them : the nation I may indeed have foi^otten, hotl 
am certain of the fact : I place it in the archives of nqier- 
stition, you may deposit it in its right cell. Among the 
Athenians the Friestess of Minerva was entitled to a meafOR 
of harley, a measure of wheat, and an obol, on eveiy biitk 
and death.* Some eastern nations are so totally subje^ed to 
the priesthood; that a member of it is requisite at birth, at 
death; and, by Thalassius ! at marriage itself. He can era 
inflict pains and penalties; he can oblige you to tell him til 
the secrets of the heart ; he can call your wife to him, your 
daughter to him, your blooming and innocent son; be cu 
absolve from sin ; ne can exclude from pardon. 


NoW; QuinctuS; egg and chicken^ cat and crocodile, disappear 
and vanish : you repeat impossibilities : mankind, in its lowest 
degradation, has never been depressed so low. The savage 
would strangle the impostor that attempted it ; the civilised 
man would scourge him and hiss him from society. Comp, 
come, brother ! we may expect such a state of things, when- 
ever we find united the genius of the Cimmerian and the 
courage of the Troglodyte, lleligions wear out, cover them 
with gold or case them with iron as you will. Jupiter is now 
less iwwerful in Crete than when he was in Ids cradle there, 
and spreads fewer terrors at Dodona than a shepherd's car. 
Proconsuls have removed from Greece, from Asia, from Sicily, 
the most celebrated statues ; and it is doubted at last whether 
those deities are in heaven whom a cart and a voke of oxen 
have carried away on earth. When the cinl wars are over, 
and the minds of men become indolent and inactive, as b 
always the case after great excitement, it is not improbable that 
some novelties may be attempted in religion : but, as my 
prophecies in the whole course of the late events liave been 
accompUshed, so you may believe me when I prognosticate 
that our religion, although it should be disfigured and det^io- 
rated, will continue in many of its features, in manv of its 

Eomps and ceremonies, the same. Sibylline books viU never 
e wanting while fear and curiosity are inherent in the 
composition of man. And there is something '"consolatoiy in 
this idea of duration and identity: for whatever be your 
philosophy, you must acknowledge that it is pleasant to tiuni, 


although voa know not wherefor^ that^ when we go away 
things visible, like things intellectual, will remain in great 
measure as we left them. A slight displeasure would be felt 
bj us, if we were certain that after our death our houses would 
be taken down, though not only no longer inliabited by us, but 
probably not destined to remain in the ])ossessiun of our 
children ; and that even these vineyards, fields, and gardens, 
were about to assume another as{Kx*t. 


Tlie sea and the barren roeks will remain for ever as they 
are ; whatever is lovely changes. Misrule and slavery may 
convert our fertile plains into ]>estilential marshes ; and who- 
ever shall exclaim against the authors and causes of such 
devastation, may be proscribed, slain, or exiled. Enlightened 
and virtuous men (painfullest of thoughts !) may condemn 
him : for a love of si^curity accompanies a love of study, nnd 
that by decrees is adulation which was acquiescence. Cruel 
men have always at their elbow the supporters of arbitrary 
power ; and although the cruel are seldom solicitous in m hat 
manner they may be represented to {wsterity, yet, if anyone 
among them be nit her more so than is customary, some 
projector will whis])er in his ear an advice like this. " U|)|)ress, 
fine, imprison, and tortun*, those who (you have reiuson to 
soapect) are or may be ])lLiloso|)hcrs or historians : so that, if 
thev mention you at all, tiiev will mention vou with inditrnation 
and abhorrence. Your object is attnined : few will implicitly 
believe them ; almost everyone will acknowledge that their 
&ith should be susjM^cted, as there are pnx>fs that they wrote 
in irritation. This is better than if they spoke of you 
slightingly, or cursorily, or evasively. ]W employing a hang- 
man extraonliiiary, you purchase in pt'rpetuity the tiile of a 
clement prince.'^ 

MA Iters. 
Quinctus, you make me smile, by bringing to my rrcolKTtion 
that, among the marauders of Pindenissus, was a fellow called 
by the Romans Fo'dinipa, from a certain resemblance no less 
to his name than to his clmractrr. He commanded in a desert 
and sandv district, which his father and grandfather had 
eidargeil by vitilcnee ; for the family wvtv, from time imincino- 
rial, ndilxTs and assassins. Several schools liatl onci bren 
established in tho<e j)arts, remote from luwit^ ;x\i<(i^'vW\:\AvA\\ 


and several good and learned men taught in them, having fled 
from Mithridates. Foedirupa assumed on a sudden the air and 
demeanour of a patriot^ and hired one Gentius to compose bis 
rhapsodies on the love of our country, with liberty to promiae 
what he pleased. Gentius put two hundred pieces of silver on 
his mule, rode to the schools, exhibited his monev, and 
promised the same gratuity to every scholar who would ami 
and march forth against the enemy. The teachers breathed t 
free and pure spirit, and, although they well knew the knaveir 
of Gentius, seconded lum in his mission. Gentius, as vas 
ordered, wrote down the names of those who repeated the moss 
frequently tliat of country^ and the least so that of F(£dirQ|tt. 
Even rogues are restless for celebrity. The scholars performed 
nreat services against the enemy. On their retom they were 
disarmed; the promises of Foedirupa were disavowed; the 
teachers were thrown into prison, accused of violating the 
ancient laws, of perverting the moral and religious principles^ 
and finally of abusing the simpUcity of youth, by illusor}' and 
empty promises. Gentius drew up against them the bills d 
indSctment, and offered to take care of their libraries and 
cellars while they remained in prison. Foedirupa cast them 
into dungeons ; but, draiiing a line of distinction much finer 
than the most subtile of thefn had ever done, " I will not kill 
them/' said he ; " I will only frighten them to death.'' He 
became at last somewhat less cruel, and starved them. Onlv 
one was sentenced to lose his head. Gentius comforted him 
upon the scaffold, by reminding him how much worse he would 
have fared under Mithridates, who would not onlv have com- 
manded his head to be cut off, but also to be fixed on a pike, 
and by assuring him that, instead of such wanton barbarity, 
he himself wouJd carry it to the widow and her children, 
within an hour after their conference. The former words 
moved him Httle ; he hardly heard them ; but his heart and 
his brain tlirobbed in agony at the sound of children, of widow. 
He threw his head back ; tears rolled over his temples, and 
dripped from his grey hair. " Ah my dear friend," said Gentius, 
'' have I unwittingly touched a tender part ? Be manful ; dir 
your eyes ; the cluldren are yours no longer ; why be concerned 
for what you can never see again? My good old friend," 
added he, " how many kind letters to me has this ring of yours 
sealed formerly!" Then, lifting up the hand, he drew it 
sJowly off, overcome \i^ ^^c«s»^ c>l ^<e,f. It fell into his 


and to moderate his grief he was forced to run awaj^ 

through the comer of his eye at the executioner. The 

ras stoned to death by those he had betrayed, not long 

my arrival in the province; and an arrow from an 

hand did justice on Fcedirupa. 


re seen in my life-time several rogues upon their crosses, 
:li few^ if any, so deserving of the punishment as Gentius 

colleague. Spectacles of higher interest are nearer 
>re attractive. It would please me greatly if either the 
of evening or the windings of the coast would allow 
iew of Misenus : and I envy you, Marcus, the hour or 
fore sunset, which enabled you to contemplate it from 
tiffled sea at your leisure, lias no violence been offered 

retirement of Cornelia ? Are there any traces of her 
[!e left amid our devastations, as there surely ought to 
ew years after her decease ? 


hat promontory her mansion is yet standing ; the same 
lilarius bought afterward, and which our friend Lucullus 
abited ; and, whether from reverence of her virtues and 
name, or that the gods preserve it as a monument of 
liood,*its exterior is unchanged. Here she resided many 
ind never would be induced to revisit Rome after the 

of her younger son. She cultivated a variety of 
, naturalised exotic plants, and brought together trees 
ale and mountain; trees unproductive of fruit, but 
ig her, in their superintendance and management, a 
1 expectant pleasure. '^ There is no amusement,'^ said 
so lasting and varied, so healthy and peaceful as 
Iture.^' ^Ve read that the Babylonians and Persians were 
y much addicted to similar places of recreation. I have 
' any knowledge in these matters ;* and the first time 
thither, I ask^ many questions of the gardener^s boy, 

about nine years old. He thought me even more 
it than I was, and said, among other such remarks, *' I 

know what they call this plant at Rome, or whether 
>ve it there; but it is among the commonest here, 

I hoKu quod mo admonen, nee fui unqumn valde cu|ndui, et aunA 
ippediut mihi borionun AiuoeniUiein.** Ad (^ YviSue. \« V «<^ ^ 


beautifiil as it is^ and we call it cytisus/' ''Hunk joiiychild!' 
said I, smiling ; *' and/' pointing toward two cjrpiesaesy ^pm 
what do you call those high and ^oomy trees at the extzemil} 
of the avenue, just above the precipice ? *' '* Others like 
them/' replied he, " are called cypresses; but these, 1 knot 
not why, have always been callea Tiberius and Cains/' 

Of all studies the most delightful and the most useM is 
biography, llie seeds of great events lie near the sur&oe; 
historians delve too deep for them. Ko history was ever true: 
lives I have read which, if they were not, had the appeaianoCi 
the interest, and the utility of truth. 


I have collected facts about Gorneha, worth recording; and 
I would commemorate them the rather, as, while the Greeks 
have had among them no few women of abilities, we can 
hardly mention two. 

Yet ours have advantages wliich theirs had not. Did 
Cornelia die unrepining and contented ? 

She was firmly convinced to the last that an agrarian kv 
would have been just and beneficial, and wras cbnsoled that 
her illustrious sons had discharged at onc^ the debt of nature 
and of patriotism. Glory is a light that shines from us od 
others, and not from others on us. Assured that future ages 
would render justice to the memory of her children, Cornelia 
thought they had already received the highest approbation, 
when they had received their own. 


If anything was wanting, their mother gave it. 


No stranger of distinction left Italy without a visit to her. 
You would imagine that they, and that she particularly, would 
avoid the mention of her sons : it was however the subject on 
which she most delighted to converse, and which she never 
failed to introduce on finding a worthy auditor. I have heard 
from our father and from Scaevola, both of whom in their 
adolescence had \ieeTi ^ii^sevvl w^ ^w.^ <^k:k^^\s&^ that she 


nentioned her children, no longer indeed with the calm com- 
pbeency and full content with which she showed thcni to the 
hdj of Campania as her gems and ornaments, but with such 
an exultation of delight at their glory, as she would the honn's 
of antiquity. So little of what is painful in emotion did »\\e 
exhibit at the recital, those who could not comprehend her 
magnanimity at first believed her maddened by her misfortune's; 
but so many signs of wisdom soon displayed thcmselvt^s, such 
rt ai d ness and sedateness of demeanour, such serene nuijestic 
aoavity, they felt as if some deity were present; and whrn 
wonder and admiration and awe permitted them to lift up their 
ejes again toward her, they discovered from her's that the 
fondest of mothers had been speaking, the mother uf the 

I wish vou would write her life. 


Titus Pomponius may undertake it ; and Titus may live to 
accomplish it. All times are quiet times with him; the 
antagonist, the competitor of none; the true philoMoplicrl 
He knows the worth of men and tlie weif^ht of factioiiH, 
and how little they merit the diiiturbance of our n-|M)Nc. Ah 
Qiiinctus ! tlmt 1 never looked buck until 1 cuinc u|M)n the 
▼en' brink of the wliirliiool! that, drawing all my glciry from 
my lungs, I find all my peace in cxhauHtitm! Our AtticuH 
never did thus ; and he therefur may live to do what ynu 

E repose for me, not indeed too late in the day, hut wilh 
roken rest, and with zeal (I must acknowledgi* it) ahatnl. 
Your remark on biography is just; yet how far brhm thn 
truth is even the best representation of those whose niindH the 
gods have illuminated ! IIow much great4*r wouhi thr i^rratcnt 
man appear, if anyone about him could iwn.'t'ive tlioHe innumrr- 
able filaments of thought, which break as they ariite from the 
brain, and the slenderest of which is worth all the wis<lom of 
many at who»e discretion lies the felicity of nations ! 'i'his in 
itaelf is impossible ; but there are fewer wiko mark what ap|)ear» 
on a sudilen and disappears again (such is the conversation of 
the wise) than there are who calculate those stars that are now 
coming jforth alxjve us : scarcely one in several millions can 
apportion, to what is exalte<l in min<i, its mapiitude, place, 
and distance. We must be contented to be \ud!^*d U^ lX\a.^ 


which people can discern and handle: that which therooi 
have among them most at leisure^ is most likelv to be vdl 
examined and dnly estimated. Whence I am led to bdiere 
that my writings, and those principally which instmct men in 
their rights and duties, will obtain me a solider and more 
extensive reputation than I could have acquired in public lite^ 
by busier, harder, and more anxious labours. Public men 
appear to me to live in that delusion which Socrates, in the 
PAado, would persuade us is common to all our species. 
"We live in holes,*' says he, " and fancy that we are living in 
the highest parts of the earth/' What he says phvsi^j 
I would say morally. Judge whether my observation is 
not at least as reasonable as his hypothesis; and indeed, 
to speak ingenuously, whether I have not converted what is 
physically false and absurd into what is morally true and 


True, beyond a question, and important as those whom it 
concerns will let it be. They who stand in high stations, wiA 
for higher ; but they who have occupied the highest of all, 
often think with regret of some one pleasanter they left below. 
The most wonderful thing in human nature is the variance of 
knowledge and will, where no passion is the stimulant: 
whence that system of life is often chosen and persevered in, 
which a man is well convinced is neither the best for him nor 
the easiest. Few can see clearly where their happiness hes; 
and, in those who see it, you will scarcely find one who has 
the courage to pursue it. Every action must have its motive; 
but weak motives are sufficient for weak minds ; and whenever 
we see one which we believed to be a stronger, moved habituallr 
by what appears inadequate, we may be certain that there is 
(to bring a metaphor from the forest) more top than root. 
Servius Tullius, a prudent man, dedicated to Fortune what we 
call the narrow temple, with a statue in proportion, expressing 
his idea that Fortune in the condition of mediocrity is more 
reasonably than in any other the object of our vows. He 
could have given her as magnificent a name, and as magnifi- 
cent a residence, as any she possesses ; and you know she has 
many of both ; but he wished perhaps to try whether for once 
she would be as favorable to wisdom as to enterprise.* 

* Plutarch, in his ProhUtM^ offers ficveral reasons, each different from 



If life allows us time for the experiment, let us also try it.* 
Sleep, which the Epicureans and others have represented as 
the image of death, is, we know, the repairer of activity and 
strength. If they sfioke reasonably and consistently, they 
might argue from their own principles, or at le:ist take the 
illustration from their own fancy, that death like sleep may 
also restore our powers, and in proportion to its universality 
and absoluteness. Pursuers as they are of pleasure, their 
unsettled and restless imagination loves rather to brood over 
an abyss, than to expatiate on places of amenity and com{)osure. 
Just as sleep is the renovator of coqx)real vigour, so, m ith 
their permission, I would believe death to be of the mind's ; 
that the bodv, to which it is attached rather from habitude 
than from miscm, is little else than a disease to our immortal 
spirit; and that, like the reinora, of which mariners tell 
niar\'els, it counteracts, as it were, both oar and sail, in the 
most strenuous advances we can make toward tVlicity. ISliall 
we lament to feel this reptile drop otf? Or ^shall wi* not, on 
the contrary, k^ap with alacrity on shore, and otfcr up in 
gratitude to the gods whatever is left about us uncorroilcd and 
ansh«ittered 'i A broken and abject mind is the thing least 
worthy of their acceptanci*. 


Brother, you talk as if then* were a plurality of gods. 


I know not and care not how nianv there may be of tlicm. 
Philosophy points to unity : but while m e an* hen', we ^peak 
those do who an* around us, and employ in the.^e matters 

* ThAt Cicero lie^an to think a iirivate life preferable to a imblic. ami 
tliat his philoifiiihical uo Icm than his political opiniuuM wcrv uiiKtaMIe. is 
■hown nuwheiv so evidently as in the eighth book nf hii» K/^istlfs. " Nam 
omncm noHtram Je republicd curaxn. vogitationem. de dit'cniU in neiiutu 
sententiik. &c.. abjecimns, ct in Kpicuri uua, a^lvorHarii nostri, ca^t^k Ci«n- 
jecunuA.*' ^k'veral years before the date of thirt ho writeA to Attii-uif, 
*' Halo in iUA tuA ne<liculA quam habos sub ima^nne AriKtot^'Iis mmIito. 
qoam in istonim sella cunili, tecunxiue apud tc aiiibulari i|nani cum co 
quocuED video wae ainbuhuiduui : sed de ista auibulationo surH vid*-rit, aut 
■i«]uis eat qui curet deua.** L. iv. R ix. 

CX>moHthcneii in his later days entertain e<l the opinion that if there 
were two roatls, the one loailini^ to government, the other to d«ith, a 
pmdeut man would cbooM the Uttor. 


the language of our country. Ital^ is not so fertfle inhemlo^ 
as Greece ; yet a wise man will dissemble lialf his wisdom on 
such a topic ; and I, as you rememb^, adopting the means of 
dialogue^ have often deUvered my opinions in the Yckt d 
others, and speak now as custom not as reason leads me. 


Marcus, I stil observe in you somewhat of aversion to 
Epicurus, a few of whose least important positions yon have 
controverted in your dialogues : and I wish that, even thcst, 
you had been less irrisory, less of a pleader ; that you had 
l)een, in dispassionate urbanity, his follower. Such was also 
the opinion of two men the most opposite in other thii^ 
Brutus and Ceesar. Religions may fight in the street or over 
the grave, Philosophy never should. We ought to for^ the 
manners of the forum in our disquisitions, which if they con- 
tinue to be agitated as they have been, will be designated at 
last not only by foul epithets drawn from that unsober tub, 
but, as Wolence is apt to increase in fury until it falls from 
exhaustion, by those derived from war and bloodshed. I 
should not be surprised if they who write and reason on our 
calm domestic duties, on our best and highest interests, should 
hereafter be designated by some such terms as polemical and 
sarcastic. As horses start aside from objects they see imper- 
fectly, so do men. Enmities are excited by an indistinct view; 
they Mould be allayed by conference. Look at anv long 
avenue of trees by which the traveler on our principal high- 
ways is protected from the sun. Those at the beginning are 
wide apart ; but those at the end almost meet. Thus happens 
it frequently in opinions. Men, who were far asunder, come 
nearer and nearer in the course of life, if they have strength 
enough to quell, or good sense enough to temper and assuage, 
their earlier animosities, ^ye^e it possible for you to hare 
spent an hour with Epicurus, you would have been delighted 
with him ; for his nature was hke the better part of yours. 
Zeno set out from an opposite direction, yet they meet at last 
and shake hands. He who shows us how lear nmv be reasoned 
with and pacified, how Death may be disarmed of terrors, how 
Pleasure may be united vAih. Innocence and \*'ith Constancy, 
he who persuades us that Vice is painful and vindictive, and 
that Ambition, deemed the most manly of our desires, is the 
most cliildish and\\lwsot^, ^Les^^x^^ wa ^g|^\i\« Children 


would fall asleq) before they had trifled so long as grave men 
do. If f ou must quarrel with Epicurus on the principal good^ 
take my idea. The happy man is he who distinguishes the 
boundary between desire and delight, and stands firmly on the 
higher ground ; he who knows that pleasure not only is not 
possession, but is often to be lost and always to be endangered 
by it. In life, as in thase prospects wliich if the sun were 
above the horizon we should see from hence, the objects covered 
with the softest light, and offering the most beautiful forms in 
the distance, are wearisome to attain, and barren. 

In one of your last letters, you told me tlmt you had come 
over into the camp of your old adversary. 


I could not rest with him. As we pardon those reluctantly 
who destroy our family tombs, is it hkely or reasonable that 
be should be forgiven, who levels to the ground the fabric to 
which they lead, and to which they are only a rude and 
temporary vestibule P 


Socrates was heard with more attention, Pythagoras had 
more authority in his lifetime ; but no philosopher hath excited 
so much enthusiasm in those who never fre<|uente(l, never 
heard nor saw him ; and yet his doctrines are not such in 
theraselvc*s as would excite it. How then can it be? other- 
wise than pJirtly from the innocence of his life, and jiartly 
from the relief his followers experienced in abstraction from 
unquiet and insatiable desires. ^Iany, it is true, have s|>oken 
of him with hatred : but among his haters are none who knew 
him. AVhich is remarkable, singular, wonderful : for hatred 
Bcems as natural to men as hunger is, and excitt^l like hunger 
by the presence of its food; and the more ex(iuisite the food, 
the more excitable is the hunger. 


I do not remenilHT to have met anywhere lx»fore with the 
thought you have just expn^ssed. Certain it is however that 
men in gincral liave a proi)ensity to hatred, profitless as it is and 
painful. We »iy proverbially, after Ennius or some otiier old 
poet, the descent to Avemus is easy : not li*ss easily are we 
carried down to the more fXistiferous [xmA wherrinto we would 
drag our suj>erior8 and submerge Ibeuv. Iv v& \.W ^v^Vvwn ^:^. 


the obscure to be despised ; it is the privilc^ of the illiistrioiis 
to be hated. Whoever hates me, proves and feds himsdf to 
be less than I am. If in argument we can make a man angiy 
with us, we have drawn him from his vantage-ground and 
overcome him. For he who, in order to attack a little nm 
(and every one calls his adversary so) oesLses to defend the 
truth, shows that truth is less his object than the little man. 
I profess the tenets of the New Academy, because it teaches 
us modesty in the midst of wisdom, and leads through doubt 
to inquiry. Hence it appears to me that it must renda as 
quieter and more studious, without doing what Epicurus would 
do ; tliat is, \iithout singing us to sleep in groves and meadows^ 
while our country is calling on us loudly to defend her. Never- 
theless I have lived in the most familiar way with Epicureans, 
as you know, and have loved them affectionately. There is no 
more certain sign of a narrow mind, of stupidity, and of 
arrogance, than to stand aloof from those who think differently 
from ourselves. If they have weighed the matter in dispute 
as carefully, it is equitable to suppose that they have the same 
chance as we have of being in the right : if they have not, we 
may as reasonably be out of humour with our footman or 
chairman : he is more ignorant and more careless of it stiL 

I have seen reason to change the greater part of my 
opmions. Let me confess to you, Quinctus, we oftener say 
things because we can say them well, than because they are 
sound and reasonable. One would imagine that everj' man in 
society knows the nature of friendship. Similarity in the 
disposition, identity in the objects liked and disliked, have 
been stated (and stated by myself) as the essence of it : no- 
tliing is untruer. Titus Pomponius and I are different in 
our sentiments, our manners, our habits of life, our ideas of 
men and tilings, our topics of study, our sects of philosophy ; 
added to which our country and companions have these many 
years been wide apart ; yet we are friends, and always were, 
and, if man can promise anything beyond the morrow, always 
shall be. 


Your 'idem velle atque idem nolle^ of which you now 
perceive the futihty, has never been suspected ; not even by 
those who have seen Marius and Sylla, Csesar and Pompeius, 
at variance and at war, for no other reason than because they 
sought and shunned \\ie ^acaa XXxoi^^ ^wMasoi^^^gTO^M^ imd 


seeking supremacy. Young men quote the sentence dnilv; 
those very young men perhaps who court the same mistress, 
and whose friendship not only has not been corroborated, but 
has been shattered and torn up by it. Few authors have 
cxainim*d any one thine well, scarcely one many things. Your 
Dialogues are wiser, I think, than those of the Greeks ; 
certainly more animated and more diyersified : but I doubt 
vhether you have bestowed so much time and labour on any 
question of general interest to mankind, as on pursuing a thief 
kke Verres, or scourging a drunkard like Piso, or drawing the 
nets of Vulcan oyer the couch of Clodius. For which reason 
I should not wonder if your Orations were valued by jwstcrity 
more highly than your Dialogues ; although the best oration 
can only show the clever man, while Philosophy shows the 
great one. 


I approve of the Dialogue for the reason you have given me 
just now ; the fewness of settled truths, and the facihty uf 
laming the cycle of our thoughts to what t^spoci we wish, as 
geometers and astronomers the globe. A book was lately on 
the point of publication, I hear, to demonstrate the childishness 
of the Dialogue ; and the man ui)on the bench a little way 
below the Middle Janus, who had already paid the writer thirty 
denars for it, gave it bac*k to him on reading the word c/ii/i/lsA. 
for Menander or iSophocles or Euripides had caught his eye, all 
of whom, he heard, wrote in dialogue, as did liomer in tlie 
better parts of his two poems : and he doubted whetlier a young 
man ignorant of these authors, could ever have known that 
the same method had been employed by Plato on all (M-easions, 
and by Xenophon in much of his lUcollectionn, and tiiat the 
conversations of Socrates would have lost their form and forc(>, 
delivered in any other manner. He might ]MThaps liav(> jt^t 
up himself against the others ; but his modesty would n(»t 
let him stand before the world opposed to 8<K*nites under 
the Shield of Apollo. Moms, the man below the Middle 
Janus,* is very lioeral, and left him in possession of tiie thirty 
denars, on condition that he should write as arrimoniouslv 
against as eloquent and judicious an author, wheneviT called 

Tiie Milt He Janmt ii mentioned tiy Horace. It han 11-1114] I y been 
cooudcreU an a temple, and the remaiuH of it are |K>iutud out as •uch ; 
but in fact it waa unly the caUral arck of a tnarkfiVv\i«M. 



Speaking of Plato in the earlier series of your philosophic^ 
disquisitions, you more highly praised his language than yon 
appear to have done lately. 


There is indeed much to admire in it ; but even his language 
has fewer charms for me now, than it had in youth. Fbto 
will always be an object of admiration and reverence, to men 
who would rather see vast images of uncertain objects reflected 
from illuminated clouds, than representations of things in 
their iust proportions, measurable, tangible, and convertible to 
household use. Therefor, in speaking on the levity of the 
Greeks, I turned my eyes toward him ; that none, whatever 
commendations I b^towed upon his diction, might mistake 
me in describing the qualities of his mind. Politics will gain 
nothing of the practical from him, philosophy nothing of what 
is applicable to morals, to science, to the arts, or the conduct 
of life. Unswathe his Egyptian mummy ; and fi*om the folds 
of fine linen, bestrewn and impregnated with aromatics, yon 
disclose the grave features and gracile bones of a goodly and 
venerable cat. Little then can you wonder if I have taken him 
as one of small authority, when I composed my works on 
Government, on the Social Duties, or on the Nature cf tkt 


You have forborne to imitate his style, although you dtc 
the words of a Greek enthusiast, who says that if Jupiter had 
spoken in Greek he would have spoken in the langoase 
of Plato. 


Jupiter had no occasion for pliilosophy ; we have. 


I prefer your method of conducting the dialogue, althoi^ 
I wish you had given us a greater variety both of topics and 
of characters. 


If time and health are granted me, perhaps I may do 
somewhat more than I or others have accomplished in this 


Why do you simV^? vi\. ^omt c«raM&\sRA of succeeding ? 



No indeed ; but because all strong and generous wine must 
deposit its crust before it gratifies tlie palate ; and are not all 
such writings in the same predicament? 


Various pieces of such criticism Imve been brought to me. 
One writer says of jou, " He would pretend to an c(iuality in 
style and wisdom with Theophrastus/' Another, '' We 
remember his late invectives^ which he had the assurance to 
call PhiUppics^ fancying Iiimself another Demostheni's ! " A 
third, " He knows so little of the Dialogue, that many of his 
ftpedcers talk for a quarter of an hour uninterruptedly ; in fact, 
until they can talk no longer, and have nothing more to say 
npon the subject.'' 


Bare objection ! As if the dialogue of statesmen and nhilo- 
sophers, wliich appertains by its nature to dissi^rtation, should 
resemble the dialogue of comedians, and L»4ius and S(*]rvula 
be turned into Davus and Syrus ! Although I have derived 
my ideas of excellence from Greece, out of which there is 
nothing elegimt, nothing chaste and tenipemtc, nothing not 
barbarous, nevertheless I have a mind of my own equal in 
capacity and in order to any there, indebted as i ack now ledge 
it to be to Grecian exercises and Grecian institutions. Neither 
mv time of life nor mv rank in it, nor indeed mv tcniiNT and 
disposition, wuuld allow mc to twitch the sleeves of Miphists, 
and to banter them on the idleness of their disputations with 
trivial and tinv and i>etulant interrogatories. I introduce 
grave men, and they talk gravely ; im}x)rtant subjects, and I 
treat them worthily. Lighter, if my spints had the elasticity to 
give them play, I should touch more delicately and tinel\ , hitting 
them fly off in more fantastic forms and more va|X)ur}' particles. 
But who indtrd can hoiie to excell in two manners so widely 
different ? Who hath ever done it, Greek or Roman ? If wiser 
men than thos<' who ap|x?«ir at present to have s]K)ken :ivr*nnst 
my dialogues, should undertake the same business, I would 
inform them that the most severe way of judging thesi- works, 
with any plea or apj[x*arance of fairness, is, to sehn't the hesct 
passages from the best writers I may have introducTtl. and to 
pUce my ])ages in opposition to theirs in ccpial quantities. 
Suppose me introducing 8olou or L'Uocvow, A:.^N\\\\v:9» ^^^ 


Demosthenes ; tbat is^ whatever is most wise, whatever is mort 
eloquent ; should it appear that I have equalled them where 
so little space is allowed me, I have done greatly moie thn 
has ever been done hitherto. Style I consider as nothmg 
if what it covers be unsound : wisdom in union with harmonT 
is oracular. On this idea, the wiser of ancient days venenied 
in the same person the deity of oracles and of music : and it 
must have been the most malicious and the most ingenious of 
satirists, who transferred the gift of eloquence to the god of 


I am not certain that you have claimed for yourself the fair 
trial you would have demanded for a client. One of the inta- 
locutors may sustain a small portion of a thesis. 


In that case, take the whole Conversation ; examine tbe 
quality, the quantity, the variety, the intensity, of mental 
power exerted. I myself would arm my adversaries, and teach 
them how to fight me ; and I promise you, the first blow I 
receive from one of them, I will cheer him heart ilv : it will 
augur well for our country. At present 1 can do nothing 
more liberal than in sending thirty other denars to the mortified 
bondman of Moms. 

I have performed one action ; I have composed some few 
things, which posterity, I would fain believe, will not suffer 
to be quite forgotten. Fame, they tell you, is air: but 
without air there is no life for any : without fame there b 
none for the best. And yet, who knows whether all our labours 
and vigils may not at last be involved in oblinon ! What 
treasures of learning must have perished, which existed long 
before the time of Homer! For it is utterly out of the 
nature of things, that the first attempt in any art or science 
should be the most perfect : such is the Liad : I look upon 
it as the sole fragment of a lost world. Grieved indeed I 
should be to think, as you have heard me say before, that 
an enemy may possess our city five thousand years hence : y^ 
when I consider that soldiers of all nations are in the armies 
of the triumvirate, and that all are more zealous for her ruin 
than our citizens are for her defence, tliis event is not unlike^ 
the very next. The worst of barbarism is that which ema- 
nates, not from the «L\ise.iic^ ol\2»^%,\svsJ^^\QLt\\fiir corruption. 


io long as virtue stands merely on the same level with vice^ 
iothing is desperate, nothing is irreparable ; few governments 
n their easy decrepitude care for more. But when rectitude 
s dangerous and depravity secure, then eloquence and courage, 
lie natural pride and safeguard of states, become the strongest 
md most active instruments in their overthrow. 


I see the servants have lighted the lamps in the house 
earlier than usual, hoping, I suppose, we shall retire to rest 
in good time, tliat to-morrow they may prepare the festivities 
for your birth-day. 


They arc bringing out of the dining-room, I apprehend, the 
basts our Atticus lately sent me. Let us hasten to prevent 
it, or they may place Homer and Solon with the others, 
instead of inserting them in the niches op|)osite my bed, 
where I wish to contemplate them by the iirst light of 
morning, the first objects opening on my eyes. For, without 
the one, not only poetrj', but elo(|Ucnce too, and even' high 

rles of literary composition, niijjht have remained until 
day, in all quarters of the globe, incondite and indigested : 
and without the other even Athens herself might Iiave explored 
her way in darkness, and never have exhibited to us Romans 
theprototvi>e of those laws on which our glory hath arisen, and 
the loss of which we are destined to lament as our last 
and greatest . 


Within how few minutes has the night closed in upon us ! 
Nothing is left disccniible of the promontories, or the long 
irregular breakers under them. We have before us only a 
faint glimmering from the shells in our path, and from the 
blossoms of the arbutus. 


The little soHtary Circean hill, and even the neariT, loftier, 
and whiter rocks of Anxur, are become indistinguishable. 
"We leave our Cato and our Lucullus, we leave C ornelia anil 
her children, the scenes of friendship and the recollections 
of greatness, for Lepidus and Octavius and Antonius ; and 
who knows iiiiether this birth-day, between which and us 
•o few diiys intervene, may not be, as it certainly will be the 
least pleasurable, the bst I 



Do not despond, my brother ! 


I am as far from despondency and dejection as from jo? 
and cheerfulness. Death has two aspects : dreary and sorroirM 
to those of prosperous, mild and almost genial to those d 
adverse fortune. Her countenance is old to the vounsr, and 
youthful to the aged : to the former her voice is importunate, 
her gait terrific: the latter she approaches like a bedside 
friend, and calls in a whisper that invites to rest. To ns, 
my Quinctus, advanced as we are on our way, weary from 
its perplexities and dizzy from its precipices, she gives a cahn 
welcome ; let her receive a cordial one. 

K life is a present which anyone foreknowing its contents 
would have willingly declined, does it not follow that anyone 
would as willingly give it up, having well tried what they are ? 
I speak of the reasonable, the firm, the virtuous; not of those 
who, like bad governors, are afraid of laying down the powers 
and pri\ileges they have been proved unworthy of holding. 
Were it certain that the longer we live the wiser we become 
and the happier, then indeed a long life would be desirable : 
but since on the contrary our mental strength decays, and 
our enjo}Tnents of every kind not only sink and cease, but 
diseases and sorrows come in place of them, if any wish is 
rational, it is surely the wish that we should go away unshaken 
by years, undeprest by griefs, and undespoiled of our better 
faculties. Life and death appear more certainly ours than 
whatsoever else : and yet hardly can that be called ours, which 
comes without our knowledge, and goes without it ; or that 
which we can not put aside if we would, and indeed can 
anticipate but little. There arc few who can regulate life to 
any extent ; none who can order the things it shall receive or 
exclude. What value then should be placed upon it by the 
pnident man, when duty or necessity calls him away? or 
what reluctance should he feel on passing into a state' where 
at least he must be conscious of fewer checks and inabihties ? 
Sucli, my brother, as the brave commander, when from tbe 
secret and dark passages of some fortress, wherein implacable 
enemies besieged liim, having performed all his duties and 
exhausted all liis munition, he issues at a distance into open 

Mvi^rrs Tri.i.iis and n\ :Nni < < h rrn. l;',.') 

Evcnthiiiir h«is its use; life to tiach us the contcmj)t of 
death, aud cleath the crnitcuipt of Hfe. Glory, which niuoiig 
all things between stands eminently tlie principal, althouirh 
it has been considered by some plulosophei*s as mere vanity 
and di'cention^ moves those great inti-lhcts which nothing 
else could have stirred, and places them vhere they can best 
and most advantageously serve the commonwealth, (ilory 
can Im* safelv despised bv tlu)se onlv who have fairlv won it : 
a low, ignorant, or vicious man shoidd dispute on other topics. 
The philosopher wlio contemns it, has i-very rogue in his 
sect, and mav n*ckon that it will outIi\c all others. Occasion 
mav have l)een wantinir to some: I i:rant it: thev mnv have 
remaineil their whole lifetime nke di:ds in the shade, alwnvs 
fit for use and alwavs useless : but this nuist occur either in 
monarchal governments, f>r where ptTsons occupy the first 
station who ought hardly to have been admitted to the 
secondary, and whom jealousy has guided more frequently 
than justi(*e. 

It is true there is much inocpirdity, much inconsideruteiiess, 
in the distribution of fame ; :iiid the principles according to 
wliich honour ought to be c«»nfirrf<l, are not only violated, 
but often invertinl. AVhoi'ver wishes to be thouirht jrreat 
among men, must do them some great mis<-hii'f; and the 
longer he continues in doing things (»f this sort, the more 
he will be admind. The features of Fortune are so like 
thos(* of (leniiis as to be mistaken by almost all the world. We 
whose nanu's and works are honorable to our country, and 
destiiU'd to survive her, are less e>teemed than those who have 
accelenite<l her di*cav : vet even here the sense of injnrv riM< 
from and is acc(»mpanied by a sense of merit, the tout* of 
which is d(*e|HT and predominant. 

When we have >poken of life, ileath, and glory, we have 

spoken of all im|M)rtant things, except friendship : lor ehMpirnee 

and philoM^phy, and other inferior attainments, are eithiT 

means condueible to life and irlorv, or antidotes atrainst the 

bittenu^ss of dcith. AVe can not com pier fate and iu'ci*s>ity, 

yet we can jield to them in such a manner as to be greater 

than if we ctmld. I have observed vour imimtience: vou 

were about to ap|K'al in behalf of \irlue. Ihit \irtue is 

presup|Mised in friendship, as I have mentioned in my Luf'mn ; 

nor have I iver separated it from phil»»<ophy or from glorv. 

I discmiscd the subject most at large aiul most methodically 

r f 2 


in my treatise on our Duties^ and I find no reason to alter 
my definition or deductions. On friendship^ in the present 
condition of our affairs, I would say but little. Could I 
begin my existence again, and what is equally impossiUe, 
could I see before me all I luive seen, I would choose few 
acquaintances, fewer friendships, no familiarities. This rubbish, 
for such it generally is, collecting at the base of an elevated 
mind, lessens its highth and impairs its character. TVlut 
requires to be sustained, if it is greater, fsdls ; if it is smaller, 
is lost to view by the intcnention of its supporters.* 

In literature great men suffer more from their little friends 
than from their potent enemies. It is not by our adversaries 
that our early shoots of glory are nipped and broken off, or 
our later pestilentially blighted ; it is by those who he at onr 
feet, and look up to us with a solicitous and fixed r^ard 
until our shadow grows tliicker and makes them colder. Then 
they begin to praise us as worthy men indeed and good 
citizens, but rather vain, and what (to speak the truth) in 
others they slioidd call presiunptuous. They entertain no 
doubt of our merit in literature ; yet justice forces them to 
declare that several have risen up lately who promise to 
surpass us. Should it be asked of them who these are, they 
look modest, and tell vou softlv and submissivelv, it Avould iU 
become them to repeat the eulogies of their acquaintance, 
and that no man pronounces his own name so distinctly as 
anotlicr^s. I had sometliing of oratory once about me, and 
was borne on liigli by the spirit of the better Greeks. Thus 
they thought of me; aud they thought of me, Quinctus, 
no more than thus. They had reached the straits, and saw 
before them the boundary, the impassable Atlantic, of the 
intellectual world. But now I am a bad citizen and a worse 
writer : I want tlie exercise and effusion of my own breath to 
warm me : I must be chafed by an adversaiy : I must be 
supported by a crowd : I require the forum, the rostra, the 
senate : in my individuality I am nothing. 

• These aro the ideas of a man deceiTed and betrayed by almost every- 
one he trusted. But if Cicero had considered that there never was an 
elevated soul or warm heart which has not been ungenerously and imjustly 
dealt with, and that ingratitude has usually been in proportion to desert, 
his vanity if not his philosophy would have buoyed up and supported him. 
He himself is redundant in such instances. To set Pompeius ^de, as a 
man ungrateful to all, Uq had spared Julius Crosar in his consulate when 
he was implicated in Wie con^pVi^c^ otC^M"^^^ ^^^d&i>^&,\^^v^9a^^ad 


T irmcinbcr the time when, instead of smiling, you would 
have btrn olFonded and angry at surh levity and impudence. 


Tlie misfortunes of our country cover ours, and I am imper- 
ceptible to myself in the dark gulf that is absorbing iier. 
Should T l)c anirn'":' Antrer, alwavs irrational, is in(»st so Ihtc. 
Tliese men see those above them as tln-v see the stars : nin' is 
almost as large as another, almost as bright ; small distance 
between them, lliey can not quite touch us with tin- fore- 
finger; but they can almost. Ami what matters it? they 
can utter as manv thinirs ;iir:iin-sl us and as tiercel v, as 
Polyphemus did ag:iinst the hc:ivens. Sincr my dialogUi*s ire 
certainly the last things I ^hall compose, and >incr wi*, my 
brother, shall |M'rhaps, for the little tunc that is ntiiaining of 
oar lives, be soon divided. Me may t:ilk ahout thc^i- maftrrs as 
among the wisest and most intiTcsting: and the ratln-r if 
there is anything in them di-phi\iiig the <-haraftcr of our 
country and the jdiasis of our times. 

Afpiilius Cirnber, who lives soiiirwh»re under the Alps, was 
patronised by Caius Cfesar for his av-iduifit-s, and by Ant on ins 
fur his admirabh' talent in teJliiiL' a ^^tftrv and sirtinir up late. 

• -I 

H«' l)ears on his shoulders the hIioIi- tabh-t of hi< nation, 
reconciling its incongruities. Appanntly very frank, but 
intrinsicallv verv insincere; a warm friiiid while drinkimr: 

Antoniii.4, liad U'cn A>Iiiiitte<l t<> )ii<« frirmUliip ami ('••iitiil«*n4'« ; r)it:i\iiis 
owiil to him liis iKipuIiO'ity anil i">t::!t.iti'iM . Pii.l iliv^u-.* uh>i:ii lit- iuul 
ft*\ an»l iii-'trui-ti'«l, j»»iiijt<-«l out t-i I.:- j'-.;r-«i-:--« thi .-i-i-ii-t j-irli li«.' I..i'l 
tokrli t'l :i\<ii«1 tliriii : :iiiil Piiji'liu-, t-i'-.r I'llct. Ii;t«l l>y lii- fl...jufrii-i' U-i-ri 
■lTc<l fpiiii fht» jiiiriifhiiit^it ••f ■•iH- |iirr;-i'|i-lli.»tjn» iii"::!it ♦■■iniiuit .iii'itK«-r, 
It wiTo well sf rici'pi hail !•• fii «••• -iiu'iTv in liii frji-ipl-liip ji- |'«rfi i;- 
he th'iiijlit lit* ^JiK. Till* WMptt rw-tinn iif lii-» lif** in.iy li»* i-l is-'l in Ir.* 
own w lip N. " Q'ulifl futuri ^ii <'.i-Ari-» VirujM nit:-' r.iUtiM I,-*ti<l.itii.n«-in 
niciilii {x.T^i'fxi vx e«> I;l>ri> •[ii*'fii Ilirtini* ail in** iii>it. iii -I'lii i • ■!!:.'. t \.!x.i 
Catiiiii-. M-<1 i-iitii inaziuiH lau'liKu*' nici.- : i*a<|:i«> tu.^i U'l-uin .i-I .Mii-i-ani, 
ut tiiis iljin-t, W'< tuim Miiit ttirnfff'rri." \i\ Au.r. \l\. 1". A 
hiino'ft lit in vrnulil 1m.* liulu jn"'*'i^'*'l I'V t^»*' 'li^tiJ-tt "n •■!* l.i- pni-t*** 
ftcvom{-aiiit:il Ky i-.ilufniiie!« i/ii hi!* fr.fii'l, nr vm-ii I y tliv i'X]Mi«::rt' **( i.ii 
faultii and wvakDcsAea. 

* S-j l.l^ name i.« trritten liy IMnturrli. wl <• r:i]l- hiin *avfA«'vffpoi Kolirrov. 
We ni.Ay •{••--iKt %Kljftlii-r it ftliuuM n^it Im; Piiil-i.; •nn<«, f>ir :i frt'i-«I in.ui «jf 
QuiiK'tu* wjth thiit DAiue in IDcbtiolieU iu iW I*|i"tUt vai\V^.>f A. V. 


cold, vapid, limber, on the morrow, as the festal coronet he 
had worn the night before. 


Such a person, I can well suppose, may nevertheless hafe 
acquired the friendship of Antonius. 


His popidarity in those parts rendered him also an object 
of attention to Octavius, who told me he was prodigiously 
charmed with his stories of departed spirits, which AquiHus 
firmly believes are not altogether departed from his countrr. 
He hath several old books relating to the history, true and 
fabulous, of the earlier Cimbri. Such is the impression they 
made upon him in his youth, he soon composed others on the 
same model, and better (I have heard) than the originals. 
His opinion is now much regarded in his province on matters 
of literature in general ; although you would as soon think of 
sending for a smith to select an ostrich feather at the miUiner's. 
He neglects no means of money-getting, and has entered into 
an association for this purpose with the booksellers of the 
principal Transpadane cities. On the first appearance of my 
dialogues, he, not having read them, nor haWng heard of 
their tendency, praised them ; moderately indeed and re- 
servedly ; but finding the people in power ready to persecute 
and oppress me, he sent his excuse to Antonius, that he was 
drunk when he did it ; and to Octavius, that the fiercest of 
the Lemures held him by the tliroat until he had written what 
his heart revolted at. And he ordered his friends and relatives 
to excuse him by one or other of these apologies, according 
to the temper and credulity of the person they addressed. 


I never heard the story of AquiUus, no less ^amusing than 
the well-known one of him, that he went several miles out of 
his road to visit the tomb of the Scipios, oidy to lift up his 
tunic against it in contempt. He boasted of tlie feat and of 
the motive. 


Until the wortJiies of our times shone forth, he venerated 

no Eoman since the exiled kings, in which liis favorite is the 

son of the last : and there are certain men in liigh authority 

who assure him they know how to appreciate and compensate 

80 heroic and su\)\\me aw ^vieXXow. Tfta ^^bXft.% *dx^^T\^o;)8sii& 


are wretches with him, and particularly since Cato pardoned 
him for Iiaving hired a fellow (as was proved) to turn some 
swine into his turnip-field at Tusculum. Looking at him or 
hearing of him, unless from those who know his real character, 
ou would imagine him generous, self-dependent, self-devoted : 
ut this upright and staunch thistle bears a yielding and 
palpable down for adulation. 



Better that tlian malice. Whatever he may think or say of 
you, 1 hope he never speaks maliciously of those whose liveli- 
hood, like his own, depends upon their writings ; the studious, 
the enthusiastic, the unliardened in politics, the uncrossed in 


I wish I could confirm or encourage you in your hojHs : 
report, as it reaches me, by no means favors them. 

This hurts me; for Aquilius, although the(jraces in none of 
their attributions are benignant to him, is a man of industry 
and genius. 


Alas, Quinctus ! to pass Aquilius by, as not concrrned in 
the reflection, the noblest elevations of the human mind have 
in ap^'rtenance their sands and swamps; hardness at top, 

Eutridity at bottom. Friends themselves, and not only tin; 
ttle ones you have s{)oken of, not only the thoughtless and 
injudicious, but graver and more constant, will oecasionally 
ffratify a superficial fettling, whieh soon grows dee'per, by 
irritating an orator or writer. You remember the ajK)logue of 
Critobulus ? 


No, I do not. 


It was sent to me bv PomiMiniuH Atticus soon after luv 
marriage : I must surely luive shown it to you. 

Not you indeed ; and I should wonder that so valuable a 
pres<*nt, so rare an accession to Itome as a new (ireek volume, 
could have come into your hands, and not out of them into 
mine, if vou had not mentioned that it was about the time of 
your nuptials. Let me hear the sIut^. 



"I was wandering/' says Critobulus, ''in the midst of a 
forest^ and came suddenly to a small round fountain or pool, 
with several white flowers (I remember) and broad leaves in 
the center of it^ but clear of them at the sides, and of a water 
the most pellucid. Suddenly a very beautiful figure came 
from beliind me, and stood between me and the fountain. I 
was amazed. I could not distinguish the sex, the form being 
youthful and the face toward the water, on wliich it was gazing 
and bending over its reflection, like another Hylas or Narcissus. 
It then stooi)ed and adorned itself with a few of the simplest 
flowers, and seemed the fonder and tenderer of those which 
had borne the impression of its graceful feet : and having 
done so, it turned round and looked upon me with an air of 
indifference and unconcern. The longer I fixed ray eyes on 
her, for I now discovered it was a female, the more anient I 
became and the more embarrassed. She perceived it, and 
smiled. Her eyes were large and serene; not very thoughtful, 
as if perplexed, nor ven' phiyfid, as if easily to be won ; and 
her countenance was tinged with so delightful a colour, that it 
api)eare(l an effluence from an irradiated cloud passing over it 
in tlie heavens. Slic gave me tlie idea, from her graceful 
attitude, that, although adapted to the i)erfection of actint}*, 
she felt rather an inclination for repose. I would have taken 
her hand : * You sliall presently,' said she ; and never fell on 
mortal a diviner glance than on nie. I told her so. She 
replied, * You sneak well.' I then fancied she was simple, and 
weak, and fond of flattery, and began to flatter her. She 
turned her face awav from me, and answered notliini?. I 
declared my excessive love : she went some paces off. I swore 
it was impossible for one who had ever seen her to live without 
her: she went several paces forther. 'By the immortal gods!' 
I cried, 'vou shall not leave; me.' She turned round and 
looked benifrnlv: but shook her head. 'You are another's 
then ! Say it ! say it ! utter the word once fron) your lips. . 
and let me die.' She smiled, more melancholy than before, 
and replied, ' O Critobulus ! I am indeed another's ; I am a 
God's.' The air of the interior heavens seemed to pierce me 
as she spoke ; and I trembled as impassioned men may tremble 
once. After a pause, ' I might have thought it ! ' cried I : 
' why then come before me and torment me ? ' She began to 
^\iiy and trifle witYv me, ^a \iiic».m^ \kEt ^>^<;i ^ li5ssR>si.vL\ rather 


than her engagement^ and she placed my hand upon the 
flowers in her kp without a blush. The whole fountain would 
not at that moment have assuaged my thirst. The sound of 
the breezes and of the birds around us^ even the sound of lier 
own voice, were all confounded in my ear, as colours are in the 
folneas and intensity of light. She said many pleasing things 
to me, to the earlier and greater part of which I was insensible; 
but in the midst of those which 1 could hear and was listening 
to attentively, she began to pluck out the grey hairs from my 
head, and to tell me that the others too were of a hue not 
▼ery agreeable. My heart sank witliin me. Presently tluTc 
was hardly a limb or feature without its imi>erfection. ' O ! ' 
cried I in despair, 'you have been used to tlie Gods: you 
must think so : but among men I do not believe 1 am con- 
sidered as ill-made or unsi>em1y.^ She ])aid litth' attention to 
mj words or my vexation; and wlien she had gone on with 
mv defects for some time longer, in tlie same cahn Umv and 
vitli the same swet^t countenance, she began to declare that 
she Iiad much affection for me, and was desirous of inspiring 
it in return. I was about to answer her with rjiptun*, when 
on a sudden, in lier girlisli humour slie stuck a thorn, where- 
with she had ha^n playing, into tliat ])art of tlie body which 
supixjrts us when we sit. 1 know not whether it went dee|>er 
than she inteiuled, but catchin;^ at it, I lea|H'd up in shani<; 
and anger, and at the Siune moment felt something upon my 
shouldrr. It was an armlet inscribed with letters of bossy 
adamant, 'Jove to his daughter Truth.' 

" She stood again before me at a distance, and said grac<*- 
fully, 'Critobulus! 1 am too young and simple for you ; but 
jou will love me stil, and not be made unhap])y by it in the 

end. farewell.' " 


Viliy did you not insert this allegory in som<' part of ycmr 
works, as you have often many pages from the Cinrk ? 


I might have done it, but I know not whether the state of 
our literature is any longiT fit for its reception. 

C<infess, if it is not, that the fault is in some sort yours, 
irho might have directed the higher minds, and have carried 
the lower with thvm. 



I regard with satisfaction the efforts I have made to son 
my country : but the same eloquence, the merit of which not 
even the most barbarous of my adversaries can detract from 
me, would have enabled me to elucidate large fidds of 
philosophy, hitherto untrodden by our countrymen, and ii 
which the Greeks have wandered widely or worked miprofit- 


Excuse my interruption. I heard a few days ago a pleasut 
thing reported of Asinius Pollio: he said at supper, yoai 
language is that of an Allobrox. 


After supper, I should rather think, and with Antonins. 
Asinius, urged by the strength of instinct, picks from amid 
the freshest herbage the dead dry stalk, and dozes and dreams 
about it where he can not find it. Acquired, it is true, I have 
a certain portion of mv knowledge, and consequently of my 
language, from the Allobroges : I can not well point out the 
place ; the walls of Romulus, the habitations of Janus and of 
iSaturn, and the temple of Capitoliue Jove, which the con- 
fessions I extorted from their embassadors gave me in my 
considate the means of sa^^ng, stand at too great a distance 
from tliis terrace. 


Certainly you have much to look back upon, of what is 
most proper and efficacious to console you. Consciousness of 
desert protects the mind against obloquy, exalts it above 
calamitv, and scatters into utter invisibility the shadowv fears 
of death. Nevertheless, O Marcus ! to leave behind us our 
children, if indeed it will be permitted them to stay beliind, is 


Among the contingencies of life, it is that for which we 
ought to be the best prepared, as the most regular and ordi- 
nary in the course of nature. In d}ing, and leanng our 
friends, and sajing, "I shall see you no more,'' wliich va 
thought by the generous man the painfullest thing in the 
change he undergoes, we speak as if we shall continue to fed 
the same desire and want of seehig them. An inconsistency 
so common as never to have been noticed : and my remark, 
wliich you would think too tririal, startles by its novdty 

■* . 


sfore it conciliates by its truth. "We bequeathe to our 
dldren a field illuminated by our glory and enriched by our 
jjnple : a noble patrimony, and beyond the jurisdiction of 
•»tor or proscriber. Nor indeed is our fall itself without its 
uit to them: for violence is the cause why that is often 
lied a calamity which is not, and repairs in some measure its 
juries by exciting to commiseration and tenderness. The 
ieasure a man receives from his cliildren resembles that which, 
ith more propriety tlian any other, we may attribute to the 
ivinity : for to suppose tliat his chief satisfaction and delight 
lould arise from the contemplation of what he luis done or 
m do, is to pkce him on a level with a nmner or a wrestler. 
he formation of a world, or of a thousand worlds, is as easy 
t him as the formation of an atom. Virtue and intellect are 
{ually liis production; yet he subjects them in no slight 
Bgree to our volition. His benevolence is gratified at seeing 
s conquer our wills and rise superior to our infirmities ; and 
. tracmg day after day a nearer resemblance in our moral 
atures to his. We can derive no pleasure but from exertion : 
5 can derive none from it : since exertion, as we understand 
le word, is incompatible with omnipotence. 


Proceed, my brother I for in every depression of mind, in 
rery excitement of feeling, my spirits are equalised by your 
iflcoursi' ; and that which you said with too much brevity of 
iir children, soothes me greatly. 


I am persuaded of the truth in what I have spoken ; and 
jt . . ah (iuinctus ! there is a tear that Philosophy can not 
ry, and a pang that will rise as wc approach the (iods. 

Two things tend beyond all others, after philosopliy, to 
ihibit and check our nider passions as they grow and swell 
I us, and to keep our gentler m their proper play : and these 
ro things an?, seasonable sorrow and inoffensive pleasure, each 
toderately indulged. Nay, there is also a pleasure, humble, it 

true, but graceful and insinuating, whicn follows close upon 
IT very sorrows, reconciles us to them gradually, and some- 
mes renders us at last undcsirous altogether of abandoning 
lem. If ever you have remembered the anniversary of some 
ly whereon a dear friend was lost to you, tell me whether 
tat aimiversary was not purer and even calmer than the day 


before. Tlie sorrow, if there should be any left, is soon 
absorbed, and full satisfaction takes place of it, while you 
perform a pious oi&ce to Friendship, required and appointed 
by the ordinances of Nature. When mj Tulliola was ton 
away from me, a thousand plans were in readiness for immor- 
talising her memory, and raising a monument up to the 
magnitude of my grief. The grief itself has done it : the teus 
1 then shed over her assuaged it in me, and did eveiythinif 
that could be done for her, or hoped, or wished. I called 
upon Tulliola ; Rome and the whole world beard me : her 
glory was a part of mine and mine of hers ; and when EtemitT 
had received her at my hands, I wept no longer. The 
tenderness wherewith I mentioned and now mention her, 
though it sib5i)ends my voice, brings what consoles and comforts 
me : it is the milk and honey left at the sepulcher, and equally 
sweet (I hoi)e) to the departed. 

The Gods, who have given us our affections, permit us 
surely the uses and the signs of them. Immoderate grief, like 
evervthing else immoderate, is useless and pernicious ; but if 
we did not tolerate and endure it, if we did not prepare for it, 
meet it, comnnine with it, if we did not even cherish it in its 
season, much of what is best in our faculties, much of our 
tenderness, much of our generosity, much of our patriotism, 
much also of our gtniius, would be stilled and extinguishetl. 

AVhen I hear any one call upon another to be manly and to 
restrain his tears, if they flow from the social and kind 
aff'cctions I doubt the humanity and distnist the wisdom of 
the counsellor. Were he humane, he would be more inchned 
to pity and to sjTnpatliise than to Icctim? and reprove ; and 
were he wise, he would consider that tears are civen us bv 
nature as a remedy to affliction, although, like other remedies, 
they should come to our relief in private. Philosophy, we 
mav be told, would prevent the tears bv tumintr awav the 
sources of them, and by raising up a rampart against pain and 
sorrow. I am of opinion that philosophy, quite pure and 
totally abstracted from our appetites and passions, instead of 
sening us the better, would do us little or no good at alL 
AVe may receive so much light as not to see, and so much 

1)liilosophy as to be worse than foolish. I have never had 
cisure to write all I could have written on the subjects I 
began to meditate and discuss too late. And where, 
Quinctus ! where ate \.\vosfc isvtxv ^^"s^^^ ^^ssssr. ^ii^^^^^fcajdau 


would have stimulated and cheered me in the course of them ? 
Little is entirely my own in the Tuscuian DisputaiioM ; for I 
went rather in search of what is useful than of what is specious, 
and sat down oftener to consult the wise than to argue with 
the ingenious. In order to detennine what is fairly due to 
me, you will see, which you may easily, how large is the pro- 
portion of the impracticable, the visionary, the baseless, in the 
philosophers who luive gone before me ; and how nmch of 
application and judgment, to say nothing of temper and 
patience, was reijuisitc in making the selection. Aristoteles is 
the only one of the philosophers I am intimate with (except 
you extort from me to concede you Epicurus) who never is a 
dreamer or a tritler, and almost the only one whose language, 
vor}'ing with its theme, is yet always grave and concise, autho- 
ritative and stately, neither running into wild dithyraiiibics, 
nor stagnating in vapid liLxuriance. 1 have not hesitated, on 
many occasions, to borrow largely from one who, in so many 
provinces, hath so nuich to lend. The whole of what 1 
collected, and the whole of what I laid out from my own, is 
applicable to the purposes of our political, civil, and domestic 
state. And my elociuence, whatever (with Pollio's leave) it 
maybe, would at least have suillced me to elucidate and explore 
those ulteri(»r tracts, which the Ci reeks have coasted neglitrently 
and left unsetth*d. Although 1 think I have done somewhat 
more than they, I am often dissatistu*d with the scantiness of 
mv store and the limit of mv excursion. Everv question has 

Even mc the subject of a new one, which has always birn 
itter treiittnl than the preceding; and, like Archimedes, whose 
tomb appears now birfore me as when I first discovered it at 
Syracust', I could almost Jisk of my enemy time to solve my 

(functus ! Quinctus ! let us exult with joy : there is no 
enemy to Ik* apiM>:ised (»r avoided. We an* moving forward, 
and without exertion, thither where we shall know all we wish 
to know, and how gn*atly more than, whether in Tusenlunior 
in Formiie, in Uome or in Athens, we couhl ever ht»pe to 
Icaru ! 




Messala ? this is indeed a delight to me. A visit in Some 
would have been little better than an honour. 


My dear Tibullus ! didst thou not promise me a greit 
reward if I would come to thy villa in the autumn ? Confident 
that no urbanity can escape thy memory or thy performancCi 
here I am. 


Little^ too little^ is whatever I could have promised. 


Little ? didst thou not promise me in presence of all the 
Muses, that Delia should cull the ripest apples for me? and 
thou well knowest how fond I always was of them. 


On the Garumna and on the Liger, after a tedious march, 
we often found them refreshing. 


"VMiat then must they be, gathered by the hand of Deha, 
the beloved of my brave Tibullus ? 


She shall gather them instantly. 

Come, Delia ! come from behind that curtain. Here is 
Messala. Do not let his eloquence win thy heart away from 
me, and forget for a moment all thou hast ever heard about his 
military actions and liis high nobility. 


Albius ! Albius ! for shame ! how dare you take such a 
liberty with so great a man as to put my hand into his ? 


Because he is what thou caUest him : I take no liberty 
with any other. 



Albius Tibnllus! I never thought thee such a flatterer 
before. Were I in power, or in favour with the powerful, 
thoQ wouldst be more discreet and silent. Neither the heir 
of Julius, nor his bosom friend the patron of poets, have ever 
won a verse or a vbit from thee. 


And never shall, though each of tbem I believe hath his 
merit. Was it to either I owe the preservation of half my 
patrimony? of this villa? of the apple that is growing on the 
tree for thee? Friends who watch over us are to be thanked ; 
not robbers who leave us bruised on the road, throwing back 
into our faces a few particles of the booty. 


Come along, come along ; let us gather the apple. 

TIBULLUS (to Delia). 
lie will not hear mc ; thanks puiii him, much as he loves 
the grateful. Go on, my IMia. 


Say more about him before we reach the orchard. 


His inter\ention, his authority, his name, saved for us all 
we have. But come; we must overtake him: he walks 
swiftly on. 

Messala ! you were always first in the field of battle : I 
will be up with you in this. 


O the active girl ! she has caught thee by the tunic in ten 


Sir ! sir ! what are you doing ? 


My pretty one, I am lifting thee up to gather me two or 
three of those red and yellow apples : they are bi'tter than 
such as arc nearer the bottom of the tn^. 

Well done ! what ! another, and another, and another ? 
Throw the next down into the bosom of Albius, who is uiakiu^ 

44 S TIBULLUS ASD 1"»W4T.a_ 

a sack of his vest for its reception : and now pot on^ mij 
one, into thy own. 

Behold! thou art now safe down again. Give me tiie 
apple out of its liiding-pkce. 

How she blushes ! Ha ! she runs away. 

Albius ! tliat little girl is the delight of thy yonthfol jem^ 
and will be, I augur, the solace of thy decline. 


She stands listening behind the statue, pretending to admirt 
it, or to see somewhat in its features she never saw before. 

Didst thou hear him, my Delia? Light of my life! ait 
thou sorrowful ? 


I did hear ; I own it. Sorrowful ! no, no. 

But how can I hope, sir, to be always a delight to him? 
What ou earth, as my mother used to say, is always ? I was 
fifteen years old, and two more are nearly gone, since. . . 


Since ^Vlbius was made happy and Delia was made immortaL 
Is it so ? 


I must grow old at last ! 


And so must I. 


Oh ! no, no, no, that can never be. 


Lady, it is well to tliink so : Aurora thought it of 
Tithouus. Your ages united are somewhat under mine. Never 
take such notice of my scanty and grey hairs ; frightful as 
they are, they are truthful. 


If they seem grey it is only because you are in the sunHght. 


Ah Delia ! I am much nearer the starlight tlian the 
sunliglit. Day is fast closing \vith me. But my life has not 
been unser\nceable to my friends or to my country' Yet what, 
after all, am I ? 

Ye glories of the world, how rapidly, how irrevocably, ye 
depart! Men who have shaken the forum and the senate- 

hbullus and messala. 449 

hooBe with their eloquence^ are soon deserted, soon forgotten. 
The stoutest are in need of support; and their props are 
<iften of the most earious materials. Brief is the glimmer of 
the sword. The timber of the chariot which hath borne up 
the conqueror to the Capitol, outlasts him ; and the cicada, 
who lives her three days, lives all her three more merrily than 
be his proudest. 


Light are our ashes ; our ^lishes, our hopes^ our lives, are 
lighter. Who then upon earth is great and powerful ? 

The poet. The poet is the assessor of the gods : he receives 
from them, and imparts to whomsoever he chooses, tlic gift 
of immortality. It is several years, fair Delia, since Albius 
wrote a panegyric on me, and you were beginning to try what 
you could do toward the framework of another. 


I do not repent that I wrote it, Messala, though I never 
wrote anything so badly since. I was almost a boy, and the 
weight of the matter bore me down. 


Certainly it is less excellent, and it ought to be, than what 
Delia hath since inspired. Tell me, Delia, now we are in 
confidence and at home all three, do not you think our 
Albius a fine handsome creature ? Come, I will allow you to 
blush a little, it is so becoming, but not allow you to be silent 
any longer. 


Make him answer first whetlier he really thinks me so ; for 
he would never tell a story to you. 

Shame upon him ! it appears tliat he has already told you 
one so incredible. 


Morning, noon, and . . 
Go on, go on. 
I have spoken. 

And you believed him ? 


^ ^ 



Bather more at first than now; but never qnite. O sir! 
make him tell the real truth ; pray do. 


I wQl answer for Albius that he always proves his word, 
sooner or later. 


I do not desire it just at present ; I can wait. 
Fie^ Albius ! Albius ! do men ever snatch np onr hands 
and kiss them in presence of the great ? 

Let me intercede and answer for him. In the presence 
of the happy they do, whether of mortals or gods. 


You too are a little in fault, if I may dare to say it. I 
have not forgotten the apple-tree, sir ! 

Wliat a memory ! Are you certain there may not be some- 
tliiug of the fabulous in so remote an occurrence ? 


To-raorrow we will retrace our steps, and learn over again 
this dubious aud half-obliterated page of history : whatsav 
you, Delia ? 


Ask what says our noble guest. But it will be your turn 
to-morrow, my ^Vlbius, to throw down the apples. * It made 
me tremble all over. That is no reason why we should noi 
go into the orchard at some early hour of the morning, 
were it oidy to see whether any thieves have broken in ; for 
they do not heed the dogs, although loose. 

Audacious ! audacious ! and you smile, do you ? Ah ! von 
mav well look down. Certain men have methods of makin? 
dogs lie quiet, when tliey resolve on committing a robberv 
in tlic dark. I have half a mind to teU Messala of somebody 
I know, very sly and treacherous, who, Mitliin my recollection, 
made even Molossiaus lie quiet and forget their dutv. Ton 
blusli ; that is proper. WeU, perhaps I may let you off this 
once, and say not\\ii\g^\io\si \1 i^o^ ^q\l aie ^nitent. Beside, 


it was a good while ago^ and not here. Mother thought it 
was witchcraft^ and she lostrated the house with eggs and 


If any task is to be imposed on him^ order him to write 
another elegj', compkining of your severity and atoniuff for 
his offence. Apollo will punish him for extolling me aoove 
mj merits by making him inadequate to yours. 

Tibullus ! it occurs to me that he^ whom I have heard you 
mention as the best poet of the present day, wrote two poems 
in his youth such as I wonder he should acknowledge and 
republish ; the Culex and the Q^iris. 


He compensated for them soon after, by verses more harmo- 
nious than ever liad been heard before in our tongue. How 
beautiful are those at the common L*ement of the first eclogue, 
and those of the goatherd at the close of it; and those to 
Lycoris traversing the Alps, in the last ! 


You have cited the few verses worth remembrance. He 
says somewhere that Apollo pulled his ear and admonished 
him. The god should have pulled it again, and harder, for 
neglecting his admonition when he compostnl his Pollio. He 
did indeed take away from hiiu on that one occasion the gift 
of harmonv. 


Bestored s(K)n. How admirable are some passages in that 
poem ou husbandry, which he lias given us lately. 


Admirable in parts, but dispn)|)ortionate. In the exordium 
he has amplified Varro's Portico, which aln»ady was too 
spacious for the editice. 


Indeed there was exordium quite sufficient at 

Toqu« sU goDonim Tethjm emat omuibui undis ; 

which would be followed appropriately by the distant line 

D» faoUem cunum. 


wfBBATiw 1 

What think you of the Scorpion drawing Iiis anns in, that 
Octavius may have room enoo^ ? or the despair of l^vrtanis 
at missing such a treasure ? or the backwardness of Proserpine 
to follow ner mother ? Here are together eight such verses as 
I would give eighty bushels of wheat to eradicate from the 
poetry of a friend. The Greeks by the tacSiitj of their versi- 
fication are often verbose and languid, but they never exhaust 
so much breath before they start. A husbandman does his 
work badly with a buskin fastened round the ancle^ and an 
ampulla swinging at the girdle. 

Our Mantuan's Winter is unworthy of even a secondary poet: 
no selection of topics, no arrangement, no continuity ; instead 
of which, there is a dreary conglomeration, where little things 
and great are confounded. Was ever bathos so profound as m 

j£raque dissiliunt Tulgo veriegqme rigacumt, 

unless two lines lower, where 

Solidam in glaciem vert^re lacuiue, 
Stiricique impexit induruit korrida barbis. 


Let US climb over the ice and snow, leap across the 
lacu7ia, and wipe away the stiria. His summer storm is such 
as Jupiter might have sent down to show his power, and 
Apollo might have hymned to his father's glory. 


Very soon you will take Proteus under your patronage. 
There are some, I am told, who really find in the stoiyof 
Eurydice a noble efi'ort of poetry. 


It grieved me to see that excrescence. 


Proteus had no pity for Cyrene, whom he must have 
known from his infancy, but abundance of it for a dead 
man's head which he never could have heard of while it 
was on the shoulders, which head moreover was carried 
down a river a thousand miles distant from his liaunts, and 
sang aU the way. Frigid was indeed the tongue that sang 
there, and almost as fav^d tVika tciW!^<i that san^ about it 


Such pnerilitj is scarcely for the schoobx)om^ hut rather for 
the nursery^ and comes very nigh the cradle. We have talked 
ibout tliis before^ by ourselves^ and without any intention 
of gratifying the malignity of minor songmen. 


Propertius tells me that he has lately seen the commence- 
ment of an epic by him, and that^ if the remainder is equal 
to the two first books, it will rival the Iliad. 


May we Uve to rt*ad it ! at all events may he to complete it ! 


Pleasant will it be to mc to feel the slight shudder of 
Delia on my bosom when I read to her the battles. 


Wliere is she ? she has slipt out. 


Perhaps she is gone to crown the Penates, for she is pious 
and grateful. 


Two qualitii»s not always found together. Frc»quently have 
I remarked, in the most devout, the most arrogant, quarrel- 
some, and unjust. 

Have you room in your chapel for Cains Julius, our latest 


Highly as I esteem him, I have not procured his statue. 
Gods arc great by necessity, mortab by exertion : and what 
exertions were ever so animated or so miremitted as his ? 


All of them tended to the glory of his country, out of 
whi(*h parent soil his own shot up exuberantly, and at last 
(it seems) reached the heavens. 


In my humble opinion, and I hope I am falling into no 
impiety when I say it, we have gods enow already. Tliose of 
Egypt we have in our kitchens, and those of Gaul are not worth 
cc;iive/a/ice from their woods. \^e t^^Vci^ Xtf^ mYV^^xv^^w^- 


Fonnerly gods made men; at present men make gods. 

Where will this fashion have an ena ? Perhaps yon maj Vst 

to enlarge your sacristy. 


I find an object of worship in eveiy field. TThaever that is 
a stake or a stone crowned with flowers^* I bend brfore it, and 
thank the gods for inspiring the hearts of men with gratitude. 
I feel confident they are well-pleased at these oUations, how- 
ever poor their worshiper, and however he mispronounce their 

While the gods came from the potter, men were virtuous snd 
happy ; when they came from the goldsmith they retained the 
heat of the furnace, and dazzled and deluded. Priests assumed 
their similitude, and encrusted one anoth^ with the same metal 


Barbarous nations have beheld these prodigies ; may Borne 
never see within her walls a worse Pontifex than Caius Juhus. 


Nevertheless, by his oration in the senate, as Crispus 
Sallustius hath recorded it, he seems to have verged on 
atheism. I do not mean hereby to question his aptitude for 
the ofiBce, which others at Rome, after him, have equally well 
discharged with no firmer belief in the deity, and less resem- 


K you enter our little sanctuarj', you will see the Lares not 
crowned as usual viith rosemary and myrtle, but with myrtle 
only. The reason is : Delia had gathered both from under 
the villa-wall, to decorate the little deities, inobser\'aut that a 
bee was inside the blossom of a rosemarj', and, beginning to 
press it round one of the images, she was stung. The sting 
was forgotten in the omen. 


What omen is there in so ordinary an occurrence ? 


" O Albius \" cried she, " sometliing sad will happen, my 
piety is rejected, and my love, my love ' . . . Sobs interrupted 

* Nam TeneroT «eu. «ti^^ \\Bkbet doaertiifi in agria, 


her ; and she would never tell me afterward what she was 
then about to say. , 

Simpleton ! But at present there are no signs either of 
fting or omen. Propertius, whom you just now mentioned, 
is an imitator of yours, at a distance. His elegies are 
apparently tasks undertaken by order of a schoolmaster. He 
is uneasy at the loss of a little farm under Perusia, which the 
trium\irate allotted to the legions. Civil wars bring down 
these curses ; and not alwavs the most heavily on those who 
took a prominent part in them. Probably he is more poet 
than pliuosopher ; and he may never have reflected that many 
things occur, in the course of every man's life, which he 
deems unfortunate, and which his friends deem so too, and 
upon which they not only condole with him at the time, but 
commemorate and discourse upon long after. Little are they 
aware that unless these very things Iiad happened, the pleasure 
they are enjoying at that moment, in social intercourse with 
him, might not exist. Fortune, who appears to have frowned 
on him with her worst malignity, in debarring him from 
that wliich he groaned for, and was within a stq) of attaining, 
may there have been liis very best friend. If the fann of 
Propertius had been larger, it might have cost him liis life. 
Such prices, we know, have been paid occasionally. When 
in the heat of midsummer I went to visit a negli*cted property 
of mine among the hills near Sulmo, I was visited by his friend 
* Ovidius Xaso, with whose Kpi9(le^ of Heroes and Heroines, on 
their apixMirance last winter, you were, I remember, much 
delighted. He, like the genenuity of young poets, meditates a 
ffrand work ; and, unlike the generality, is capable of executing 
It. Practice itself can hardly add to his facilitv; and love 
itself is hardly more ingenious and inventive. He exn»ls in 
sentences, never dogmatical, never prolix, never inopportune. 
In everj' department of eloquence, and |)articularly in jioetry, 
we look for depth and clearness ; a clearness that shows the 
depth ; here we find it. 

* TibuUus and Propertiuii, with few moro, enjoy the good fortune to 
aicape from mutilation in the oxtremitie« of the name. Following the 
French, but neither the Italians nor (temuuu, wo treat Ovid and Virgil 
and Horace lem ceremonioualy ; and appear to be more familiar with them 
than their contemporarice were. It would be affectation in common 
diacouTM to mj Vuyiiiut, or OriciiM, or £loni(i«a : \V '«^>\VvV W ^%yr««i 
tbMo MiTecUiioa to repreMot a Romaii cay\n^ Horucc^ ot VVt^^qt \>c\^ 


Before I left Ovidios when I retomed his visits be read to 
^e the commencemeut of some amatory pieces, at which, if I 
smiled, it was in courtesy^ not in approbation. From the 
mysteries of religion the veil is seldom to be drawn, from 
the mysteries of love never. For this offence the gods take 
away from ns our freshness of heart and our sosceptibflitT 
of pure delight. The well loses the spring that fed it, and 
what is exposed in the shallow basin soon evaporates. I 
wish well to Ovidius, for he speaks well of everybody. Poets 
are enrolled in the Cadmean legion : each one cuts down his 
comrade: but Chddius stands apart^ gentle and generous, 
uniting the moral to the sensual voluptuary. He is kinder to 
Fropertius than Horatius Flaccus is, who turns him into 
ridicule under the name of Callimachus. Our pleasant lyrist 
is disposed to praise nobody at a distance from the Palatine. 


Judicious in his choice^ he praises Yirgilius and Valgins 
and Varius and Tucca. In his Satires he is equally discreet, 
equally refined. Satire ought to strike at the face, as Caesar 
ordered the soldier to do on the field of Pharsalia ; far from 
mortal, the stroke should never be outrageous or repeated. 
Coarseness and harsliness are no proof of strength, as some 
would fain inculcate. On the contrary, there is no true satire 
which departs from graceful pleasantry, and which either runs 
into pliilosophical sententiousness or acrimonious declamation. 
Satire draws neither blood nor tears : laughter and blushes 
are the boundaries of her dominion. 


Perfectly just remark ; and Horatius is no violator of them. 
Many of his Odes are so light, so playful, so graceful, that 
notliing is comparable to them in the literature of Greece. 
Seldom is he energetic or impressive ; seldomer, even when he 
attempts it, pathetic. He who tickles the bosom is the least 
likely to touch the heart. I could pardon him a few of his 
deficiencies, if he were less parsimonious of praise toward men 
like you, and if his njiiiplis poured less of cold water into 
the cup containing it. 


Conscious of his own merits, as every man who possesses 
any must be, however he mav dissemble it, Horatius can ill 
endure that Catullus aiiACA\\i"a^Vw3X.^\»^^<OTCfti to him, 
as they are by many. 



I think I have allowed him all liis due. 


Not quite : add also his great variety. Becent or ancient, 
surelj none is comparable to him in this. 


In the stock of his Gyna;cajum, none. Seriously, it is a 
pity that he who, on liis Tiburtine and Sabine farm, is master 
of so manv true and solid, should in worse wantonness have 
devised so many fabulous mistresses. It takes away from us 
all illusion, all sympathy : we laugh at an Ixion raising a cloud 
to embrace it. But is there any man, Albiiut, wlio can read 
without tenderness your Te spectem ? Beheve me, you are 
the only elegiac poet, Greek or Koman, whom Posterity will 
cherish. Imperisliable are those tilings only wliich have been 
created in the heart. 


Forget not then your favorite Catidlus, the creator then*. 

Earnest and impressive, no j)oet re»sts so i)erfi*ctly on the 
memorv. He is the only one wliose verses I could remembrr 
after the first reading; I mean his Ilendecasyllables und 


Painful, very painful is it, that the lover of Lesbia should 
revile her so coarselv as he did before he left her ; if indeed 
he ever left her at all, or ever possest her. For it ap]x>ars to 
me quite im|)ossible that a tencfcr heart, however rancorous it 
may liave lHH;ome under infidelities and indignities, should ever 
lose its fineness of fiber, should ever sink into deep corruption. 
WiUingly then would I believe that many of his imh'Uis, as 
you suppose of Horatius's, are merely exercises of ingenuity. 


In the elegiac measure, extvpting the verses on his brother's 
funeral, he was less successful. (Kidius hath utterly ruined 
it. Of all meters, the pentameter is the least Imnnonious, and 
the least adapted to the expression of sorrow, to which 
Mimnermus and Tyrtseus and oolon never applied* it. Frisky 
as it is, it is not frisky enough for 0\idius. With better 
judgment, you correct the gamlmls of the first hemistvch b^ 
the gravity of the s])ondee : he, wYieiefct >afc casL» x^vArx^ ^ 


dactylic. Often have I defended him against the cha^ d 
affectation, but there is no defence for it in tenninating evor 
pentameter with a dissyllable. This is a trick unworthy oft 
schoolboy : Catullus and you have scorned it : Propertius hitk 
followed your example : the Genius of our language cries out 
against the entanglement, and snaps the chain. 


Tliat bust in the corner of the room is the bust of Lucretius; 
and I know not whether there is any other of him : I bought 
it at the decease of his widow. 

How different firom the op})osite ! poor CScero's. He always 
carried anxiety and hurry in his countenance : that little head 
of his appears as if it never could lie down to rest. 


I saw him but once, and it was shortly before his departure. 
Lucretius I never saw at all. 


I wish he had abstained from his induperaior and emJoyredi. 
Language is as much corrupted by tlirowing decayeil words 
into it as by the rank and vapid succulence of yesterda/s 
sudden growth. If part is ancient, let all be ancient. A\Tien 
Lucretius complains of our poverty in language, he means 
only in terms of art and science. Let us stand up for its 
dignity, and appeal to Plautus for its responsibility. Cicero 
and Cjcsar have brought it to perfection ; there are already 
signs of its decline. Many of those who were educated at 
Athens have introduced lately a variety of hellenisms: the 
young poets are too fond of them: among your merits is 
abstinence from this (not very unpardonable) intoxication. 

Plautus and Terentius, who drew largely from Greek 
originals, are less Greek in their phraseology than many who 
write now. Lucretius I see is lying on the table. Ovidius, 
who admires even his contemporaries, is a warm admirer of him, 
and declares that his work on Nature Aiill perish only with 
Nature herself. Nothing is so animated and so august as his 
invocation. His friend Memmius outlived him ; but not long 
enough to see the termination of those discords which he 
prayed ilars, at the intercession of Venus, to abate. Little 
aid he imagine tWl a -^owX^v ^\ka O^s^kssi^ \<5s«r:o^. ^ssjrsl ha 


ahoold be enabled to compose them. Octavius was then a bo>% 
thirteen or fourteen years old, just sent by the munificence ojp 
bis uncle, Caius Julius, to study at Athens. Happily he found 
there a protector, in a wealthy and clever tho' dissolute friend 
a few years older, Cilnius Meca^nas, to whose counsels he owes 
probably his life, certainly his station and security. 


It is the glory of Mecsenas to have derived no part of his 
riches from the proscriptions. 


He had large estates in the most fertile districts of Etniria: 
but that is no diminution of his merit : others as affluent 
were rapacious and insatiable. His weakness, one among 
many, lies in his atfectation of family. Were he really 
a descendant of a Lucumon, the pedigree would have b(*en 
drawn out and exhibited : indeal it is a wonder that a fictitious 
one never was substituted. Flaccus says tiiat his anci^tors, 
both maternal and paternal, had formerly commanded '' great 
legions.'' There is no record of these great legions having 
performed great actions. If they ever had, he would have 
pointed to tliem and liave named the battle-field. He has not 
omitted to tell us who slew Asdmbal, nor the name of the 
river on whose banks he fell. He brings forwjird his jwtron's 
royal origin on every occasion, and truly with small dexterity. 
It seldom or never lias anything to do with the subject. Take 
for instance the first ode; the worst in the book, excepting 
the second. And there are other pkces quite as remarkable 
for a similar want of connection. 


With various little weaknesses he is really an estimable man, 
altho' it never mav have occurred to him Uiat no one has a 
right to claim antiquity of family nnles.*: he can distinctly show 
an ancestor who liath rendered a signal service to the common- 


To Cilnius however it is maiidy owing that our manners 
are softened, our dissent ions ])acifi(Hl, our laws emended, and 
the remainder of our properties secured. 


And commonwealth ? The old nut has onlv a mai?£rot and 
dost within it; and the squirrel at t\\e lo^ ol V\v( \.tv^: A'^'^'^^ 


laid up or eaten all the soundeTj thinks it ill worth While to 
come down and crack it. 

We are safe at present; and that is somewhat : bnt who ott 
earth can insure us that Thracian or Dacian^ or Gad or 
German^ shall not^ within a century or two, advance on Borne? 

Blindness is the effect of straining the eye too far. Empires 
have fallen, and will fall : the harder crush the softer and 
soften too. Destruction and renovation are eternal laws. A 
decayed nation^ like a decayed animal, fattens the field for 
enterprize and industry. Egyptians, Babylonians, Medes, the 
mountaneers of Macedon and Epirus, have vanquisht in 
succession^ and now are lying like idle and outcast b^gars at 
the gates of Borne. Albius ! be certain of this : if we ever ksc 
our preponderance we shall deserve to lose it. A weak nation, 
when it is reduced to subjection^ may be pitied ; but a nation 
once powerful by its institutions^ miUtary and civil, when 
it falls, altho' short of subjugation, is despised. The genins 
of Julius Ca;sar, a man without an equal in the history of the 
world, would have restored our State. Generals whose sole 
ability lay in the arts of corruption were opposed to him ; and, 
fortunately for the senate who appointed them, they failed. In 
Spain and Africa there stil breathed a military spirit ; but in 
his presence it breathed its last. Antonius and Cassius were 
the only great leaders who survived him : Cassius outlived his 
cause ; Antonius his glory. Agrippa, when he had driven him 
into Pelusium and upon his sword, turned his heel on the 
luxuries of Egypt, stood aloof from those of Rome, and was 
venerated at his death greatly more than those who have 
recentlv been deified. 

Repose is necessary now to our exhaustion. TVe must look 
carefully to our agriculture ; wc must conciUate our provinces. 
In no case, however, is militarj- discipline to be neglected, or 
the soldier to be kept long inactive. We wiU enjoy the 
Satuniian age when Saturn comes back again : meanwhile, let 
us never be forgetful that Mars is the progenitor of our race. 



Vipi>nni<i, iii^v Vipsania, wLilhiT art Uiou walking? ' 

\yiwm i\o I stw? my TSbcrim? 

All 1 no, no, no 1 bnt thou seest the fatlicr of thy little 
'ninM. Pfws him to thy heart the more closely for this 
oT-liag, and give liim . . 

TtbrriusI tlie alUira, the wads, thr dratiniea, are bi^tirecn 
tu . . I will tokv it from tlii:i hiuid ; tliua, thus shall he 
reroTC it. 

Koisc u[> thy fare, my ht^luvwi I I mu!<t not shnl tnra. 
V iiinistus t Litria ! ve ah^l not extort tlittn from mc, 

A t ] may loss thy head . . for I have saved it. 
>ayc»t nothing. I havo wronged thee ; ay p 


Amhitiiin does not see the eurtli ahetrmdson: thcn>ck 
and the herbage an of ouc substance to her. Li-t me ncnae 

■ VlpMUia. Ihn lUiiitlitsr nf AkHjiiic, ww iliriirrad from Tlbcriua hf 
Augiwtiu kcil LiTik, to •mkt tlut hv uiixlit aairj Julia, uul hiiM iIm 
■mpira hy intioritaoi^v. Ha ifUinocl vich ui affnTtiiiD for bar. and iili<mail 
b ao tatmadj oLDahaDnivmal Eior aHoTinrd, thai otorj |irvatuU(Hi wm 
|ak«d laat itcf ahoiilcl moct i^uil 

lliara t*il tic at il'iubt thai tlia ClaaJii mra daruts*il ia IntoIUd 
Theaa of thna itbo niecMJnl lu Uu ampLre wnn Irj oaliuw nu imna 
BHB Uuui MiTTil of Ihvir racn In Uw lima* of Ilia rwpubtic Appin* 
CUwIliw. Apinua Cmiu, I*ubliiia, Appla, anil afltr tlim* ILa mattay of 
Cloam, aihiliit«4 aa uii|[aTomabla a tampar a» tlio ItajHinal Otum, foow 
tmaLiugE t<-nh lulu (jranuj uiil lint, oilian iiiiu iwalcaqit of. anil imja*' 
abcnu *oh»I. tb'nr C-0011H7. Til-iriu* <»* iiirIiIaUv*. DiiraM^ napiaiaai. 
In the pTipil of )S«rivni irrn ili>jK,»iii.>iii tti* nfitualto to IhsM, with tun/ 
(alenta. and vjof pxol tfiMliUn. Tbr; c<>ui>l not <llM)>pnr on a aoiUwi 
(riibcmt ona of Dioaa ihocfct under wUcb h«d bean anguUsd klnual «* 
■ssnliar uf iha tutuilj. 


you to m; heart, Tiberias. It has manj wants ; this is the 

first and greatest. 


My ambition^ I swear by the inunortal gods, placed not the 
bar of severance between ns. A stronger nand, the hand that 
composes Borne and sways the world . . . 


. . CK'erawed Tiberius. I know it; Augustus willed and 
commanded it. 


And overawed Tiberius! Power bent. Death terrified, i 
Nero ! AVhat is our race, that any should look down on us 
and spurn us ! Augustus, my benefactor, I have uToi^ed 
thee ! Livia, my mother, this one cruel deed was thine ! To 
reign forsooth is a lovely thing ! O womanly appetite ! Who 
woiJd have been before me, though the palace of Oeesar cracked 
and split i^ith emperors, while I, sitting in idleness on a cliff 
of Rhodes, eyed the sun as he swang his golden censer athwait 
the lieavens, or liis image as it overstrode the sea.* I have it 
before me ; and though it seems falling on me, I can smile ai 
it ; just as I did from my little favorite skiif, painted round 
witli the marriatre of Thetis, when the sailors drew their Ion? 
shaggy hair across their eyes, many a stadium away from it, 
to mitigate its effulgence. 

These too were happy days : days of happiness like these I 
could recall and look back upon with unacning brow. 

O land of Greece ! Tiberius blesses thee, bidding thee 
rejoice and flourish. 

Vil\j can not one hour, Yipsania, beauteous and light as we 
liave led, return ? 


Tiberius ! is it to me tliat you were speaking ? I would 
not intemipt you ; but I thought I heard my name as you 
walked away and looked up toward the East. So silent ! 

* The Colossus waa th^o^vu down by an earthquake during the mr 
between Antiocbus and Ptolemy, who sent the Rhodiaoa three thoaaand 
talents for the restoration of it Again in the time of Vespa^an. ** C<« 
Veneris, item Coloa^ refectorem congiario magn&que mercede donaTii." 
*Su€(onius in Vofp. The first residence of Tiberius in Rhodes was when be 
returned from bis Armenian expedition, the last was after his divorce from 
Vipsania and his marriage ytiV^i 3M\iau 


Who dared to call thee ? Tliou wert mine before the gods 
• . do they deny it ? Was it my fault . . 


Since we are separated, and for ever, Tiberius, let us 
think no more on the cause of it. Let neither of us believe 
that the other was to blame : so shall separation be less 


mother ! and did I not tell thee what she was ? patient 
in injur}', proud in iimocence, serene in grief I 


Did you say tliat too ? but I think it was so : I had felt 
little. One vast wave luis waslied away the impression of 
smaller from my memory. Could Livia, could your motlier, 
could she who was so kind to me . . . 


The wife of Cecsar did it. But liear me now, hear me : be 
calm as I am. No weaknesses are such as those of a mother 
who lovt*s her only son immoderately ; and none are so easily 
worked upon from without. Who knows whjit impulses she 
receive<l ? She is very, very kind ; but she reganls me only ; 
and that which at her l)idding is to encompass and adorn me. 
All the weak look after power, protectress of weakness. Thou 
art a woman, O Vipsania ! is there nothing in thee to excuse 
my motlier ? So good she ever was to me I so loving ! 


1 quite forgive her : be tranquil, Tiberius ! 


'Sewr can I know jwace . . never can I panlon . . anyone. 
Threaten me i^ith thy exile, thy se{)aration, thy si'ilusion I 
remind me that another cUmate might endanger thy health I 
. . Tlierc death met me and turned me round. Hireaten me 
to take our son from us ! our one boy I our helpless little one I 
him whom we made cr}' because we kissed him both together. 
Rememberest thou ? or dost thou not hear ? turning thus au ay 
from me I 


I hear ; I hear. O cease, my sweet Tiberius I Stamp not 
upon that stone : my heart lies under \t. 



Ay, there again death, and more than deaths stood befiiR 
me. she maddened me, my mother did, she maddened qk 
. . she threw me to where I am at one breath. The gods cu 
not repkce me where I was, nor atone to me, nor console mt, 
nor restore my senses. To whom can I fly ? to whom cui I 
open my heart ? to whom speak plainly ? * There was npoii 
the earth a man I could converse with, and fear nothing : 
there was a woman too I could love, and fear nothing. TThat 
a soldier, what a Roman, was thv £ither, my young bride! 
How could those who never saw dim have discoursed so righdv 
upon virtue ! 


These words cool mv breast like pressing his urn against it. 
He was brave : shall "fiberius want courage ? 


My enemies scorn me. I am a garland dropt from a 
triumphal car, and taken up and looked on for the place I 
occupied : and tossed away and laughed at. Senators ! laugh, 
laugh ! Your merits may be yet rewarded . . be of good 
cheer! Counsel me, in your wisdom, wliat services I can 
render you, conscript fathers ! 


Tliis seems mockery : Tiberius did not smile so, once. 


They had not then congratulated me. 


On what? 


And it was not because she was beautiful, as thev thouffht 
her, and \irtuous as I know she is, but because the flowers on 
the altar were to be tied togetlier by my heart-string. On tlii? 
they congratulated me. Their day \*ill come. Their sons 
and daughters are what I would wish them to be : worthy to 
succeed them. 

* The regret of Tibcriiis at the death of Agrippa may be imagined to 
arise from a cause of which at this moment he was unconscious. If 
Agrippa had lived, Julia, who was his wife, could not have been Tiberius'i, 
oor would he and Yipaaxn&'h&'se\>Q&Ti«B^«xdXftd. 


is that qdetnde, that resigiiation, that sancdtj^ that 
ue tenderness? 

t uaaiLft . 
is my love ? my Iotc ? 

thus aload, Tiberias ! there is an echo in the place. 
nd slaves may burst in upon as. 

? my tears ? There is no echo, Vipsania ! why alarm 
me so ? We are too hi^di here for the edioes : the 
ow vLs. Methinks it trembles and totters : would it 
1 the marble quays of the Tiber to this rocL There 
re buzz and murmur in my brain ; but I should listen 
It, 1 should hear the rattle of its roob, and ahoot 

[) my life ! calm this horrible transport. 

I 5o loud ? Did 1 indeed then tend my voice after a 
d, to bring it back ; and tL//Q £uided#:tt it an eeho ? 
thou laugh vith me, as ti^m w#Tt wfjtA Uf iff, at 
rror ? Wlai was I tajing Uj tW, mj U^uUjt 1/Ae, 
coumian«inl . . I know nrx «b/m , . t/# tu/id ba^.k, 
f d*raih ? Why ftar*^ tiy>ti on me m v^it ^gt'ttij ? 
un ttiv niigfTs, child f I kxi*e ilvm ; ly/w |^ nf^ 
"h'tu tan>-.: thiae e7*3i awij from »>•:, ^/r» ? ^/f . ' f 
cnrne ! loiaioruil 5'>i* ! I cune^i Hjku v^'iiT,\j, a/i/l 
e sun, mT z/xLer ! 

« » 




Epictetus I I desired your master Epaphroditus to send joa 
hither^ having been much pleased with lus report of your con> 
duct^ and much surprised at the ingenuity of your writings. 


Then I am afiraid, my Mend . • . 

My friend I are these the expressions . . Well, let it pas. 
Philosophers must bear bravely. The people expect it. 


Are philosophers then only philosophers for the people? 
and, instead of instructing them, must they play tricks before 
them ? Give me rather the granty of dancing dogs. Their 
motions are for the rabble ; their reverential eyes and pendent 
paws are under the pressure of awe at a master ; but they are 
dogs, and not below their destinies. 


Epictetns ! I will give you three talents to let me take that 
sentiment for my own. 


I would give thee twenty, if 1 had them, to make it thine. 


You mean, by lending to it the graces of my language. 


I mean, by lending it to thy conduct. And now let me 
console and comfort thee, under the calamitv I brouuht on 
thee by calling thee my friend. If thou art not my friend, why 
send for me ? Enemy I can have none : being a slave, 
Fortune has now done with me. 


Continue then your former observations. TVTiat were yon 
saying ? 



Tbut which thou iuierruptedst. 


What was it P 


I should have remarked that, if thon fonndest ingenuity in 
my writings, thou must have discovered in them some devia- 
tion from the pkin homely truths of Zeno and Cleanthes. 


"We all swerve a little from them. 


In practice too ? 


Yes, even in practice, I am afraid. 




Too often. 


Strange ! I have been attentive, and yet have remarked but 
one difference among you great personages at Rome. 


What difference fell under your observation ? 


Crates and Zeno and Cleanthes taught us, that our desires 
were to be subdued by philosophy alone. In this city, their 
acute and inventive scholars take us aside, and show us that 
there is not only one way, but two. 


Two ways ? 


They whisper in our car, " Tliese two wars arc philosophy 
and enjoyment : the wiser man will take the readier, or, not 
finding it, the alternative.^' Thou reddenest 


Monstrous degeneracy. 


What magnificent rings ! I did not notice them until thou 
liftedst up thy hands to heaven, in detestation of such 
effeminacy and impudence. 

B B 2 



The rings are not amiss : my rank rivets them upon m; 
fingers : I am forced to wear them. Our emperor gave me 
one, Epaphroditus another, Tigellinus the third. I cannot lir 
them aside a single day, for fear of offending the gods ™ 
those whom they love the most worthily. 


Although they make thee stretch out thy fingers, like tlie 
arms and legs of one of us slaves upon a cross. 


horrible ! Find some other resemblance. 


The extremities of a fig-leaf. 


Ignoble I 


The claws of a toad, trodden on or stoned. 


You have great need, Epictetus, of an instructor in 
eloquence and rhetoric: you want topics and tropes and 


1 have no room for them. Thev make such a buzz in the 
house, a man's own wife can not understand what he says 
to her. 


Let us reason a little upon style. I would set you right, 
and remove from before you the prejudices of a somewhat 
rustic education. AVe may adorn the simplicity of the wisest. 


Thou canst not adorn simplicity. What is naked or 
defective is susceptible of decoration : wliat is decorated is 
simplicity no longer. Thou may est give another thing in 
exchange for it ; but if thou wert master of it, thou wouldst 
preserve it inviolate. It is no wonder that we mortals, httle 
able as we are to see truth, should be less able to express it. 


You have formed a\ ^pies^iiX. \io W'wa. ^l ^VnXsj.. 



I ncrer think about it. First I consider whether what I 
mboat to say is true; then whether I can say it with 
ity, in such a manner as that others shall see it as cloarlv 
I do in the light of truth ; for if they survey it as an 
ingenuity, my desire is ungratiiied, my duty uufultillrd. 1 ^ii 
not with those who dance round the image of Truth, It's,^ out 
of honour to her than to display their agility and address. 


We must attract the attention of readers by iiovelt) and 
force and grandeur of expression. 


We must. Nothing is so grand as truth, nothing mo forrihlr. 
nothing so novel. 


Sonorous sentences are wanted, to awaken the lothar|(y kA 


Awaken it to what? Here lies the mu'Mioii ; and a 
weighty one it is. If thou awakcnest men wlien* thr\ can M-ti 
nothing and do no work, it is better to let tlieiu xv^K : luit hiII 
not they, thinkest thou, look up at a rainbow, unlr^ti they art' 
called to it by a clap of thunder? 


Tour early youth, Epirtetus, has Inrn I will not y^\\s 
neglected, but cultivated with rude instrunientN and unnkiirnl 


I thank God for it. Thos4f rude inNtrunirntM hiivr left tlir 
turf lying yet toward the sun; and those unnkilful ImmU hiivr 
plucked out the docks. 


We hope and believe that we have uttnuifd a vi-in <if 
doquence^ brighter and more varied than hu« bn^n hitherto 
id open to the world. 

Than any in the Greek ? 


We trust so. 

Than toot Cicero's ? 


If the declaration maj be made without an offenee to 
modesty. Surely you can not estimate or value the doquence 
of that noble pleader. 


Imperfectly ; not being bom in Italy ; and the noUe pleader 
is a much less man with me than the noble philoso^er. I 
regret that having farms and villas, he would not keep bis 
distance from the pumping up of foul words^, against thieves, 
cut-throats, and other rogues : and that he Ued, sweated, and 
thumped his head and thighs, in behalf of those who were 
no better. 

Senators must have clients, and must protect them. 


Innocent or guilty ? 



If it becomes a philosopher to regret at all, and if I r^ret 
what is, and might not be, I may regret more what both is 
and must be. However it is an amiable thing, and no small 
merit in the wealthy, even to trifle and play at their leisure 
hours with philosophy. It can not be expected that such a 
personage should espouse her, or should reconmiend her as an 
inseparable mate to his heir. 


I would. 


Yes, Seneca, but thou hast no son to make the match for ; 
and thy recommendation, I suspect, would be given him before 
he could consummate the marriage. Every man wishes his 
sons to be pliilosophers while they are young ; but takes 
especial care, as they grow older, to teach them its insufficiency 
and unfitness for their intercourse with mankind. Tlie paternal 
voice says, " You must not be particular : you are about to 
have a profession to live by : foUow those who have thriven 
the best in it." Now among these, whatever be the profession, 
canst thou point out to me one single philosopher ? 


Not just now . 1:5 01 , \1501v xeSkfecMvyci ^ ^^ \^i^cMsk >1 Ceasihle. 



Thoa indeed mayest live much to thy ease and satisfaction 
with philosophy, having (they say) two thousand talents. 


And a trifle to spare . . pressed upon me by that godlike 
youth, my pupil Nero. 


Seneca ! where God hath placed a mine, he hath placed the 
materials of an earthquake. 

A true philosopher is beyond the reach of Fortune. 


The false one thinks himself so. Fortune cares little about 
philosophers ; but she remembers where she hath set a rich 
man, and she laughs to see the Destinies at his door.* 

* In order of time the Lucian would come last, but it seemed better to 
eeparmte Greek and Homao. 




Some of the opinions here attributed to Cicero, and particolaiiy thiM 
on the agrarian law, are at yarianoe with what he has ezpreoMd, aot 
only in his OraHons, but also in his three books Ik Qficiis^ whidi he 
appears to have written under a yehement fear that either this or want- 
thing similar would deprive him of his possessions. Henoe he spsib 
of the Gracchi with an asperity which no historian has countenanced, and 
of Agis, without a word of commendation or pity. When, however, 
he perceived that in the midst of dangers his property was imtondiwl. 
it must have occurred to so sagacious a reasoner, that if an agnna 
law had been enacted, the first triumvirate could never have existed 
and that he himself had remained, as he ought to have been, the 
leader of the commonwealth. It is to be lamented that he ahoold 
have mentioned Crassus as a man he did not hate. Dion Cassiua, in hit 
twenty-ninth book, says he wrote some tremendous things against him. 
and a good many of them : voAAarc 81} ml itam : giving the manuscript 
sealed up into the hands of his son, and ordering that it should be pub- 
lished after his death. Such a politician ought to have foreseen that the 
injunction was imlikely to be carried into effect As there was no danger 
impending over the life of Cicero while Crassus held a place in the 
triumvirate, it may be sui^pected that the sealed paper related to another 
of its members ; for it would be impossible to add anything worse to what 
he already had published against Crassus. For instance, ** Qui videt domi 
tuae pariter accusatorum atque judicum consociatoa greges ; qui nocentes 
et pecuniosos reoa eodem te auctore comiptelam judicii molientes ; qui 
tuas mercedum pactiones in patrociniis, intercessiones pecuniarum in 
coitionibus candidatorum, dimissiones libertorum ad foenerandas diripien- 
dasque provincias ; qui expulsionee viciuorum ; qui latrocinia in agris : 
qui cum scrvis, cum libertis, cum clientibus societates ; qui poeseasiones 
vacuas ; qui proscriptiones locupletum ; qui csedes municipiorum ; qui 
illam Sullani temporis messem recordettu* ; qui testamenta subjecta. qui 
sublatos tot homines, qui deniquo omnia venalia, delectum, decretum. 
alienam, suam, sententiam, forum, dommn, vocem. sileutium.** Pcn^. VI. 

The description of such a government is sufficient to recommend its 
abolition. He illustrates it further. ** Besitum est videri quidquam in sodos 
iniquum, cum extitisset etiam in cives tanta crudelitas . . Multa prscterea 
commemorarem nefaria in socios, si hoc uno solo quidquam vidisset 
indignius . . . Optimatibus tuis nihil confido. Sed video nullam esse 
rempublicam, nullum senatvim, n.\il\& yidicla^ nullam in ullo nostrum 
dignitatem . . . Jure igvlut "i^\ecXSxnMX *. \5^ c^mjcv \u\^\KrQasv Ssx^^raosiuk. 


tulinemus, &c. . . . Non igitur uUliB ilia L. Philippi Q. filii 
I, (juas civitates L. Sulla pecunid aceeptd ex SC. liberaviaset, ut 
19 vectigales essent, nequo his pecuniam quam pro libertate ded]»> 
ideremus : turpo imperio ! piratarum enim xnelior fides quam 
It follows then, A fortiori, that if pirates should be destroyed, 
te should. 

' never entertained long together the same opinion of PompeiuB. 
before the death of Clodius he writes thus : " Pompeius nottri 
rpiod luihi summo dolori est, ipse se afflijdt'* Soon after thus : 
iuB a me val^ic contendit de reditu in gratiam ; sed adhuc nihil 

nee, si ullam partem libertatis tenebo, profidet." He speaks of 
LtticiL4 as follows : " Non mihi satis idonei sunt auctores ii qui a ie 
ir : quod enim unquam in republicA forte factum extitit 1 aut quis 
illaiu rem laude dignam dcsiderat? nee mehercule laudandos 

qui trans mare belli parandi causd profecti stmt . . . Quia autem 
I quidom de re quin varie secum ipse disputet? Simul et elicere 
;ntc*ntiam tuam ; ni manet, ut firmior sim, si mutata est, ut tibi 
The character and designs of Pompeius and his legitimaUi are 
h\ thuA : " Mirandum in modum Cneius noster Sullani regni 
linem concupivit Consilium est suffocare urbcm et Italiam fame ; 
igron vafltaro, urcce. Promitto tibi, si valcbit, tegulam ilium in 
illatii relicturum. Mene igitur socio) contra mehercule mcum 
1, et coutra omnium antiquorum auctoritatem . . . Qusd minao 
lis ! qusD noininatim viriR bonis I quso denique omnibus qui 
*ent I qu&m crebrd illud, Suila poiutt, ego non potato /** 
)n<luct of the Gracchi was approveil by the wirtest and most honest 

coiit^inftorarie:!. lissliufl, the friend of Scipio, desisted from his 
of TiU^rius only when, as Plutarch says, he was compelled by the 
iftion Kit grtatcr evil. But durely a man so prudent as La^Iius must 
cHcen all the cons^ucnces, and have known the good or the evil 
. and would not have dcsi8to<I when, the matter having been 
and tho iiioanure af^eed on, every danger was over from taking it, 
only one that could arise was from its rejection, after the hopes 
^ctations of the people hail been stimulate<l and cxcite<I. Hence 
he induced to believe that Scipio, in compliance with the vrishcs of 
t<*. |K?rHua<leil his friend to desist from the undertaking. Cioero, 
ioning it. expresses himself in these words : " Duos sapientissimos 
limox fratnn*. Publium Crassum et Publium Scaivolam, aiunt Tiberio 

awiutrt Ugum fuissc,alterum quidem, ut vidcmus, palam, alterum, 
camur. obscuritis." Acad. QwrM. iv. MuUanus Cras^ius (l)rother 
us) and Appius Claudius were also his supi>ort«ni. It is beyond a 
lat Tiberius Gracchus was both politic and et^uitablc in his ]»lan of 

amon^ the poorer citizens, whose debts liad been incurred by 

remloreil to their country, the lands retained by the rich in 
I of the Licinian law. He was called unjust toward the inhabitants 
im and the allie% in proposing to deprive them of that which the 

ha<l given them, but instead of which, to indemnify tl.emselTea 
^nt. tliey had imposed a tribute. Oracclius wished to allay the 
a of the ftcople. and to render them inoflensivo to the stata, b^ 
liem useful oocupaliou in the osret «ad oofOMSUk ^v^^a^^^A* ^"^^^"^ 


Litina and ftlliea would htre been indemnifiad : for the tax ii i nwn t d oi 
ihcm would have be«n remored, and the freedom of the city gnnted to 
theuL The senate would perhaps have been aomewfaat leu hoelQt te 
Tiberius Gracchus, had he not also proposed that tha money left fay Attalm 
to the Boman people should go to its destinatioBi. They were sdmahtad, 
if not by interest, by power, to invoke the anistance of Scipio agaiMttbe 
popular party ; and he was conducted home by them the day beitaM Ui 
death; which appears rather to have been hastened by the fieais al 
jealousy of the senate than by the revenge of the opposition, none of whim 
at that time could have had access to him, his house being filled sad 
surrounded by their adversaries^ The senate had reasons, suddenly but 
not vainly conceived, for suspicion of Scipio. They dreaded the dictilorid 
power to be conferred on him, in order tiiat he might settle the eomma* 
wealth : they were dissatisfied at the doubts he entertained <^ guflt is 
Qracchus, of whom he declared his opinion that he was justly slain if he had 
attempted to possess the supreme power : which expression proves that he 
doubted, or rather that he disbelieved it^ and is equivalent to the dedsn* 
tion that he did not deserve death for any other of his actions or intentkni 
They clearly saw that a man of his equity snd firmnees would not l«m 
unpunished those of their order who had instigated Popilius Xjbh. 
Opimius. and MetcUus, to their cruelties against the partisans of Gracdm. 
Opimius alone hod put to death by a judicud proeat no fewer than thrw 
thousand Roman citizens, whoso only crime was that of demanding what 
had been lefl them by Attalus, and promised them by the rulers of the 
A clever satirist, often a philosopher, and sometimes a poet, asks 


Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes ? 

The answer is : any dispassionate man. For there is no sedition in cluming 
a due ; there is none in resisting the robbery of earnings ; but there is in 
conspiring to murder, or to drive from house and home such opponents. 
The worst of all seditions is the teditio udeniium. The newlT-found 
treatise of Cicero, De Be Publicd, supplies us with a few more sentences of 
illustration and subjects of remark. It is amusing to see with what eagerness 
a sentence that leans toi^'ard kingship is seised by the editor. He exclaims. 
"NiAafdle Cicfronis dictum de monarchic prantantia ! quam in tentattiam 
plerique teu vetercs 9eu recentioret politici pedibut euni." The sentence ii, 
" Nam ipsum regale genus civitatis non modo non est reprehendendum, 
sed hau-i scio an reliquis simplicibua longe anteponendum, si uUuni probarem 
simplex reipublicx genus : sed ita quoad statum suum retinet; is est autem 
status^ ut unius perpetuA potestate et justitiA,* omnique s^ientii, regatur 
salus et .Tquabilitas et otium civium." Certainly, if a king were perfectly 
just and {)erfectly wise, his government would be preferable to any other; 
but it is childish to speculate on such an occurrence, with the experience of 
ages before us, leading us to so different a conclusion. Scipio speaks of a 
republic with a king presiding over it ; the editor talks of monarchy, as we 
understand the word. Scipio adds, " Desunt omnino ei populi multa qui 
sub roge est, in primis libertas, qua non in eo est ut jutto utamur domim, 
Mi ut nuUo,** Can a&yihm^\>e xnox^ Vsmv^tniub vai^ T^i^uffso^x^kaaxS^MtM^ 


•sprttaont t The fint of which desigiiate only the utility of the form, and 
thai eonJitionallj ; and the laat give an excellent rcaaon why evou the 
ionn itself should not be admitted, proving the utility of the form to be 
iaeompaimhiy leas than what muat be given up for it In going on. ho 
pniaes L. Bnitui, " Vir ingenio et virtute pnofttans, &c. primuai|uo in bac 
dfitate docuit in conaervandA dvium libertate ease privatum ueminom ;" 
which the editor ealla imnuirum injustamque tinteniiam, CouM he not 
perocive that he ahould liavo placed imjuatam. before immanem. if ho wlshoil 
to avoid the ridicule of men and boys } And was he ignorant thut a man 
C^iable of pronouncing a sentence which is ui\just and oiitniKoous w 
anworthy of quotation as an authority 1 Yet he runs t4>wanl him apipe 
lor it, when he fiBLncios he can pluck out from the looser folds of hirt gi<wii 
something to invigunite and support him. Cicero in his own person uses 
nearly the same words {Epist z. ad Fiuniliare«) : *' Nullo pubhco iH>iLsilio 
rempublicam liberftsti, quo etiam est ilia res mi\jor et clarior.** Tho same 
opinion is also given by him in the Tutculan Qtiestivnt. ** Numpiain 
privatum esse sapientcm, &c." (iv.) Scipio, in commending the ailvunta^vH 
that, under conditions quite problcmatiail, may attend tho govoniniciit uf 
one macistrat^, adds, **Siii tamen inelinatum (t quasi pronum atl |K>riii(*io 
■issimum ttatum:" and aftern'ard, *' Quia enim liuiic honiiiu'iu rite 
dizerit, qui sibi cum suia civibus, qui dcn:4{tie cum omiii homiiiuni ^*non* 
Bullam juris commnnionem, nullam hunianitatis societatom volit." Hon' in 
indeed tho nobiU CictronU dictum, which ought t4> be cnirniven on ovory 
public building, from the school-room to the palace. The udiirnt lin of 
kings leaves few either wise or honest Tho better citizens n»cvive thu 
better education : they arc mutual checks one upon ani»ther, while LiiiRn 
are mutual guards and fosterers of each other's tyranny. That in f.u*t. 
wliatever it be, ifl tho bent fona of government, whit-h tho nuMt ctr«i*tuaily 
excludes the wicked and unwise, and the mo«t readily admits tho wiMi>nntl 
virtuous. The two worst are ochlocracy and desputium, Uith for tin* lumo 
reason: in both there is will viithout counsel, energy without objet't, and 
action without reflection. Ochlocracy is the more tolerable as lieiiiK the 
more transient : one alwayn jjan^cs hito th« other, as its tint Hte]». St-ipio 
argues weakly, and Cicero porha|)S intends that heahouM do so, in Mvim:, 
"Illud tamen nou adsentior tihi, pncutare regi optimates : n enim Ni|iiiMitia 
sstqusc giibcmat rem publicam. quid tindem interest h«c in uno ne hitiui 
in pluribus *." Here is a p€titio prineipii which on uo account vm\ Ih* 
granted. It is surely more prolmble that wistlom should reni'le anl•ln^ 
many, anil th'Me the best educateil and of mature ago, than with on** only, 
and him the worst educated, often of age not mature, and more often 
bearing thick u{h)|| him throughout life the vices of youth ami t'le ituMn- 
siderateneas of childh(X>d. If Cicero spoke sincerely, he was IhU^i foolmli 
and flagitious in praising those who slew Caisar : for never was there a man 
■o capable of governing alone and well. I will not believe tlutt h«* was 
lad astmv by I'lato, who aaserts in his fourth b<jok that it is of httle 
consequence whether a state be governed by many or one. if that one i« 
obedient to th* laws. Surely a king can more easily find thone who wdl 
aaaist him in subverting them than simple citizens can. ami is usually mora 
inclined to do it snd is mors eaaily {lersuailvd that it ia his intcrent. 
Ahstotejss^ a» umumI, spoaks lass idly ; w\ia^ \a tsm\ai%i^»\% Na. ^^mx >a» 


opinion squares perfectly with the Epicurean doctrine. TAm tm tm 

«oX(«*f rh c^ Qir TovTo 8' tori rh Qw Mai/Utmf md MUUff . Now thk ii 

impoesible under men worse and less wise (as hath been the caae mis 

hundred and thirty years in the thousand) than thoae who ooeofT tks 

middle ranks in life, to say nothing of those who are nncontamintted ^ 

their example and undebased by their tyranny ; such men as woold 

if tMey did not QoTemments must be constituted according to the 

and propensities of the governed, in which the moral springs from the 

physical The Arab will always be free : the Frenchnum often, but nmr 

long : in the Englishman there exists what ought to be expected from thi 

union of Norman and Saxon : combinations of rarious kinds militate agaisK 

the Italian, from whom all traces of ancient institutions have been etStctdfat 

ages, excepting of religion. The Roman people was merely the people of om 

city; its physical peculiarities could not extend themselTea, and wst 

entirely lost in a succession of conquerorai But the voice of histonr refoM 

the conclusion, which certain writers would draw from the treatise tf 

Cicero, and teaches us that the republican form of government was bat 

adapted to the nation, and that under it the Romans were virtuous ud 

powerful, to a degree which they never attained under kings and enqperai 

Their seven kings, after two centuries, left a dominion lees extensive tfasa 

an English county or an American estate. In the same number of veui 

under a republic, the same people, if subjects and citizens may be called 

the same, conquered nearly the whole known world : wlmtever wad wesIAy, 

whatever \^'as powerful, whatever was tyrannical and despotic, fell down 

before them, or followed in dejection their triumphal car. 

Wo have sceu what their kings did : let us now see what the wisett and 
powerfullest of their emperors could do. 

Augustus lost his army in Germany, and commemorated by a trophvtbe 
capture of a few castles on the Alps : so greatly and so suddenly had falles 
the glor}* of Rome, although ruled by a sagacious prince, w*hen the di^cKUOS 
of one was &ul>stituted for the councils and interests and energies of many. 

It has been the fashion, and not only of late years, but for ages, to 
represent the Roman form of government (when un perverted) as aristo- 
cratical: this is erroneous. Cicero himself says, "nihil sacrosanctoB 
esse potest, nisi quod plebs populusve justtrii." The people cho«e all 
the great functionaries, excepting the interex : he appointed the dicutor. 
who is falsely tlumght to have possessed absolute power, even during tbe 
short i.>eriod for which he was created. Poly bins, an author to be depended 
on in whatever he relates as fact, mentioning the appointment of Fabius 
Maximus to the dictatorship, goes out of his road to pay homage to the 
fasces of the Tribunes. ** Whertas the contui,'* says he, * w prrcedtd iy 
twelve axes, the dictator is preceded by sixteen : the cvntuls must re/tr iiKiiijr 
things to the senate ; but the dictator is independent of erery otAer power, 
excepting the tribunes.** B. 6. Now dependency is not headship. Poly bins, 
who wrote thus, lived intimately with Scipio ; and Scipio is represented 
as hostile to the constitution of his country, and a stickler for rc»yalty ! 
He certainly was no zealous advocate of the tribunitial power : yet his 
friend had no hesitation in speaking thus of it ; for such was its acknow- 
ledged rank and dignity. A\lien Fabius Maximus would have punished 
Jfinutius, the tribunes 'mlftr^oaftdi >2tici\T %mJ^otvVs . TVi^^iKfi3b^«^c)a^lvrak»lv 


' VideatU C&imdes «# quid detrimenii capiat Re$ PMica^* hath misled many. 
and indeed misled even Cicero himself, who offended against the forms of 
law when he saved the commonwealth from Catilina. The supreme power 
was never legally in the consuls, but constantly in the tribunes of the 
people ; so that Sigonius is wrong in his assertion, ** CoMulet ah omnibuM 
mtagutratibui concionem avocart potuiue, ab 0$ neminem,"* Nothing in more 
common than the interference of the tribunes against the consuls. T. Livius 
(L xliv.) relates that the effects of Tiberius Gracchus the elder, who liad 
baen consul and censor, wore consecrated (which in arbitrary governments 
ia called cimjUcated) because he had disobeyed an onler of the tribune 
L. Flavins ; a tribune committed to prison the consul Motellus : the censor 
Appiua was punished in the same manner by the tribunitian authority. 
Oarbo, who had been thrice consul, was condemned to deatii by I'omi>eiu8 
from the tribunitian chair. Drusus, as tribune, sent the consul Pliilippus 
to prison with a halter round his neck, obtritd gulA (Klorus, civ.). One 
Vectiufl was slain for not rising up before a tribune. Arro^ntly and 
unjustly as the power in this instiiuce was applied, it was constitutioimlly. 
Plutarch relates part of a speech by Tiberius Gracchus, in which the 
authority is mentioned as a thing settled. " It it honl," he sayn, " if a 
consul may be thrown int4» prison by a tribune, and a tribune can not be 
removed from office by the people.** 

With all these facts in his memory, Cicero stil wouhl consitlor the 
legitimate government of Rome as an aristocracy; for othemtiHc how 
eould ho himself be oristocratical, which he avows ho was f He wn>tc 
his treatise De RepuUicd ten years bcfrire his death, when the more cuKtly 
part of his experience was wantint;. In our dialogue ho is rcpn'scntfl 
as on the verge of a |K>litic-al world, of which he boil Uh^u the mover 
and protcccur, while the elements of it announce to him thst it is bursting 
under his feet 

Hanlly m that miui to be called inconsiHtent. who. guide<l by rci'ont faotx. 
turns at laj<t to wiser rientiiiieiitA, op|K)sito as thoy may bt* to thoHo ho 
entertained the greater \Kiri of his life. If anyone hIioII aM<tTt that hore 
ia attribute*! to Cicero an i neons istency unwarranted by his writiii»;j*. the 
answer is, that there is mauifrstly a much greuti-r U'twcen the foot'* ho 
states in ttio^c quotations and the oonclusiuns ho apfK^ars by his line of 
piilicy to have drawn fruui them ; and that, taking liii imii ntati iiifiit. no 
ii^uitice is lione to hU dis4.fniiiivnt and ratiooinsition. in briniriii:; hntiic* 
to him a new inference. Whitever l>e the defects of this nicnioraMo 
writer, we Hhould diHclusu tht*m hesitatingly and n*luctantly : for in coniim 
rison with the meanest of his priNluctious, how inelegant is the nio^t 
alalioiute composition of our times ! 

Few have grisp enoui^h to comprehend at once all the gn^atness of a 
great writer : soniewitat is generally near at hand to di^tnu't their atten- 
tion ; some salient point to allure them : they tly towanl it just as birds 
towaixis a sud<len fl:i.>*h in the nii^ht, narrow as may be its Mpae«\ and 
brief its duration. Tliere arc critics who take their stati-m mi glitterim^ 
▼anes or fretted pinnacles, and seem to have an ap[H.'tite for win<l. 
Usually they ali;;ht on something strangts and call it origmal ; on sunu- 
thing |>ervcrse, an>l call it strong: on something rlamoMu«. and call it 
eloquent Cicero ia not the author for \]hcin-, \a ^^M!U\\A\a^^Vv^*(^i^<t 


Attenihre siady, ecrapoloin eTMnination, ilrict ooniptriMai, wn 
fieiont ; yet aTen these are wanting to many gentlanMn who take tke ( 
and talk fluently about bia writinga. 

Kowletoapaaafromthepliiloaoi^a'aiidpkidertoiheiiiaB. MonOyki 
waa among the beet public men of bia age ; periuqps tbe Tory beBk» bdag 
quite exempt from ita beaetting sin, peculation. He had no mot; fcv 
fimlta; wei^eaaee be bad, aa all men hare: bia ^tanity waa m m ti^ A m U t ^ 
insatiable ; and, more effeminately than any Roman, ho waa p r oati mt edty 
calamity. Many deplored bia death, many atil eommiaerate it : unreMoa- 
ably. It waa without long su£fering, without time for Tmin regrets, tod 
equally Tain expectationa. Worse daya than the past were eoming; bad 
come. Preferable waa it to die by the audden atroke of a murderertian 
by a slowly corroded heart From IL Antoniua, against whom he hii 
inveyed without remisaion, and whom he would hsTO driven out of \m 
country and have prosecuted unto death, fix>m K. Antoniua^ who forgot 
no adherent and foigaTe no enemy, wdl might be f o ies e e what befell hha. 
Hia «ifeebled health and broken spirit eould ill ba^e raised him ap 
against the contemptuoua neglect of the colder and cmeler and man 
ungrateful Pompeiua. Happily for him and for Italy, the aaads of 
Bgypt had drunk the blood of the blood-thirsty ; and a generona enemy, 
(if enemy he must be called) paid to Cicero those bonouia which, ftvm Ui 
first reception at Pharsalia, he never had received. Cssar knew perfecth 
what the other never could be taught, the glory of presenring one gmd 
pillar, although not erect, amid the demolitions and dnden of tbe 



a eapitah art thotmf At Imttrlcaitcn im 
C o mm t rta tu m, 

Abstlaeaee, aztooi coDeernliig, 151 

AbsordltleA, gniM, usiudly proceed from 
the gravrst oien. 117; the adoptloa of 
aBoibcr'ii, InexruMble, ib, ; «M»pe oeCiee 
l»7 fluniliarity, 176 

Aeademy, the New, tendency of ita tenets, 

AcBiLLBA Airp IIblkna, 1 

Aeti43D. tn oratory, IW; not need hy Peri- 
dee, 156: remark oo motives to, 4M 

Activity, nMMuiary to a people, 47 

Aiscuinut AND PH4>ctuy, 17i 

iB«chinee. hi* in^titude to Phodoa, 172, 
173; hie unpopularity, ib.; hie riralnr 
with and Jealousy of IXemoctbenee, 179, 

.iEachTlae, his dramatic eootist with 

8opboclee, 65. and noU 
iBeor AMD Kiiouoril, 7 
Afllwtiona, the, stirrrd In the hoar of dMth, 

Afllietion, efl^ of, M 
Afrioanns (Hciplu), SSO; his plan fbr en- 
ciHintering ti»c C'artliaginian elephants, 

Agv, rellertloaa on, i64-M0, 971, tn 
Afed, the, insensible to new Unpreseiooa, 

tiS: all Ksst>ne«, St3 
Afrarian Uws of the Gracchi. 400, 410 
Affrippa. his character. 4A4; regret of 

Tiberius at his death, ib^ note 
Air, Dotency of ih^. 77 ; how Unpwwoated 

In Mythut«»KT. '** 
AtxnaiAiiKs amd Xriroraoif, 141 
Alcibiadr«, hU f(«Nid-aature, 84, 85; his < 

traatment of tb«* p(>ople of Melns, H5 ; his 

diaflgvratlon of the atitnee of Uermea, 

Alenadai. allies of Xerxes, 67 


Alexander, his character and aetioBa, 81. 
170,:KO. «M. YIT. ilM; his pretenaions to ^ 
a dlvin«> uriicin n*tiuked by the l*riest of ' 

Hammou. IHt. h snf.; hia 
towards Arialutelea. tM»,fQt; 


with Epnralnondaa, M6: doubts re8pec^ 
Ing his death and tomb, SIS, ami moU; 
his title Id greatneea examined, at»; a 
curse to the earth, ib.; not skilled In 
sieges, 954 ; his inferiority to Hannibal, 

Alexander of PheraL 154 ; of Pbere, 401 

Allegories, the, of Ilomer, 11»; of Pisto, 

AlU^gory, period of its Introduction into 
Grevce uncertain, 119; not a basis fur 
the hiirbest poetry, 906 

Ally, policy to be obaenred towards an, 190 

Alopleonos, fkble of, 19 

Alum, use of, in rendering substances 
ineombostible, 9M 

AmbitioUf of orators In a republic, 171, 
ITi; the most inconsiderate of passion*. 
106; diseuasires fhNn unpatriotic, 401, 
4m2 ; another f»nn o( avarice. 44r7, 4ti8 

Akacbbov axd PoLTcmATSS, 49 

Analogy, must be considered in the com- 
parison of beantiAil objecu, 14ift. KM 

Anaxagoras, his opinions rHi|i«K'tlng the 
sun and moon. 1X6, 1^7 ; his wisdom as a 
natural philosopher, 117 ; nevtrr decrird 
br Socrates, ISH; mors sublime than 
rlalo, S99 : his llAi a eammentary on his 
doctrines, 900 

Androgyne, antioQlty of the, 116 moU; the 
notion spiritualised in Hhak spears, i^.; 
lU physical absurdity, 900 

An«>cdote of Khodope's father, f7— 3S; 
Anacreonand Hy lector, 59, 54: ('hlorue, 
0^—70; Alexaretes, 69; AmrdestatiHi, 
the Athenian orator. 161 ; the old w«>man 
and Demosthenes. 181); Phocion snd the 
oOcer at lieraclea, 181 : Metanyrtius, 
210^ 111; 8oeim«ies, 998, S99: Xcno- 
phanas and hU boras, 184, 1H5: the 
Gasteres, a frataraltr of priests, 91^- 
811 ; the miracle of Aulns of l*elnsluro, 
9£^— 926: Ruthvmedes and Thelymnia, 
9fi«^>-a60: FfMilnlpa and Gentius, 419- 
411 : MonM, 4»i A^niUna Cimber, 497 




Anger, rpinark on, ln&rgtUDentf428: vhen j BabyUm, pmamed geiienl 

moat irrati'^nal. 437 
Anlmul^ p<i»i(i-!M reason and reflMrtion. . 

124; «n* nut nmliciuits, i7i. : reniarkii on ; 

thvlr ImpuU-d {xivon of niieecb, 315 
Anki'sniiiii, I Til. and not^ 
Anniversary nf a friend'n deatli, pleasure \ 

derived fnMii it* r.bHer^'anco, 443. 444 
Antoniun. nutlived hU ^l^rv. 460; his , 

chantrter. and tn-atnteiit uf Oicen.*. 478 . 
Aoudris. stem* <>f. by Thoutnioait, 116 < 

ApidUs priestes* of, her declaration re- ■ 

8|>ectin}: S*icnit<>s. 12S 
Apt>lit»;iii' of Truth, written by Crit<.ihulus. 

Arcbvlaiis, hU patptnatre of EuripidvA. 112 
Arcbimi><l«s. his merit as a phili>i>ophi-r, 3S5 
Argonauts, the ineraoriala they erected, ; 

destroyed by Alexander, 203; doubts, 

of Its hahiuiionA. 350 
Danquet, absurdities in PUlo'a. 116. nl 

ftote, 3M 
Banter, the worst species of wit 3*^ 
Barbarian, orifrin uf th« term as med by 

the Greeks. 134 
Itarliarians, thoir titular epitbetSL C: 

character of their rulers. 9lA. 31S 
Barbarism, the worst of. 43i>. 433 
Beauty, whimsical )nradaati>4is in.l<SilOI; 

extreme, in women, deficient in expRs> 

sion. 137 
Belief, acts differvntly t-n dift-n tit ly-an. 

225; an aid to rea<»ii. 2!M : in a (utuv 

life, remarks on a. 416 
Bei^ber, an African term, ongin of ht^ 

barian. 134 
Biof^iipliy. usefulness ot 422 : its rr^n- 

sentation i>f great men necete»an!v 

inAdequate. 423 

Ilnbery. <>b«orvati<>nB i>n. 17> 

Brutus' (Marcus;. lii> character. 4i0&, 406 

resiKvtinir ilie, i/». 
Arpiinieiit. aiipT in. what it proves. 428 
Arisfiicniey. lietinition of an hereditary, | Birthplaceit. of illustrion a men. claim l'=Tt 

17t*: A mtTcantile. unstabiie, 348 fortuitous* honour, (i(>: di.-»^ran:d bytLci; 

AriHti'phnnes. liin ^'uiiis. fV)Q noii-n?sideitce. <>7 

Aristiitf.i.ks ANi> C'ai.limhe!(ES. 199 Blindness, charactrristicd cf. 2W: bjv 

Aristoteles, lii^ iipixiiiitment at the court Sdmetimes caux-d. 4tM^ 

of riiilip. K>, H3: critiriKni of a luiHsafre ' Bliss, tlie siipri-uacy i.f. «hat. 24*1 

in his h't/tiCji. iyl : hiii character as a phi- ! Bthiy. the. a diseas«> tn tho ^piriL 425 

litsopluT (Srt: remarks on hi« thoughts . " 

and Htvle. I(i2. t.>3. lots. 2i>5. 213. 214. 2.')7. : 

ftK 445: his A-ttHoH on Virtue. Hr*: hiH | 

indiffiTi'iice ti r«>li)r{"n. li^: ill-tre»ted . 

by Alexaiiiler. 1111. 2«nJ; his styli- f"niiod [ 

on that i>f rhiH'iiin. 2<Ci: his opininns oii . 

piiveninii^ut runiitared with Plain's. 215 — • 

217. 47.'): l.i> /*. 'p/ written after I'lati-'s. ' 

21.') n<-t- : tiriit i;.ive sy>tem tv philf sophy. 

2r»7 ; ii»-vir h tritier, 415 
Aniiii-N, Hiinihil-itinniif the two pn-atest.tVl 
Amioiir. ii"«i' "f ^^I'V^re'-ii-J. n-pn ■Imled. 5*» : 

itt utility in »Kr o>n*idi-red. i^.; pp..- ■ 

ixise*! siib-ititutiiin of enrk for iron, 5!;^ i 

Ak r \ ?.VM * AMI X MiXKS. 55 

Ar:iil>.iniis. I'tiirnii'ttT uf. iv* 

Art<>. tlie ilhi^ii'ii rtinu-il at in the. neither 

c:iti iiiir uiiL'ht t<> 1h> runiplete. 25^^ i 

AMlrii)i;i1. siir-iniiii<i1:itiiiii i>t' hN wife, 345 ■ 
Aiip.-ioi.i. chiinxiti ristic- nf. 1*<\. 1«»4; Iht 

nnL.'i"U-. I.ixily. livl: fnoleriea put int>i 

luT ini'iith l»v Platii. ln7 
A^tniiioniy. mlvik-i- with n-irard l«». 2».!0 
Atiiii-*t-:. Mlii>:in' the woi>t. 145; but few 

ill tin- wurlil. 2*»2 
At hi- II inns, tluir character. 35. 12«5, 12<. 

242. 2n: tl.rir ;:l<>ri«n<« dee<ls. Ill:, 

critie- in "r.itury. It^I: their inti-nipinite 

j.'v :it riiilips" death, 170: briU'd by I 

liiilip. 17»» 
Al)i< ii-«, hi r li-iiiri'^liin? Cimditit-n in the 

tiiin- »'f I'lTicli's. lU, ti *../.; striictunoi of. 

at the Kiiiiie pi'rii^. Ill ift* : (lf«rriptii>n I 

of ft ]iriiri>^si.iii ftt. 71: pri»s*TVid hrr 

lilHTty Ai;.iiii..t tlie w.-ilii. Ill : iier l«w5. i 

t'-, l.i.T: li^'i'inliiry aniiiiiiity i-f. 117; 

ailvjuit.v.'e-. 1.1" li«r r<in<titiitii>n. 155 | 

Att:iliix, his li'iriu'v to the U<ini:in people, 474 i 
Attira. «-nr"iri[iiiii i.ii. 11.'). lit! I 

Atijrurv. binSs i.f. 13.'); tlie Greeks expert ■ that of K-im . 4«»7. *•> 

i". l'*^* C'srthapininn iMncruap-, 

Anirnstiis. his character, 47fi: diminution i the ancients. ;^!* 

t>f the iiati.inal Kli.ry iiinKr. it. , CarthHL'inians hen>i-ni of th-. m*. 3*5: 

Aufiiterity, nmark on, ;Uo \ xXvcVt ^vVtf:4A.«. {<«iUii^ with rt-^pvct t.? 

(■«»cilin« -.Cains, his report c->ncemin^ ib« 
Christians in Biihynia, 3:^!( 

C.V". tK Asi» Ln tLi I ». ;WJ 

Crt'vir, i^iiiiniinii*u>ly ire.^te-.i by P.^ir.iit i> 
:K^: hih love of art, ;ft?»l ■.. :'• ■ si-liAr.. i 
of his Ci'lIeajTiies in the 1 riuiiiv.nv. 
'A*^; hii> pri'i->sil t.« L-j.-krii.-.^ 
rvsi»lves to strike f«.r ihi* o'lpreiiii- 1-" :. 
4iil : his >:enerous }m h.\vi,.iur toV^'^iiR.-Cf 
('»c»n^, 4«M ; his ehurai'ti-r. 4"'; :. > 
dfftth ciinipareil wit )i nf >i-r: r*.- 
i".'-.: hiJ. Htjh' auvi C'liver^ati i .ti r.»:.7>. 
r'l., 4.'l^i: remarks fu hi^ li.-.r'.-at: 
453. 454; ver^'ed nii a;hfi>ni. 4'>4: '.*■*-- 
out an equal in tlie hi>tir> ■•! tLi- «■ r:i. 
4»'ii>: liis capacity fi»r jt»iven:ir-ir al :■. 
475: hi". imMe treainieiit if < inn- 4rr 

CaI LIsrilKNKN AMI Altl-TtrT* I t^. lrt» 

<'alli>ii>.ii«-ss. h<'W priNliit-iii. l::i 

<'alvu-. preferred by s-'nn- !•• ll'-r-icT. 4V. 

I'apitals. A>iatie. «rvte):«iiiieftS -.f tl;-: 
fteiiple's habitations in. 35«i 

CapiiH. reninrks on Hannilial's i>t.-iy at. 
371,372: imputed effects uf its Iziiury 
inere<liMe. .S72 

<'arn"aiies. his rharartor, 2S\5 

<'arthap'. destnictioii of. 342. ft ••:.. 
de<H'riptiiin of the conriiicration. ^4: 
causes ff hiT pr'>]i«ritv. VAT: i 
her fHn.:U7-34H. |ii7. 4««S: hi-r .^nn-.l :1a- 
ti«»n nee-K-arj* tn tlie s*><uritv ^..( \l-:\.^. 
34.S, 34!*; trade i-f. m ith America. Uv 
m-'t : tenii>oral well-ltfiniroi herinh.iKi- 
ants. ."iV: her L'>vi.rnuient much l:k«- 

little known v.* 



ebMtiCf, 816; mOmtlf ■eemed 
of ATuloe, «&.; slffnttl act of Jtittloe 
ptribrmeJ by tli«, on (nUtnre, 946— JM7 

CiMlw, ontUved hlg cause, 400 

Cato, ertimate of, flB4; rovered, bat not 

Catwlhi*, G^lktmbie of, 204 note ; prefanvd 
hj •omr to Horace, 456; his style, 467; 
hu treatment of Leabia, ib. ; his meters, 

eUns, Vlrsirs, 461 

C«plo's law, 410 

Caraate, 87R, and note 

Chanife, of opinions, in rollectlTe minds, 
tM; erery thing loTely snbjert to, 419 

Chftncter, Tariet} of, in man, ^295 

dMraeterlsUc, the, not always the defini- 
tion, 1S8 

Charity, in 8L Panl's sense of the term, a 
distlnfpilshing virtue of the Kpicurvauit, 
S19 Mis 

Chaatlsement, ensures most obedience trom 

Chastity, delicate feeling of the Moors 
and Carthaginians with respect to 
female, 946 

Chickens and eggs, superstition concern- 
ing. 417 

Childrpn, of the pi>werfii1. not mnre mn- 
tentMl than others. 41 ; M*ek tlieir cnr% als 
f«ir aasociates, 42: uf the cont<tmpla!lvr, 
usually dull. I2M) ; thvlr InquinitlretiesM 
as to the truthfulness of a story. 2IH: 
enmparcd witli adults, i6. ; remarks on 
leaving tliem behind, at death, 442, 443: 
ph'anun* ren-ived frum, 44.1 

Cbrlstlanlty, inconsistent n>nduct of its 
profMsnn, 9<I, et aff ; Illustrated br 
the story of Xrnophanes and lii« honM*. 
»4, 286: Its doctrinrs olijvcted Xft by j 
Loclan, 299, tt $^.\ asurrtiHl tn lie ' 
bomwed frum the priests <if IhIs, 297 

Chrrvtstnm, his statement respecting | 
Alczandvr. 212 n^^ 

Cicaao (MABiTs Tt'u.irs; axu Qriyt Tt'«, ' 

Cloero (Marcus Tullhi^V his opinion 
mpeetlng Epicurus, 21tf ; hl» uw of an 
inamiratft phrsiie notieod. 991 ; his 
anticipations In a future life, 4<i5. 406, 
4111; his firKt rntlm^iasra fxcited by 
Marlns. 4iin; bl« di^approTal of tb** 
Agrarian Isw, 410; bis |ipipli«ry mn- 
eeming tbe K<iroan religion. 41H: his ig- 
oorancpof bortlrtiltnre,421.and ni4f : bis 
prrlermce latteriy for a private li'e.42iV, 
and natf .- bis rvpugnance to Bom** of tlie 
positions of Kplrurui. 420 - 4»< ; hi« 
change of opinions 42ft, 472. 479: hia 
axiom rrspeeting thr causes <tf friend^liip 
ermnenus. 42H, 429 ; mrriu i>f his 
thmU>9n*M considi-n'd. 429 492 ; his 
Style. 4.10. 442. 4AH. ATI ; friendly and 
onfriiindly artbinH of. 4911, 497 note; 
Ninrovrd parts of bl« lanrussr fhmi the 
All«hrogp4. 442 : bin grief fur the loss of 
Tulliola. 444 : aimrd at the naefUl in bis 
J^^rmiam ihapvUtti*ms, 446 ; blaeAndiiet a* 
a plrad«>r,47H : bi^ aiiprrity tn tlie (Irarrbi, 
472; bin Invertivrs atraluMt Crassu*, iA ; 
bis changeable oplnli»n« of l*ii>mpriua. 
473; examliiatkA of soom paaigai in 

his vrlHngt rMp«cting klngdiip^ 474, 
476; has mi«rppresentc4 the form of the 
Itiman government, 476, 477; bis great- 
ness as a writer, 477 ; vinnes and defects 
of his character, 478; bis death un- 
reasonably commiserated, ib, 
Citrean wood, of the Carthaginians, 

Smbably mahogany, 949 not^ ; its pn>- 
iglous price In the time of Cicero, ib. ; 
inftrenee therefh>m, ib. 

City, things to be dmsldered In devising 
the plan of a great, ItW; remarks on 
the destruction cf a, 189 

Civilisation, eflecta of a suddenly retn>> 

Claiidii, family of the, their tendency to 
Insanity, 461 nnte 

Claudius (Applns), patriotic deed of, 400 

(Meanthes. his doctrine, 467 

ColntHUs, the, its two several overthrows, 
402 aole 

Colours, theory of, first proposed by 
I>emcicritn<, 167, and note ; elucidated 
by Newton, 167 not* 

Companii»u»hlp, remark on, 94 

Company, distinction between being 
present at, and fornting part of a. 166 

Ctmi position, perspicuity tbe prime excel- 
lence of, 264,266; obNCurity the gr^-atest 
fault in, 267; quotations in, to be avoided, 
9IIH; may be too ornate, 909 

('on<|uerors, estimate of, 219 

Conquests, Insecurity of large, 70 

('•tnNiHteticy, liow only to eniure. 131 

ronsplraries, remarks on, 61. 62 

I'ontemplstlon, tbe faculty of, i>pinlon of 
I'ht^recydes and l*ytbag«>raa couoeming, 

Controversial writings, reason and origin 
of. 244 

rontroversy, prohibited to Cbristisns. 291 

Convemation, admits of more exuberance 
than oratory. l.M. 166. 106: compared 
with rending, 2lN); of tbi' wt^st, often 
inr«in!«lderate, %h,; elicits ideas, 220 

Cofik. value of a good, 49 

riirintb, reason of her deatnictlon by the 
|{»msns 919 ; burnt Kul4ie<|uently t> 
Csrtbage. th. aol^ ; tempirsl well-being 
of Iter inbalHtsnts .150 

Cork, recommended as a substitute for Inm 
anno«ir, 99 

Cornelia (mother of tbe llracchl\ l»er cha- 
racter, 975, 419; her letter t«> Iter •'•n 
<'sln«. 411 ; her boune snd garden at 
Mi^enns deNcrihed, 421 ; l»er love '4 
Imrtlmllur**. %h.\ her demeanour after 
tbe death of her son*. 422. 429 

Countrv, how mitst men ser%e their, K4: 
Indiflerence to the welfaiv of our, a 
crime, 176 

C'mutry. serbiiiim of the. favourable to 
right thinking. 290; it« eiijo>menta 
pmmivte renmefliattons. 960 

Courage, two kind* of. 2ilH; not weskened 
by ditmestte ties, 907: as pernicious ss 
beneficial, 211 ; women nHwt attracted 
by. •» 

Court*. •I11<tf*s« atone nnm«pectrd in, 47 : 
eondltltin of morals In, 1<V4 

C«>w, eirrnftive worship nt the, 9^7, 9m 

\ V 



CraoBM, the trimnTlr, bit character, 808 ; 

Ciceio't InTectives aicainst him, 47S 
Crates, hia doctrine, 467 
Critobulua, hia Apologae of Truth, 48^— 

CrcBsas, character of, 45; had no naTal 

force, 62 
Crocs, the, its eommonness in Jodtea, 831 
Crueltj, tbe greatest of all crimes, 904 ; 

effects of, ib. 
OmUx, VirgiriL 451 

Cnriositj, a feniinine qnalitf, 7; repre- 
sentation of, as a goddess, 8 
Cybde, priests of, 7 ; statue of, hj Phidias, 

64 note; not adored by the manlier 

Greeks, 148 
CyrojKtdia, defects in the, 209, 391 
Ctbos tux Youmoxe axd XavopHoir, 131 

Dactylic period, arolded by good prose 
writers, 213 ; instances of its occurrence, 
213 note, 214 
DanaOs, reiigious rites introduced by, 116 
Dead men, whipping inflicted on, 57 note 
Death, tlie approach of, renders us truthful, 
18; preferable to protracted decay, 19; 
not a IcTeller, 66; argument for tlie 
existence of souls after, examined, 96; 
the fear of, to be east aside, 225 ; why 
a blessing, 226, 227; consequence of 
guarding against, 397; the probable 
renovator of mental vigour, 425; has 
two aspects, 434; reflections on life and, 
Defence of Soerate$, remarks on Plato's, 126 
Definitions, Plato's, criticised. 122—124 
Delphi, the Oracle at, story of its declara- 
tion respecting Socrates improbable, 128 
Demlurgos, the, 77, 118 
Democritus, his services to philosophy, 
153, 154; doctrines of, often contradict 
the senses, 157 ; first proposed the theory 
of colours, t^^ snd note ; in what relation 
he stands to Ilomer. 257 
Demoniac, cure of a, 331 
Dkmosthexks AXD EUBrUDKR, 150 
Demosthenes, his hostility and opposition 
to Philip, 150, €t »eq.\ merits and defects 
of his oratory, 160, etaeq^ 166, 179—183, 
205 ; his habits in cumposition, 167 ; 
his malice toward ^l^hines, 172, 173; 
his cliaracter and opinions censored by 
^E«chines, 179; an instance of his tau- 
tology, ih., and noU ; where wantintr in 
genius. 180; his proparaiions for fifty- 
six Philippics, 182; his vulgarity and 
violence, 163 ; his opinion in later days 
as to the desirableness of government, 
De OJIkiis, Cicero's books. 436, 472 
De Republicd, Cicero's treatise, 474, 475, 

Desert ingratltudp u<mr.Uy In proportion 
to, 4.'M} note ; effects of a consciousness 
of, 442 
Deajjotism, its nature and effects, 34, et seq. ; 

compared with ochlocracy, 475 
Despots^ cruel from the first, 36; tyranny 
of, sometimes needful, ih.', c«iur8e thwy 
invariably pursue, 38; buffoons and 

sf ngsrs Ihalr 
89; only rooMd finNn thair torpor br tht 
cry for tbeir blood, ift.; Isatetoi hm, 
their speeieaftt.; deanrted fai deat^4f; 
wan mcdAil to tkair alabUity, 4S; 
dealers In equality, 70 ; misery iaScttd 
by, 86; ought to be destiojcd, lU^ 177, 
178; are persuaded to believe thai tenor 
ia better than esteem, 170; 
who pamper their Mblea, 171 

Destiny, madneu of oanteadfair 

Destruction and renoratfon^ lemaric oa,4n 

l>evil, the, bow the happiest <tf beings, SS 

Dialogue, the. should posse ■ rmriety, 119; 
rendered unnatural by betng e m p l oy < d 
for school-exerdsea, liO; as a mods ef 
communicating knowledge enii«idcrsd, 
429; great masters of, f».; di^tteethw 
to be observed in ecoducting a. 431 

DialoguTt, PUto's, 119, 120; LucUa'a,e^(k 
Dead, 280, 299; Cicero's, 429^-483 

Diana, custom in her temple near tlae Ltke 
of Nemi, 288, 284 

Dictator, tlie Romui, falsely thought t> 
have possessed ahcolute power. 476 

Dinner, reasons for taking it alone, SBt: 
much company at, a barbaroos praettoe, 

DtooKyKS AXD Plato, 78 

Diogenes, his strictures on F1ato*s chance 
ter and writings, 73, etaeq^ derides Platt»« 
dress, 83; his reputation for hsrd> 
heartedness considered. 84 — 86; hiscoe- 
tempt of death, 86; his conduct with 
regard to religion, 104 ; contrasts hirawlf 
with Socrates, 129; sketcli of his Bf^ 
130 ; refutal of the story of his connt<'r- 
feiting money. i7».; not visited bv 
Alexander out of idle curi*>sitv. »*.: not 
likely ever to have seen Soctates, •*.; 
ridiculed Plato's coinage of new words. 
ih. ; Plato's saving concerning him ex- 
plained, t6.; his alleged immoratllie« 
disproved, ih., 131 ; opinion enteftsinrd 
of him by Xeniades. 131 ; buried with 
pnblic honours, ih.; his character littk 
understood. 310; reasons whr he was 
hated, ih. ; the wisest man of bis time. A. 

Dif^enes Laertius, his Mocraphy «f dw 
Cynic 130 

Dionysius, remarks on Plato's iatertoarse 
with, 111-113 

Dionysius of Hallcamassus, Iambic lines 
in his history, 214 itole 

Disciples of Christ, their unbelief. ZX> 

Distinctions, importanee of, in the use of 
words, 296 

Divinity, the, wherein bis pleasure ooo- 
sists, 443 

Dog. the, fond of acquiring information. 

Dogs, argnment for their bowls being 
ominous, 142, 143; gromida fiM- their 
chance of « f^itnre life. 814 

Dream, the, of Xerxes, 61. 64 

Dreams, remarks on, \M; morning. 161 

Dmida. did not construct tlie alrarscalbd 
after them, 156; their reliirion ooatiasled 
with that of the Greeks. 157 

Drunkenness, axiom concerning, 88 

Dying, time o(; in oar own clmioa, 183 

IKDR. 489 



Gods, remarks on sacrifloM to th«, 40, 66, 
86, 138; * multitode of, needless, 66; 
poetical description of their abode, 
63; reasonableness of a plurality of, 
dlscossed, 136—137; introduction of 
El^ptian, into Greece, 146, and Rome. 
888. 463; Uomer'K repreaenistion of the, 
S17 ; Lucian's, 291 ; cliaraeter of the 
Soman, formed that of the nation, 368 

OcrjfioM of Plato, tlie, S14 noU 

GoTemment, legitimate, founded on 
hnmanitj,88; remarks on a monocratiea], 
113, 116.474,476; three estates requisite 
in a, 137 ; Plato's scheme of, compared 
with that of Aristotelea, 215— S17; a 
work on, should treat of the practicable, 
216; contrariety of interests in a, 
mibons, 407; tliat of Carthage much 
like that of Rome, V*^ 408; the, of he- 
reditary kings a barbarous institution, 
414 ; opinion of Demosthenes as to tlie 
desirableness of, 426 note ; Uie best and 
worst forms of, 476; Epicurean doctrine 
of, 476 ; a republican form of; best adapts 
to the Romans, ib.\ that of republican 
Rome erroneously represented as aristo- 
cratical, ib^ 477 

GoTemments, which are the most flourish- 
ing, 96; free, produce true eloquence, 
160; concomitants of despotlcaU 360; 
should accommodate themselves to the 
times, 413; con.-iuct of decrepit, 433; how 
they should be constituted, 476 

Gracchi, opinions as to their character and 
projects, 409, 410, 473, 474; their sup- 
porters and opponentJi, ih. 

Gracchus (Caius), his Ag^rarian law, 410; 
his inflexible rectitiidtr, ib.\ his letter to 
hismother, 411— 413 

Gracchus (Tiberius), his Agrarian law, 409 

Great, the, why defiuued, 74; how to be 
thought, 435 

Great man. definition of a, 74 ; the, distin- 
guished from «he powerful one, 79 

Grvat men. dtvcnssion conccmiug, 77,78: 
faults of, 110; will seek each other, 164 ; 
how afft^ted by ncarnvss to ns, 179 : their 
writings preferable to their conversation, 
200 ; durability of Gud's, 202 ; inadequate 
estimate of, trhile living, 401, 402; 
influence of their memory. 415; in litera- 
ture, suffer mo«it from their little friends, 

Greatness, not fully perceived till after 
death, 65 ; is un^(ocisble, 154 ; origin of 
most men's, 406; of states, upon what it 
depends, t^. ; all a great writer's, difficult 
to be comprehended at nnce^ 477 

Greece, preparations by Xerxes for the in- 
vasion of, 65, tt s^.; spread of Egyptian 
superstitions in, 146; benefits conveyed 
by, to tlie Romans, a>5, 377, and to the 
human race in general, 376,431 

Greeks, glory of the ancient. 65, 376; a 
barbarian's view of their character, 56; 
their religious system discuss*^, 136, 
el $eq.\ expert in auguries, 139; their 
religion contnutted with that of the 
Dniids, 167; instructors of the Romans 
In the arts of peace and war, 365, 377 ; 
their levity, 430; their style snd versi- 
ficaUon, 452 

Grief, lOM of Maaooable, 4iS, 444; tent- 
derate, oondemned, 444 
G^tgmucm, remarks on the rednK o^K 

afleetatkm is, ISt: 

Hamvov (PnstT op) akd 

UandwriUng, bad, 
anecdote respecting ib. 

Hakxibal Aim Mabcbluth, 337 

Hannibal, not aupported by kia 
360; his miaemployment fd eteptenta. 
861. 362 ; his inaction aftrr the battle cf 
Cannv censured, 351 ; probable resaoes 
for his oondoct. 363, ^4; wonU bare 
failed in taking Rome, ib. ; little skilkd 
in sieges, »6. ; his exploits onparslleiel 
364; superior to Alexander, tk, SB; 
the story of his army wasting away ia 
luxury at Capna absurd, 371. 372; aa- 
rivalled In the uiilcn of politleal aad 
military science, S73s 374 ; great bottia 
proNperity and sdversity, 374 

Happiness, how affected by giTingor4e> 
priving, 40, 41; not InerMiaed by sa 
increase of power, 41 ; ibe most natnal 
and universal of our desires, 255 ; Aiags 
adverse to, i6., 256 ; eternal, how to bs 
attained, 416; remark* on men's per- 
ception and pursuit of, 424 

Hatred, of tht)se worse than oorsehrea. 
accounted for. 204 : best way of patting 
an end to, 222; of woman for woaaa, 
231 ; natural to man, 427 ; wherein it 
resembles hunger, ib.\ what it proves. 

Heart, hardness of. wherein it oonsista, 85 

Helena and Aciiillrs, 1 

Hellenisms, introduction of, into tbe Latia 
tongue, 458 

Hereditary kings, motive for tbeir motosl 
invasions. 46; their education and in- 
tellects. ib,\ evils associated with, 155; 
a government of, a barbaroas institattos, 

Heresv, an absurd accusation, 298 

Herodotus, his style, 102, 152. 225, 308; 
reminds one of Homer. 226 ; Asiatic cha- 
racter of his history, ib. 

Historiaiift, culpabilitv of, in incitine youth 
to the admiration of false glory. 329.330: 
motive for their oppression byde»iots, 

History, who should be brought before its 
tribunal, 100; every great writer a writer 
of. ib. ; should not be alt^^ether true, iCB, 
210; prostitution of, to trifling details, 
263; proper subjects for, ib.\ compared 
with biography. 422 

Homer, his style. 102; his treatment of 
Eastern mythology, 119; his represenu- 
tlon of the gods, 217; obligations of 
literature to. 433 

Horatius Flaccus, parsimonious of praise, 
456; his excellence in ^tire, A.; his 
Odes, ih.\ Jealous of Catullus and CaJvns. 
i6.; unrivalled for variety, 457; his 
fabulous mistresses, ib. ; his nnde x teroos 
allusions to the pedigree of Mecamaa, 4fi0 

Ho>(pitality, never violated by tlie brave, 6 

Hosts, Lord of, tbe expresaioD impogaed, 



HsBcnttf, leglttinatfl gorernment foundod 
ott, 88 ; must be Mt saide for truth, 100 

lunMe tines In DIonTslns of Hsllesmss- 

Ideas, remsrks on our spproprlstlon of 

Idiom, loM of. bf s nation, preeiirsorf to 

that of freedom, lfi9 ; every good writer 

aboonds in, ib. 
Idleness, bow to render it sacred, S73 
lUmdf the, query as to part being a trans- 

latloo, iOd ; a firagment of a lust world, 


niosion. the, aimed at in the arts, neither 
eaa nor ought to be complete, SftS 

Imaces of deity, their reasonableness con- 
sidered, S88; brealcers of, punished by 
Trajan, S87 

Imagination, Plato's, wholly nnlilce Shak- 
^^eare's, 1 16 mou ; efl«ct of a heated, in 
a writer, 117 

Immortality, the, of the son!, criticism on 
Plato's argument for, 97, 96 ; opinions of 
Cleero eoneemiiig, 4U6, 406, 416 

Impodenoe, tlie qnality of great speakers 
and disputants, 200 

laeantation, Plato's law for the punishment 

Inconsis te ncy, when not chargeable, 477 

Indlibrrnce, to tlie welfare orour country, 
a crime, 176; to the world, not philoso- 
phy. 834 

Ingratitude, source of the sufferings we 
experience at, S61 ; a remedy for its 
▼enom, 874; usually in proportion to 
desert, AS» moU 

Insanity, prevalence of, in myal families, 
70; tendency of the Claud ii to, 461 ncU 

Instinct, the courage cC 206, 207 

Intellects, mighty, carped at by little, 166 

Interest, insures fidelity, 49 

Inrention, the primary part of poets. 43; 
bow exhibited, 82, 216; repetition shows 
no want of, 181 

looians, their policy with respect to reli- 
gion, IM 

Isu, priests of, their wealth and pride, 897, 
888; pretended that ('hristianlty was 
borrowed ttnm tliero. 297 

Italians, retain no traces of ancient institn- 
tloQS, except In religion, 476 

Italy, princes oC reformed by Pythagtmis, 
111; cities of Southern, tkieir condition 
hill «y<item of govenonent, IM; 

natnral disadvanta'res o(^ 348 ; character 
or htr Inhabitants, i6. 

Jaans, the Middle, 429, and n&u 
Jealousy, of the Thebans and Athenians, 

832 ; latent in all men, 296 
Jews, tythes amongut the, 417; their 

government theocratieal, ib. ; their eha- 

facter and actions, ib. 
Jano, mythological •Ignification oC 78 
Jupitsr.mythntugical nigniflcation of, 78 
Jnstica, lacladad Ui tsmperanos^ ttt 

Kastor and Polydeukte, dMcriptton of, 6 
KindnMS, axiom oonceming. %1 
Kingdoms, who most commended in, 171 
Kings, more pernicious than tyrants, 96; 
lose an enemy in every free nation 
destroyed, 62 ; always in perplexity, 61, 
62 ; the worst, usiully the most punctual 
wonthipers, 104; tlie eligibility of a 
goremment by, considered, 113, 114, 474 
—476; defects and tendencies of their 
education, 114, 476; their in lination to 
disobey the laws, \b. ; their fall terrible, 
133 ; never grateful, ISO ; advantage they 
poBsess in a war with republics, 177 ; not 
accustomed to interrogation, 192 ; when 
not deserving; of scorn, 873 ; foundation of 
their power, i6.; their education tobe eon< 
sidered in Judging of tlioir actions, 376 ; 
fosterers of each other's tvranny, 476 
Knowledge, parts of^ which were rare 
among the ancients, 76, and noitt; dis> 
Unction between wisdom and, 818; effect 
of the variaaoe of will and, 484 

Lacedemonians, their character, 948 
Lselius, thought tlwt Hannibal could have 

taken Rome, 363 ; cause of his ceasing 

to support Tiberius Gracchus, 473 
Language, part of a man's character, 160 ; 

softening effect of flsttery on s, 160; 

nations that had a learned, 204; tho 

Carthaginian, little known to the 

ancients, 349 ; the Koman, its progress 

and decline, 4A8 
Lavs, TAe, of Plato, criticism of axioms in, 

88, el sag. 
Laws, banefbl effect of many, 90; kings 

inclined to diM>bey th«>, 114, 476; men 

should not be sccuntonied to chsnges in, 

176 ; rarity of new, amongst the Locrian«, 

Learning, Its display in the praises of the 

dead oen«ured, 1U8; inferior to phllo. 

Sophy, 288 ; pride and dogmatism of its 

possessors, t6^ 880; loss of ante-Homerir, 

Lx«>sTioii, Enccurs, a mo Tnunssa, 219 
Leontion, her work against Tbeophrastus, 

843, «l sag. 
Liberties, remarks on depriving a people 

of their, 83, tt »^. 
Llea, communicativeness of, 188 
Life, human, has its equinoxes, 399; 

Cicero's Idea of a future, 416; should be 

resigned willingly, 434 ; a long, not deal- 

rable, ib.; hardly can lie called ours, i^. ; 

few can regulate, i^. ; use of, 436 
Linus, Hymn (^ 816— 317 
Litsrature, decline of Greek, 862. 868 
Livy, scraps of verse in his sentrnces, 814 

mote; often inharmonious In his con- 

stnictlons, 806 
liocrians, rarity of new laws amongst the, 

178 ; th^r treatment of the pix>poeer of a 

releeted one, ib. 
Logic, unpopnlarlty of. 100; bow to be 

handled by a good writer, lA. 
Love, an nngi«^fbl guest, 17; f<«llsh at 

disproportloaate ages, 81; desirsbleneas 

oi; UiaU Ui foTM, 40; Um if»t and the 



lMt,M8; a mMdte fliate betmen frlend- 
•hlp and, d. ; in-wparable from liope and 
fear, 361 36S ; iu lu jsteriea must not be 
miTciled, 406 
Lore-potioiis, Kpicums*!, S80 


LudaJLhis D'otogwa of th^ Demi, remarks 
on, SdO^ 899: his anlmadTeniloiis on the 
doeUinea and profisasnrs of Christianity, 
»Bt,e(«f.; his wit, 308 

Lncratiits, his arehaisms, 456 ; his woik on 
Nature, ib. 


Lttcullus, his repudiation of power, 383; 
description of Ills Apennine Tills, 395, 
el aeq.\ his humanity, 386 ; his libmry, 
86B ; bis dlnlng>-nMMn and luxurious con- 
triranott, 39i. el aea. ; probably poisoned, 
307; his magnanimity, 398; rebukes 
Cesar's ambition, 400-408 

Liunux a bugbear with philosophers, 365; 
anecdote to the contrary, 356— 8G9; 
remarks on, in reference to'soldiers, 371; 
story of its effitets on llannibal's army 
incredible, 372 

Lycabettos, crsg of, 176, and no^ 

Lygdamns, King of Naxos, an ally of 
Polycratea, 47 

Macedonlanii, their oonriTlallty and msr- 
tial exercises, 148; instructed by the 
Greeks 355 
Mages, tlie, practised mesmerism, 62 ; their 

wisdom, ih. 
Malice, definition of, 124; compared with 

revenge and envy, i6., 125 
Man, miseries of the fortunate and power- 
ful, 39; Plato's definitinn of. criticiHed. 
122 — 124 ; m what qualities distiniruislted 
from other animaiM, 124; inimical to 
tnitti, 248: hiri views im to his projects. 
4(.)6; detinitinn of the happy, 427 
Manners, mutability of, it3 
Makckllds and llANNrBAi^ 337 
Mareellus, his death described, 337—343 
J/ar^'t(f«, the. 123, 126 
Marian faction, intended suppression of 

the Senate of Rome by the, 407 
Mabius A!«i>, 377 
Manns, notice